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Memories of 


Late Fellow oftlu University of Madras ; 
Author of " The Private Life of Warren Hastings;' 1 etc. 

With 4 Photogravure Portraits and 29 other Illustrations. 

ILontion V, ' 




According to Saint Beuve — as quoted by The Times, on the 
14th ultimo — " there is little that is new in this world, except 
what has grown old, and very often we discover what has 
already been known and forgotten." The reflection applies 
to this book, which contains glimpses of men and things of 
former days in Madras, that were obtained by delving in the 
archives of the British Museum and the India Office. The 
papers appeared originally in the Madras Mail, and have now 
been recast and enlarged. They are illustrated by examples 
of the methods of photo-engraving invented by Sir Joseph 
Swan, F.R.S. 

C. L. 
London, May, 1905. 


CHAPTER I pages 


Gleaners among old records — Enterprise of the Dutch — Francis 
Day — Search for a port on the Coromandel Coast — Arrival 
at Madraspatam — Obtains permission to erect a fort — 
Andrew Cogan — Arrives at Masulipatam — Co-operates 
with Day — Alarm of the Court of Directors — Day sent 
home to offer explanations — Returns to Madraspatam — 
Cogan censured by the Directors — Proceeds to England — 
Exonerated from blame — Subsequent career — Thomas 
Winter, of the Masulipatam Council — Sir Edward Winter, 
Governor of Fort St. George — Winter-Foxcroft episode . 1-16 


Thomas Pitt of Blandford — Early career — Appointed Governor 
of Fort St. George — Purchase of the diamond — Correspon- 
dence with son — Anxiety about the " Great Concern " — 
Instructions and accusations — Recalled — Gulston Addison 
becomes Governor — William Eraser succeeds — Lieutenant 
Sea ton's allegations — Pitt's voyage to Europe — Declaration 
at Bergen — Arrival in England — Sale of the diamond — 
Death and burial — Property and bequests — Descendants — 
Earl of Chatham — Hayes Place — Pitt and Koh-i-noor 
diamonds: crowning distinction of latter . . . 17-53 

Captain of the Kent — Appointed Governor of Fort St. George — 
Receives instructions from the Directors — Assumes office — 
His uneventful reign — Returns home — Settles in London — 
Becomes member of the Court of Directors — Appointed 
joint Postmaster-General — Inherits Balls Park — Towns- 
hend estates — Amwell and Haileybury — Sale of heirlooms 
— Harrison's portrait — His daughter .... 54-66 




His early career — Appointed Governor of Fort St. George — Is 
offered a present by the Nabob — His refusal — Letters to his 
Wife and Banker — Affidavit before the Mayor — Opinion of 
General Stuart — Arrests and deports him — Duel that fol- 
lowed — Sir John Burgoyne — Insubordinate behaviour — 
Macartney's forbearance — Supersession of Burgoyne — 
Early death — Macartney's criticism of James Sadleir — 
Duel that followed — Macartney resigns — Proceeds to Cal- 
cutta — Returns to London — Willing to accept Governor- 
Generalship — Directors' appreciation of his services — His 
subsequent career— Death, burial, monument . . 67-94 

Macartney distrusted by Warren Hastings — Disputes with Sir 
Eyre Coote — Latter supported by Governor-General — Pro- 
ceeds to Calcutta — Returns to Madras — Illness and death 
— Body conveyed for burial in Hampshire — Memorials of 
him — Lady Coote's correspondence with Hastings — Her 
detention in Madras — Solicitude for her husband's staff — 
Difficulty about securing passage — Returns to England — 
Colonel Owen's retention of Company's treasure — Refer- 
ences to Calcutta — Treasure at last surrendered . . 95-112 

Sir Archibald Campbell, Governor — Edward Holland — General 
Medows transferred from Bombay — Expedition against 
Tippoo — Lord Cornwallis in command — Peace of Seringa- 
patam — Sir Charles Oakeley succeeds General Medows — 
Services and character — Lady Oakeley — Public apprecia- 
tion of Lord Cornwallis in Madras — His second term of 
office — Lamented death — Cenotaph erected in Madras — 
Memorials elsewhere . . . . . . .113-132 



Colonel Arthur Wellesley — Proceeds to Calcutta — Pays visit to 
Madras — Robert, Lord Hobart, Governor — Installation of 
Robert, Lord Clive — Lord Mornington's visit to Madras — 
Mysore campaign — Parade in Fort St. George — Distribu- 



tion of Seringapatam prize money — Public address voted 
in Madras to Governor-General — His farewell levze — 
Colonel Wellesley appointed chief administrator Mysore — 
His Seringapatam letter-book . . . . .133-160 



George Staunton — Graduates as medical man — Proceeds to 
Grenada — Farewell letter of Dr. Johnson — Associated with 
Lord Macartney — Becomes Attorney-General — Taken 
prisoner to France — Release effected — Accompanies Lord 
Macartney to Madras as Private Secretary — Deputed to 
Calcutta — Negotiates peace with Tippoo — Embarks for 
England — Is pensioned — Accompanies Lord Macartney 
to China — Returns home — Death — Burial in Westminster 
Abbey — Alexander Dalrymple — A writer in Madras — 
Voyages in Far East — Studies navigation and geography — 
Leaves for England — Receives grant from Court of Direc- 
tors — Returns to Madras as Member of Council — Impli- 
cated in revolt against Lord Pigot — Recalled, pensioned, 
appointed Hydrographer to East India Company, then to 
Admiralty — Dismissal and death — Josiah Webbe — First 
Chief Secretary to Government, Madras — Rapid advance- 
ment — Apprehension about Lord Mornington's policy — 
Removal from Madras to Mysore and Gwalior — Death — 
Monument in the Fort Church — Thomas Cockburn — Early 
career in Madras — Becomes Member of Board of Revenue 
— Recognition of his services by Court of Directors — Is 
pensioned — Returns to England — Views on evangelisation 
of India 161-190 



Cruise in the Warspitc — Marine Society — Portraits of bene- 
factors — Thomas Snodgrass — Writer at Fort St. George — 
Resident at Ganjam — Dubious proceedings — New appoint- 
ment — Is removed — Services dispensed with — Returns 
home — Refused pension by Court of Directors — 
Assumes role of mendicant — Commences practice as cross- 
ing-sweeper — Horror of the Directors — Pension conceded 
— Settles down in London — One of founders of Oriental 
Club — Supporter of benevolent institutions — Dies a rich 
bachelor — Buried at Charlton — resting-place of notable 
persons ........ .191-204 


CHAPTER X pages 


Andrew Bell — Birth and relatives — Matriculates and emigrates 
— Returns home — Receives degree of Doctor of Medicine — 
Embarks for Bengal — Lands and remains at Madras — Be- 
comes a pluralist — Associated with establishment Male 
Orphan Asylum — Discovers Madras system of education — 
Returns home with a fortune — Resigns Indian service — 
Propounds his theories — Endowment of Madras College, 
St. Andrew's — Munificence to Scotch towns — Death : 
burial in Westminster Abbey — " Madras system of educa- 
tion " considered — James Cordiner — Services at Male 
Asylum — His observations in Madras — accepts Chaplaincy 
in Ceylon — Revisits Madras on journey home — Obtains a 
small preferment ...... 205-224 



Colonel John Wood — His war services — Health impaired — 
Madras authorities beg him to retain his command — Allega- 
tions against him — Ordered to return to Madras — Brought 
before Court-martial — Acquitted — Finding disapproved 
by Government — Court refuses to reconsider it — Censure 
passed upon Court — Colonel Wood dismissed the service — 
Government's action disallowed by Court of Directors — 
Colonel Wood exonerated — Government unaltered in 
opinion — Change of Governors — Acquiescence with decision 
of Directors ....... 225-236 



Donald Campbell of Barbreck — To Madras via Margate — Crosses 
Europe — Ostend to Venice — Reaches Aleppo — Proceeds 
to Euphrates and Tigris — Visits Nineveh and Babylon — 
Bussora to Bushire and Bombay — Sets out for Goa — Ship- 
wrecked on West Coast — Made prisoner by Hyder's 
soldiers — Companion in misfortune — Marched to Hyder- 
nagur — Death of companion — Obtains his release — Reaches 
Madras and Bengal — Returns to Madras and England — 
— George Elers proceeds to Madras on military duty 
— Hospitable reception — On the march in Southern 
India — A duel and fatal result — Association with Colonel 
Wellesley — Proceeds to Calcutta — Another fatal duel — 
Returns to England ...... 237-255 





Alexander Hamilton — Seafaring experiences — Voyage to Mala- 
bar, Maldives, and Madras— Observations of Fort St. 
George — Institutions, manners, customs, trade, limitations 
— Mrs. Graham — Reaches Bombay — Thence to Ceylon, 
back to Bombay — Arrives at Madras — Description of 
town — Visits various institutions— Has a peep at Ennore 
— Observations on Madras society — Goes to Calcutta — Re- 
turns to Madras — Visits the Seven Pagodas — Returns to 
England — Publishes account of her travels — James 
Wathen — Experiences in Madras — Local observations — 
Hospitably entertained — Leaves with regret . . 256-272 



Arbuthnot of Peterhead — Robert Arbuthnot, Colonial Secretary, 
Ceylon — George Arbuthnot, founder of Madras firm — 
William Arbuthnot, Lord Provost of Edinburgh — Inter- 
marriages with Goughs — Royal descent — Edward the 
First — A descendant of his two Queens — Arbuthnot of 
Arbuthnot— Dr. John Arbuthnot, F.R.S.— Right Hon. 
John Arbuthnot — Charles Arbuthnot, M.P. — Mrs. Charles 
Arbuthnot — Bishop Arbuthnot — Sir Alexander Arbuthnot 
— General Sir Charles Arbuthnot — General Sir Thomas 
Arbuthnot — George Arbuthnot of the Treasury — " Inno- 
cent and True " — A ballad of the Scottish Border . 273-289 


I. The Name of Madras 

II. Fort St. George in 1673 . 

III. Fort St. George in 1747 and 1783 

IV. Hayes Place .... 

V. The Pitt and Koh-i-noor Diamonds 

VI. A French View of Tippoo Sultan- 




Her Majesty Queen Alexandra 

Wearing the Koh-i-noor in her Coronation Crown, 1902. 

From a photograph by W. and D. Downey . Frontispiece 

Mr. Thomas Pitt 

Governor of Fort St. George, 1698-1709. 

Painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller. . . . Opposite p. 17 

The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, G.C.S.I. 
Governor of Madras, 1875-1880. 

From a photograph by the London Stereoscopic Co. ,, 51 

Famous Madras Diamonds 

Exact sizes of the Pitt and Koh-i-noor Diamonds. Sketched 

by the Author from Dr. Max Bauer's Precious Stones ,, 52 

Mr. Edward Harrison 

Governor of Fort St. George, 1711-1717. 

Painter unknown. ... ... ,, 65 

Earl Macartney, K.B. 

Governor, firstly, of Fort St. George, then of Madras, 1781-1781;. 

Painted by L. F. Abbott ,,67 

General Sir Eyre Coote, K.B. 

Commander-in-Chief, India, 1 779-1 783. 

Painter unknown. ...... ,, 95 

Monument of Sir Eyre Coote 
In Westminster Abbey. 

Sketched by the Author from the European Magazine. ,. 101 

Warren Hastings 

Governor-General of India, 1773-1785. 

Painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. . 103 

Mrs. Warren Hastings 

Wife of the Governor General. 

Sketched by Ozias Humphrey, R.A. . . . 105 

The Marquis Cornwallis, K.G. 

Governor General of India, 1786-1793 and 1805. 

Painted by J. S. Copley; engraved by S. Freeman. ,, 113 

Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

Governor of Madras, 1 792-1 794. 

Painted by J. Barber ; engraved > S. W. Reynolds. ,, 121 

Monument of The Marquis Cornwallis 

In St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Drawn by H. Corbould. ,, 131 


The Marquis Wellesley, K.G. 

Governor General of India, 1 798-1 805. 

Painted by R. Home; engraved by J, Heath. Opposite p. 133 

Tippoo Sultan 

The Ruler of Mysore, 1782- 1799. 

Lithographed by Mauzaisse. .... ,, 141 

Major-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, K.B. 
On the Staff, Madras, 1802-1805. 

Painted by R. Home ; engraved by C. Turner. ,, 157 

Sir George Staunton, Bart. 

Private Secretary to Earl Macartney, 1781-1785. 

Painted by L. F. Abbott. 161 

Mr. Thomas Snodgrass 

Member of the Civil Service of Madras, 1 777-1 804 

Painter unknown. . . . . . . ,, 191 

The Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell. D.D., F.R.S. 

Discoverer of the Madras System of Education. 

Painted by W. Owen, R.A. ; engraved by S. W. Reynolds. ,, 207 

Lady Callcott 

Wife of Sir Augustus Callcott, R.A. 

Painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. . . 269 

Mr. George Arbuthnot 

Founder of Messrs. Arbuthnot & Co., Madras. 

Painter unknown. ......,, 273 

Sir William Arbuthnot, Bart. 

Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 1822. ...... 285 

Sir Alexander Arbuthnot. K. C.S.I. 

Ag. Governor of Madras, 1.X7J. . ....,,,, 

General Sir Charles Arbuthnot, G.C.B. 

Commander-in-Chief, Madras, 1886-91. . . . ,, 

Sir George Gough Arbuthnot 

Now of Messrs. Arbuthnot & Co., Madras. ..... 


Seringapatam .... 

The East India House . 

Charlton Church 

The Madras College, St. Andrew's 

Fort St. George in 1673 

Fort St. George in 1783 

Hayes Place .... 

Map of India .... 

Arms of the East India Company 

• P> 


Opposite p. 





2l l 





• • 




On Cover 



jL So much has been published regarding the genesis of 
Fort St. George, Madras, that it may be thought that 
there is no occasion for further light to be thrown upon 
the subject ; yet Mr. William Foster has gleaned among 
the records at the India Office some information l regarding 
the founding of the Fort, and its early history, that is particu- 
larly instructive. The records preserved in the Fort have 
from time to time been subjected to painstaking examination 
by Captain A. W. Rawlins, Mr. W. Hudleston, M.C.S., Mr. 
Talboys Wheeler, U.C.S., Mr. A. P. Pringle, U.C.S., Mrs. Frank 
Penny, and Mr. D. Leighton, not to speak of less conspicuous 
labourers in the same field ; but, as Mr. Foster says, the re- 
searches of these authors were unavoidably restricted to the 
records available in Madras, which commence only in 1670. 
Consequently, recourse was had to works of questionable 
reliability, compiled and published in England, for particulars 
about the history of the settlement during the immediately 
preceding thirty years. It has been Mr. Foster's aim to 
supply materials in his present monograph for such a first 
chapter of the history of Madras as seems to him to be 
needed. There are aching voids in the records at Whitehall, 
as there are also in those that white ants have spared in 
the Fort. " Many important letters have perished entirely ; 
of others, only portions survive, often in very unlikely 
quarters ; while several events of the first importance are 
merely referred to obliquely in the contemporary corre- 
spondence." But such papers as are available at the India 

1 The Founding of Fort St. George, Madras. By William Foster, 
B.A. (of the Registry and Record Department, India Office). 
Published by Order of H.M.'s Secretary of State for India in 
Council. London : Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1902. 

1 B 


Office, "fairly reflect," in Mr. Foster's opinion, "all the 
information of importance which it is now possible to glean 
from the records of the East India Company." 

It is an old story that on the East Coast of India, as well 
as elsewhere, the Dutch, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, showed an enterprise in starting, and a skill in 
pushing trade that put their British rivals to the blush. 
The Dutch had founded a settlement at Pulicat, which 
obtained a large measure of prosperity while the English 
settlement at Masulipatam was struggling for existence ; 
and it was perceived by the factors at Masulipatam that 
their best course would be to follow the lead of the Dutch, 
and found a new settlement south of Masulipatam. Accord- 
ingly a mere patch of ground was acquired at Armagon — 
now called Durgarayapatnam — : only thirty-five miles north 
of Pulicat, and the most was made of it. The prospects 
which it presented were not brilliant ; but, as they were 
less gloomy than those offered at Masulipatam, what passed 
for the headquarters of the Company's service on the 
Coromandel Coast were transferred for a time to the new 
station. It was, however, soon realized that the anchorage 
at Armagon was poor ; that the port was exposed ; and 
that the settlers were underbid, and undersold by their 
Dutch neighbours. 

It was then thought desirable to go farther afield ; and 
Mr. Francis Day embarked at Armagon, and proceeded 
farther down the Coast to search for what was wanted. At 
first — if what the Dutch factors at Pulicat reported to their 
official superiors at Batavia can be trusted — Day went to 
Pollecheree — now known as Pondicherry — and treated with 
the local Hindu authorities for ground whereon to build a 
settlement, failing which he negotiated for a site at Conimeer 
— now known as Kunimedu — thirteen miles north of Polle- 
cheree. Nothing, however, came of this. He then wended 
his way a little farther north ; and, by means which have yet 
to be ascertained, he not only made a friend of the Naik, 
Damarla Venkatadra — the " Lord General of Carnatica," 
and " Grand Vizier to the King of Vizianagar " — at Wandawas 


(now known as Wandiwash, the scene of Coote's great victory 
over Lally), but he also established such friendly relations 
with the Naik's brother, Ayjapaneyik Naik, who resided at 
Punamallu — now known as Poonamallee — that the latter, 
as the vicegerent of Damarla, was induced to grant him a 
firman, authorizing the erection by the English of a fort at 
" our port of Madraspatam." Mr. Wilson thinks it is obvious 
from the wording that the document was drafted by Day 
himself. The firman, dated July 22, 1639, commenced as 
follows : — 

Whereas Mr. Francis Day, Captain of the English at Armagon, 
upon great hopes by reason of our promises offten made unto him, 
hath repaired to our port of Madraspatam and had personall Con- 
ference with us in behalfe of the Company of that Nation, Con- 
cerning their trading in our territories and freindly Commerce with 
our subjects : wee, out of our spetiall Love and Favour to the 
English, doe grant unto the said Captain, or whomsoever shall 
bee deputed to Idgitate the affaires of that Company, by vertue 
of this firman, Power to direct and order the building of a Fort 
and Castle in or about Madraspatam, as they shall thinke most 
Convenient, the Charges whereof, untill fully and wholly finished, 
to bee defrayed by us, but then to bee repaied when the said 
English shall first make their enterance to take possession thereof. 
And, to make more full Expression of our affection to the English 
nation, wee doe Confirme unto the said Mr. Francis Day, or 
whatsoever other Substitutes or Agents for that Company, full 
power and authority to governe and dispose of the Government of 
Madraspatam for the terme and space of two yeares Next Insueing 
affter they shall be seated there and possesst of the said fortifica- 
tions ; and for the future by an equall Division to receive halfe 
the Custom and revenewes of that port. 

The firman then proceeded to state that the English Company 
would be allowed to conduct an import and export trade free 
of customs duty ; that if goods were transported " up, into, 
or through my country " the Company shall pay half the 
duties charged to other merchants ; that the Company shall 
perpetually enjoy the privilege of mintage, free of " dewes 
or dutyes " ; and that the Naik would be responsible for 
payments made by the Company to " merchants, painters," 
— painters of chintz — " weavers, etc." There were a few other 
conditions that were also in favour of the Company. 


Day personally conveyed this important document to 
Masulipatam to enable the authorities there to obtain from 
him, at first hand, and without delay, such particulars as 
they might require in regard to it. He then found that 
Thomas Ivy, the chief factor, or Agent, had been superseded 
by Andrew Cogan, who had just arrived across country 
from Surat. Cogan was a man of good extraction, for the 
Herald's Visitation of London, 1633-35 (published in 1880 by 
the Harleian Society), shows that he was a great-grandson 
of a Mayor of Bristol ; that a grand-uncle of his married a 
daughter of a Mayor of Oxford ; that his grandfather was 
Thomas Cogan " of Dorsetshire " : and that he was entitled 
to bear arms as an esquire. It is conjectured that he entered 
the service of the East India Company in 1615, during the 
reign of King James. He was employed some fifteen years 
in Bantam, Macassar, etc. ; and trading on his own account, 
as the Company's servants were prompted by their beggarly 
salaries to do, he accumulated what passed for a good 
fortune. He then returned home. 

Nothing irritated the Directors of the Company more 
than the success of their servants in making money for 
themselves ; and, by way of deterring others from following 
Cogan's example, the Company filed a bill in Chancery against 
him. But the Company, though hard pushed for dividends, 
did not wish to invite a public scrutiny of their affairs. 
Moreover, while the case was pending, Cogan married the 
daughter of Sir Hugh Hammersley, one of the Directors, an 
ex-Lord Mayor of London, the President of Christ's Hospital, 
the Governor of the Russia and Levant Companies, and, 
inter alia, the father of fifteen children. So a compromise 
was arranged, and the case never went into Court. In the 
spring of 1638, or about eight years after this compromise 
with his late " Honourable Masters," Cogan sailed as a 
grass-widower for the East, this time bound, as a Member 
of Council, for Surat. He reached that port in September 
following. Ere long he was deputed to proceed to Masulipatam ; 
but was instructed to take, en route, Goa, where he had some 
business to transact with the Portuguese Governor-General, 


and Golconda, where he sought and obtained a fresh firman 
from the King for the trade of the English at Masulipatam. 

Cogan gave a friendly reception to Day ; and, on the 5th 
September, 1639, " Thomas Ivie, Andrew Cogan, Francis 
Daye, Thomas Morris, and Thomas Wintter," recorded their 
proceedings at a consultation held at " Messulipatam," for 
the guidance of the Directors of the Company. They 
apprehended that the Directors would take objection to 
the expenditure which would be required at Madraspatam ; 
and they resolved, therefore, to send Day back to that 
locality, in order to keep the Naik in play, by presents and 
promises, until the authorisation for such expenditure 
arrived from Home. (The Coast factories were removed 
about this time from the jurisdiction of Bantam to that 
of Surat.) Thereupon Day left for Armagon. He was 
joined there later on by Cogan ; and the two, having first 
dismantled the factory at Armagon, which was to be aban- 
doned, proceeded together in the Eagle to Madraspatam. 
The vessel remained three weeks in the open roadstead, and 
then, being caught in a storm at the end of February, 1640, 
she was driven ashore at Alamparai. 

The erection of the Fort was at once commenced, and 
Mr. Foster thinks " from the name given to it, that part 
(perhaps the inner fort) was finished by St. George's 
Day, April 23. Unfortunately we have little information 
regarding the factors' proceedings at this time." But it 
is hardly likely that great progress in the work could 
have been made in so short a period as two months by 
unskilled native labour. It is more probable that the 
foundation stone was laid on the day sacred to the Patron 
Saint of England. The Naik had been committed by his 
brother to many pledges; but, in October of the year 
under notice, Cogan and Day were compelled to inform the 
authorities at Masulipatam, that he " hath confest before 
us that hee never had an Intent, or did ever promise to 
build other then with Tody Trees and earth ; laying the 
fault on the Lingua (interpreter) for misunderstandinge of 
him at the time of treatie." And, to make matters worse, 


the funds were not forthcoming from Masulipatam, Surat, 
or London for the prosecution of the work. But Day 
was not to be baulked of the achievement of the object on 
which he had set his heart ; and he proposed to pay out 
of his own pocket the interest on any sum that might be 
required, and that could be borrowed for the purpose. On 
second thoughts, however, he withdrew this offer, and the 
Masulipatam people plied those at Surat with entreaties 
for funds " to Imploy our Inhabytants att Madraspatam, 
without which we feare theil leave us to the shame and dis- 
honour of our Nation ... for what is it but to loose all yf, 
beinge posest of a pile of stone, which will cost noe small 
matter the keepinge, and noe people to Come neere it, thereby 
to raise some Utilitie to defray the Charge." 

As the authorities at Surat became increasingly uneasy 
about the expenditure, Day was deputed, towards the close 
of 1640, to proceed to Surat to offer explanations and 
assurances, and the authorities then determined to send 
him home. He arrived in London in July, 1641, being 
introduced to the Court of Directors by the Surat people, 
as " the first Project our of the Forte of St. George." The 
Directors could not have been very impracticable at the 
time, for they sent him back to India in the Hopewell, 
which reached Madras x in July, 1642. During his absence 
of upwards of twenty months the work at the Fort was 
supervised by Cogan without assistance ; and such was his 
energy that a bulwark on the St. Thome side, built of 
ironstone, and faced with chunam, was so far com- 
pleted, early in 1641, as to allow of eight iron guns being 
mounted upon it. Six months later a second bulwark was 
finished. This was done without any support from the 
Court of Directors, who disapproved of the whole project. 
The Court's letter of disapproval is not extant, but Mr. Foster 
has found the reply of the Surat Council which it evoked. 
The Council repudiated responsibility for the action of the 
East Coast factors ; but said that " by what wee have heard 
of it, the Fort is conveniently enough scited, and may serve 

1 See Appendix I. : — " The Name of Madras." 


you to many good purposes ; and therefore since you have 
been pleased to referr its maintenance or dissolution to our 
doome, we have seriously considered of it, and resolved to 
let it stand till our next yeares Battery." 

The attitude of the Directors was naturally discouraging 
to Cogan and Day ; and, in a letter to Bantam they said : 
" Wee are very sencible how ridiculous we have made 
ourselves by dooing what is done, and lye at our Masters' 
mercies." The censure passed upon them by the Court 
" even breaks some of our hearts." Yet they were as 
convinced as ever that, if it had a fair chance, " this place 
may prove as good as the best," though they did not 
forget that " all things must have its growth and time." 
Cogan especially resented the blame passed upon him in- 
dividually by the Court. He had all along, he repre- 
sented, acted with the concurrence of his colleagues, who 
knew more of Coast affairs than he did ; and he denied 
that he had sanctioned any irregularity. As, however, 
he did not appear to possess the confidence of the Court, 
he begged the President of Bantam to appoint another 
Agent. He added that he would make over charge to 
Day, and proceed to Bantam as soon as possible. His 
colleagues begged him to think better of it ; and the Bantam 
Council refused to supersede him pending the receipt of 
instructions from England. But at length, in August, 1643, 
he sailed for Bantam ; arrived there in November ; persuaded 
the President to sanction his going home ; and, embarking 
in December, he arrived in England in the following June. 
The Bantam Council sent by the same vessel a letter to the 
Directors, in which they said : — 

And heere wee supposse it's not amiss to lett your Worships under- 
stand that Mr. Francis Day was the first Projecture and Contriver of 
that Forte or Castle in Madrasspatan, which another with a greite 
deale of discontent, laboure, and paines hath now brought to some 
good pass, being a place of securitie on that Coast as the onelie place 
of secured saiftie with that Title of Honoure (Castle) that ever our 
nation enjoyed in East India, and therefore in our opinions to bee 
highlie esteemed. And for its cost it's certaine that if your Worships 
continew the Indian Trade, in few yeares it will not onelie quitt its ownfc 


Charge, but allsoe produce benefitt and put monies into your Purses 
by bringeing a Trade thether, raiseing a Custome there, paying of 
duties by the Inhabitants neere adjoyning, and being replenisht 
with Merchants Weavers &c, whereby you may have all things 
necessarie and convenient for you under your owne Command ; and 
happy and gladd will manie bee (wherein you will find the benefitt) 
to come and live under our nation and bee protected by them. 

The Bantam Council represented that the expenditure on 
the Fort had not been excessive considering its strength, 
and they expressed the belief that the cost would be easily 
recouped in three years. They incidentally stated that 
close to the Fort "is an Hand scituated in the River 
under the Command of the Castle, whereon is likelie to 
bee made a greate quantitie of Salt yearelie, which is one 
of the Constantest Commodeties in all theise Easterne 
Parts, and much monies are gotten thereby everiewhere." 
It may be mentioned here that three and a half years 
after the work was commenced, the Madras authorities 
reported to the Court of Directors that the Fort " hath 
allready cost in building £2,294 17s. 2\&., and to finish the 
rest, and to compleate it according to the worke begune, 
with ware house Roome, lodging for factors and souldiers, 
with other needfull additions of Buildings, and soe fortified 
as fame reporteth it is (though not soe) it cannot cost less 
than £2,000 more." The monthly charge entailed by the 
garrison of fifty men was £54 6s. 6d., and, on the completion 
of the Fort, the garrison would have to be increased to a 
hundred men, when the charge would be doubled. Then, 
they said, " wee need not feare any inland Enemy neare 
unto us in these parts." 

Cogan lost no time in waiting upon his " honourable 
Masters" in Leadenhall Street, and courted full inquiry 
into his conduct ; but it was not until eleven months after 
his arrival that he was placed in possession of the following 
Resolution of the Court in which he was exonerated from 
blame : — 

A very indiscreete action to goe about the building of such a Fort 
when the Companies stocke was soe small, yett if ever the Companie 
have a plentifull stocke it may bee very comodious and advantagious 


for them ; and since it was the joynt act of all the factors there, and 
not soly or perticulerly of Mr. Cogans, and if it should not proove 
soe advantagious for the Companie heereafter, it can bee charged upon 
noe man more justly then on Mr. Day ; and this Committee were 
joyntly of opinion to cleare Mr. Cogan of this Charge. 

Like many another good servant of his King and country, 
Day, after returning home from Madras " for good and all," 
was heard of no more ; and it has hitherto been supposed that 
similar oblivion overtook Cogan. But in his researches Mr. 
Foster has come across some papers — the contents of which 
he has now obligingly communicated to me — which show 
what became of him. 

Cogan ought, one might suppose, to have had enough of the 
Company ; yet, a few months after his acquittal he not only 
again made an offer of his services to the Directors, but ex- 
pressed his willingness to contribute £3,000 for investment 
in the cargo of a ship. But this and other overtures on his 
part were declined with thanks. He was now the possessor 
of a considerable fortune ; and, as it was not in his power 
to return to the East to add to it, he resolved to settle 
down at home, as a country gentleman imbued with the 
taste for town. With this object in view he acquired a 
property at Greenwich, then a truly rural locality, within 
convenient reach by boat, or horse, of the metropolis. 
There were three houses on the estate, and he set apart 
one for his own use, and bestowed the other two on his 
daughters, Mary and Martha. The times were out of joint, 
for the country was in the throes of civil war, and it be- 
came incumbent upon every Englishman to make choice 
between King and Parliament. Soon after Cogan had 
taken up his residence at Greenwich he was assessed at £400 
by a Parliamentary Committee for the " Advance of 
Money," and his " East Indian goods " were placed under 
sequestration until the forced loan was paid. He was care- 
ful to remain quietly at home during the four troublous 
years that ensued. At last, in 1648, the County of Kent 
rose against its Parliamentary oppressors, and eleven thou- 
sand stalwart men " stood for the King " under the com- 


mand of the Earl of Norwich, and resolved to march upon 
London. Among them was Cogan, who had already spent 
much of his fortune in the service of the King, and who 
had still something to lose in the Royal cause. But the 
discipline of the force was in inverse proportion to the 
courage of its component parts, and the better discipline 
of the enemy under Fairfax proved irresistible. Some five 
hundred of the Kentish men, including Cogan, succeeded in 
crossing the Thames with Lord Norwich, and threatened 
the eastern end of the metropolis. The small force was 
easily scattered ; and while many of those associated with 
it made their way to Colchester, there to be beleaguered by 
the ruthless Fairfax, the remainder fled, some to the home 
counties, others to the Continent. Cogan was among the 
latter. Thus it was that, in June, 1650, he was impeached 
as being among " malignants," who were " beyond seas with 
the enemies of Parliament," and his estate at Greenwich was 

In the following month a seven years' lease of the estate 
was granted by Cromwell to a Member of Parliament, 
named Gregory Clement, a man remarkable for the posses- 
sion of a loud voice, who had sat in Westminster Hall as 
one of the Judges at the trial of the King. Mr. Foster 
concludes that this is the Gregory Clement who is known 
to have been in the Company's service from 1624 to 1631, 
and to have been employed chiefly at Surat, Ahmedabad, 
and Agra, though the Dictionary of National Biography says 
that nothing is known of him prior to 1642. If Mr. Foster's 
assumption is correct, then Clement may have known 
Cogan in India ; and he may, like Cogan, have laid the 
foundation of a large fortune in that country in the 
fashion that was so irritating to the susceptibilities of the 
magnates of Leadenhall Street. At any rate, ere Clement's 
lease of the estate at Greenwich had quite expired 
he bought the property outright from the " Treason 
Trustees," intending, doubtless, to live happily thereon 
ever after. But his Puritanism failed to keep his passions 
under proper control ; and, being found out in a disgraceful 


intrigue, he was expelled from St. Stephen's by the scan- 
dalized Parliament. Meanwhile, Cogan remained in Holland, 
beggared by his loyalty. He estimated his losses in the 
Royal cause at £34,000 ; while his elder daughter, writing 
later, set them down at £40,000. Of silver and gold the 
" Merrie Monarch " had none wherewith to compensate his 
adherents for their sacrifices ; but he tried to make some 
amends to Cogan by creating him a Baronet. 

The Restoration was eventually brought about, and Sir 
Andrew Cogan availed himself of his recovered liberty to 
return for the last time to his native land. Soon after- 
wards Clement, who had been residing upwards of ten 
years at Greenwich, came to sad grief. Being] proscribed 
as a regicide, he fled from Greenwich, and hid himself in 
a mean house in an obscure part of London. But he was 
betrayed there by his sonorous voice ; whereupon he was 
brought to trial, found guilty, sentenced and executed. 
Then Cogan's elder daughter petitioned the King to order 
compensation to be made out of Clement's estate for the 
sufferings of her now aged father. She was compelled, 
she represented, owing to his want of means, to support 
him, and she had to sign bonds in order to prevent his 
being cast into jail as a debtor. Whether her prayer was 
granted is not known ; but it is conjectured that Sir 
Andrew Cogan died shortly after the petition had been 
sent in. The daughter referred to married Christopher 
Musgrave, a grandson of Sir Philip Musgrave, second 
Baronet, the chief representative of a family that " came 
over with the Conqueror," and settled at Musgrave in 
Westmorland. Sir Philip was present at the battle of 
Worcester ; followed Charles II to France, Holland and' 
Scotland ; bravely defended the Isle of Man against the 
Countess of Derby ; and, for his great services in the 
Royal cause, received a warrant creating him Baron Mus- 
grave, of Hartley Castle. But he did not take out the 
patent. Christopher Musgrave, Cogan's son-in-law, who 
eventually succeeded to the Baronetcy, was one of the 
Tellers of the Exchequer in the first year of the reign of 


Queen Anne, after his two sons had filled in succession the 
office of Clerk of the Council of King James II. The 
present Sir Richard Musgrave, of Edenhall, Cumberland, 
twelfth Baronet, is consequently a direct descendant of one 
of the founders of Fort St. George, Madras. 

Mr. Foster rightly contends that a share of the credit 
which is usually given to Day for the establishment of 
Fort St. George, rightly belongs to Cogan, as his official 
chief. The project certainly originated with Day, " and its 
successful accomplishment was largely due to his energy and 
perseverance ; but it is equally certain that it would never 
have been carried out had he not been supported and 
assisted by Cogan ; and it was the latter, as the superior 
officer, who took the responsibility." Yet, " nowadays," 
says Mr. Foster, " Cogan is quite forgotten, and Day gets 
all the praise." History is silent as to the fate not only 
of Mr. Day, but also of Mr. Morris, one of Mr. Cogan's 
two colleagues at Masulipatam. But Mr. Thomas Wintter — 
or Winter — was more fortunate, for he lived to a good age 
in his native land, and then dying, was interred in the 
old parish church of Fulham, where eventually a large 
monument, still in a good state of repair, was erected to 
his memory. 

The monument is at the north end of the aisle of the 
church, and is formed of veined marble, nearly twelve 
feet in height, ornamented with festoons of flowers and 
leaves. It was once surmounted by an urn, on which the 
arms of Mr. Winter were represented ; but the urn has 
disappeared. Upon a representation of drapery at the base 
of the monument is an inscription in Latin. This in- 
* scription, rendered into English, relates that " Here lies 
interred Thomas Winter, Esq., great grandson of that illus- 
trious Winter who defeated the Invincible Armada of 
Spain." Then it is said that, " War being succeeded by 
peace, this son of peace made a commercial voyage to 
the Indies " — (in Indos Met ■ color navigat) — where he 
"governed and adorned Masulipatam" — Masulipatamice 
prcefeduram gessit et adornavit). Then, " about twenty years 


having elapsed, he returned home after a successful voy- 
age, being sent by God, like another Joseph, to his father 
and relations, who were reduced to indigence on account of 
their fidelity to the best of Kings "—Charles I. "At 
length, having performed all the duties of a good man, 
after he had suffered a severe illness, with wonderful pa- 
tience, for thirty-four years," he died, and " rested from 
his labours," January 15, 1681, aged sixty-six. It is 
added that the monument was erected by " his most afflicted 
wife as a mark of her affection." She eventually married 
Charles, eldest son of Sir Thomas Orby, of Lincolnshire, 
Baronet, and dying in 1689, aged fifty-four, she was buried 
beside her first husband. 

Mr. Winter, it seems, was a member of the ancient 
English family of Wintour, or Winter, that is mentioned 
in records of the reigns of Henry I, Edward I, Edward II, 
and Edward III. His great grandfather, the " illustrious 
Winter " above named, having successfully defended Jersey 
against the French, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, 
and appointed Master of Naval Stores. A little later the 
Queen placed him in command of her fleet in the Firth of 
Forth ; and he succeeded in expelling the French from 
their lodgment in Leith. In 1562 he was associated with 
Sir John Hawkins in a scheme to open up trade between 
England and Guinea, Hispaniola, and Porto Rico ; and in 
1567 he was one of the English Envoys who were charged 
by the Queen to proceed to France, and demand the re- 
storation to her of Calais. In 1575 Sir William Wintour — 
as he was called — entered Parliament ; but I have failed 
to discover what Borough or County he represented, or 
how long he remained in the House of Commons. He was 
appointed, in 1588, second in command, under Lord H. 
Seymour, of the fleet that was despatched to confront the 
Spanish Armada ; and he did fine service in his ship, the 
Vanguard, at the decisive action of July 29, off Gravelines. 
The Queen then promoted him to the rank of Vice-Admiral, 
and granted him the Manor of Lydney, in Gloucestershire. 
He died at an advanced age, and was succeeded by his 


son, Sir Edward Winter. The latter in due course was 
succeeded by his son, Sir John Winter, the father, I take 
it, of the Mr. Winter of Masulipatam. Sir John Winter was 
a staunch Royalist, and in consequence his estate was con- 
fiscated by vote of the House of Commons in 1648, or the 
year before the decapitation of the " best of Kings." Thus 
honourably was the Winter family ruined ; and it was left 
for Mr. Winter to repair its fortunes by means of the wealth 
that he acquired during twenty years of exile in India. 

There was another Winter connected with the early 
history of English adventure on the East Coast of India, 
namely, Sir Edward Winter, President, or Governor of Fort 
St. George, who was appointed to that position in 1661, or 
about fourteen years after Mr. Thomas Winter left Masuli- 
patam. It is probable that the two Winters were closely 
related ; brothers, perhaps. " No records have been preserved 
in this Presidency of an earlier date than 1670." So said 
Mr. Talboys Wheeler in his Madras in the Olden Time, and 
the information which he gave in that interesting work 
concerning Madras previous to 1670 was gleaned from 
Bruce 's Annals, and other " antiquated volumes." It has 
to be borne in mind that some of the books of the class 
referred to, though compiled in England, " were sadly 
lacking in accuracy." The Directors of the East India 
Company were not inclined to take broad views of the 
ambition of literary men to place posterity under obliga- 
tions by the conscientious scrutiny of official documents. 
This is certain, that when Sir Edward Winter became 
President, the Factory of Fort St. George had been estab- 
lished upwards of twenty years. 

The " times were bad " for the Company, and Sir Edward 
Winter brought with him imperative directions to suppress, 
with a high hand, the chronic tendency of the factors to 
endeavour to make money by trading on their own account 
so that they might eke out their small salaries, instead 
of devoting themselves entirely to the commercial service 
of the Company. He was also charged with the general 
superintendence of the factories in Bengal, at Orissa 


(founded by Mr. Day), Masulipatam, and elsewhere on 
the Coast. He was not only empowered to summarily 
dismiss, and forcibly deport all servants of the Company 
found guilty of engaging in trade on their own account ; 
but also, under the warrant of King Charles II., he was 
authorized to seize and deport all other persons, not in 
the Company's service, who dared to engage in the private 
trade of the country, or to navigate ships belonging to the 
country powers. " He held the government " — according 
to Mr. Talboys Wheeler — " from 1661 to 1665 by right, and 
from 1665 to 1668 by usurpation." 

Mr. Talboys Wheeler gives the story at length. It will 
suffice for my present purpose to mention that in 1665 Mr. 
Foxcroft arrived at Fort St. George from England with a 
commission directing him to supersede Sir Edward Winter. 
The latter was allowed to act as second in Council for three 
months, while he was understood to be making arrangements 
for his departure to England. But at the expiration of 
that time, and aided by a few other factors, he suddenly 
attacked Mr. Foxcroft, his son, and a Mr. Sambroke, and, 
after a desperate fight, in which one man was killed and 
several men were wounded, Mr. Foxcroft, young Foxcroft, 
and Mr. Sambroke were captured, and placed in confine- 
ment, charged with having uttered seditious and treasonable 
expressions about the King's Government. Thereupon Sir 
Edward Winter resumed the office of Governor, and reported 
his proceedings to the Court of Directors. He also addressed 
letters to the King and the Archbishop of Canterbury. He 
succeeded in " holding the Fort " until May, 1668, when he 
had to yield it to Commissioners empowered by the King to 
take charge of it, to release Mr. Foxcroft from his three years' 
imprisonment, and to reinstate him as President. But Mr. 
Foxcroft was not in favour at the India House ; and later on 
Sir William Langhorne, and as many as six other Commis- 
sioners, arrived in Madras with instructions to investigate 
affairs. Mr. Foxcroft remained yet one year longer in office, 
and was then succeeded by Sir William Langhorne. During 
that year Sir Edward Winter remained in Madras disposing 


of his property, and recovering debts due to him ; and the 
Court of Directors " expressly ordered that he should be 
treated with every respect, and allowed a passage to Eng- 
land." Finally, in the year 1670, * both Mr. Foxcroft and 
Sir Edward Winter set sail for England, but not, it may be 
presumed, in the same ship. 

Sir Edward Winter arrived safely in England ; married 
Emma, a daughter of Mr. Richard Howe, of Norfolk ; and, 
dying in 1685-86, at the age of sixty-four, he was buried 
in Battersea church. His widow raised a handsome white 
marble monument to his memory. It is surmounted by 
his bust, and has at foot a representation both of his 
struggle with a tiger, and of a fight he had with Moors. 
There is a Latin inscription which sets forth that, having 
set out from his fatherland, he traded very successfully 
in the East Indies, amassed great wealth, and might have 
gained more if he had not despised riches. Having lived 
in splendour and honour abroad he returned home. Then 
follow these lines : — 

Born to be great in Fortune as in Mind, 

Too great to be within an Isle confin'd ; 

Young, helpless, friendless, Seas unknown he try'd, 

But English Courage all these wants supply'd. 

A pregnant Wit, a painfull Diligence, 

Care to provide, and Bounty to dispense, 

Joyn'd with a Soul sincere, plain, open, just, 

Procur'd him Friends, and Friends procur'd him Trust. 

These were his Fortune's rise, and thus began 

This hardy Youth, raised to a happy Man, 

A rare Example, and unknown to most, 

Where Wealth is gain'd, and Conscience is not lost, 

Nor less in Martiall Honour was his name, 

Witness his actions of Immortall Fame. 

Alone, unarm'd, a Tyger he opprest, 

And crush'd to death a monster of a Beast. 

Thrice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew 

Singly on foot, some wounded, some he slew, 

Dispers'd ye rest : what more could Sampson do ? 

True to his Friends, a Terrour to his Foes, 

Here now, in Peace, his honour'd bones repose. 

1 See Appendix II. : — " Fort St. George in 1673." 







K ! Ji 

i 1 


JL1 - 



Painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

Governor of Fort St. George, 1698-1709. 



Like Great Britain, Fort St. George has been governed 
during two epochs by men of the name of Pitt, for Thomas 
Pitt was Governor from 1698 to 1709, and his second 
cousin once removed, 1 George Morton Pitt, held that 
position from 1730 to 1735. The former was the son of the 
rector of Blandford, in Dorsetshire, where he was born in 
1653, four years after the execution of King Charles I. He 
went to sea, in search of adventure and fortune ; and, at the 
age of twenty-one, he turned up at Balasore ; and, engaged 
as a merchant, in disregard of the East India Company's 
jealous and severe prohibition of " interloping." The local 
authorities of those days were in no mood to tolerate any 
trespassing on what they regarded as the lawful preserves 
of their " honourable masters," and they speedily arrested 
him, and brought him before the Council in Fort St. George, 
by whom he was severely admonished, and warned not to 
do it again. Thereupon he betook himself to Persia, to 

1 John Pitt, Clerk of the Exchequer to Queen Elizabeth, had two 
sons, Sir William Pitt, who died in 1636, and Thomas Pitt, who 
died in 1643. Sir William Pitt was the father of Edward Pitt ; who 
was the father of John Pitt, who was the father of a second John 
Pitt, President of Council at Masulipatam ; who was the father of 
George Morton Pitt, Governor of Madras (died 1756) ; who was the 
father of Harriet Pitt, who married Lord Brownlow Bertie, after- 
wards Duke of Ancaster, a relative of the two Lords Hobart, 
Governors of Madras. Thomas Pitt, second son of the Clerk of 
the Exchequer above named, was the father of the Rev. Thomas 
Pitt, Rector of Blandford ; who was the father of Thomas Pitt, 
Governor of Madras ; who was the father of Robert Pitt ; who was 
the father of William Pitt. Earl of Chatham ; who was the. father of 
William Pitt, the younger. 

17 C 


see how the land lay there for enterprising spirits. It was 
well that he did so, for the magnates of Leadenhall Street 
ordered the Madras Government to secure him, " he being 
a desperate fellow, and one that, we fear, will not stick at 
doing any mischief that lies in his power." For all that, 
he returned to India, and built a factory at Hooghly, for 
which dire offence he was arrested, fined and deported. 
Nothing daunted, he retraced his steps to Dorsetshire, and 
in 1689 succeeded in obtaining election as member for the 
venal borough of Old Sarum, in the first Parliament of 
that interloping King, the Dutch William. He still held 
the seat until 1693, when he engaged in another excursion 
to Balasore on mercantile thoughts intent, and again brought 
himself under the ban of the Company. He remained 
about eighteen months in India, and then, returning home, 
was re-elected for Old Sarum. The Company had now 
realised that he was irrepressible ; and, " taking a broad 
view of the position," the Directors resolved to come to 
terms with, and make use of the "desperate fellow." It 
suited him to meet the Company half way. Thus it happened 
that when the term of Nathaniel Higginson was approaching 
a close, the Directors offered Pitt the succession to the 
Governorship of Fort St. George. 

It appears from the Court Book of the " Governour " and 
Directors of the East India Company that, on November 24, 
1697, it was resolved : " That Captain Thomas Pitt was a 
person duly qualified to take charge " of " Fort St. George 
and the Subordinate Factoryes." Then the Court, by the 
Ballot, discharged " Lieut. Generall Higginson, according to 
his desire, from his present Employment, and by the Ballot 
elected the said Captain Thomas Pitt to be President accord- 
ingly." Two days later it was further recorded in the minutes, 
that " Captain Thomas Pitt, now comeing into Court, was 
made acquainted by the Governour, that he was unanimously 
elected to be President at Fort St. George, whereupon he took 
the Oaths appointed by the Charter, promising to improve 
his utmost ability and zeal for the Companys Service." But, 
though the Governor and Directors were favourable to Mr. 


Pitt, then M.P. for Old Sarum, his selection was much dis- 
approved by some of the stockholders, including Sir Josiah 
Child, who described him as "a roughling, immoral man." 
For his own part Pitt was only too glad to avail himself of 
the opportunity to add to such fortune as he had already 
acquired as an " interloper " in India. He secured a passage 
to Madras in the Martha, and obtained from the Court per- 
mission for his eldest son, Robert, to accompany him, and to 
" reside at Fort St. George," as a " free Merchant." As 
regarded his salary the Court, " having taken into considera- 
tion " that the former Presidents of Fort St. George " received 
only Two Hundred Pounds per Annum Salary, and One 
Hundred Pounds a year Gratuity . . . thought fit to make 
the same allowance " to " Thomas Pitt, Esq., who is elected 
President," and " that in his Indenture of Covenants the 
time of his service is to be for five years, and it is ordered 
that the sum of One Hundred Pounds be paid to him for 
fresh Provisions in his voyage." 

He then embarked ; and he arrived at Madras on July 6, 
1698. The following notice of the event was entered in the 
Consultation Books of the Government on the following day — 

Thursday, 7th July, 1698 : — The Honorable Thomas Pitt, Esq., 
coming ashore about nine o'clock this morning, produced his Com- 
mission, dated 5th January, 1698, appointing him President for the 
Right Honorable Company's affairs on the Coast of Coromandel and 
Orissa, and of the Ginjee and Mahratta countries, and Governor 
of Fort St. George and Fort St. David, which being read, General 
Higginson did resign the Chair, and deliver the keys of the Fort to 
the said Thomas Pitt, Esq. 

Pitt held the appointment of Governor of Fort St. George 
from July 7, 1698, until September 18, 1709, or for the un- 
usual period of eleven years. " The political events, so to 
speak, of his long government " — Sir Henry Yule once re- 
marked — " were few, in fact the politics of Anglo-Indian 
history were only nascent in his time " ; and, had it not 
been for the romance of the diamond that Pitt bought and 
sold, and that is still associated with his name, his adminis- 
tration might not have attracted any notice after he left 


Madras. But that gem not only aided in making him 
an historic character, but the proceeds of it went far to 
enrich descendants of his who took a very prominent 
part both in shaping the, destinies of England, and in 
bringing about the fall of the Napoleonic Empire. 

Three volumes, containing in all 1,832 closely printed 
pages, were recently devoted by the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission to the production of manuscripts preserved at 
Dropmore by Mr. J. B. Fortescue ; and these volumes were 
duly " presented to both Houses of Parliament by Com- 
mand," and were placed at the disposal of the public. A 
third of the contents is occupied by letters of much 
ability and historical value that were written by the 
Marquis of Buckingham — a nephew of Hester Grenville (who 
married William Pitt, Earl of Chatham), and great grand- 
father of the Duke of Buckingham, former Governor of 
Madras— to his brother, Lord Grenville, who lived at Drop- 
more ; and less, yet considerable, space is occupied by 
letters that were written from Madras by Governor Thomas 
Pitt to his eldest son Robert, and to other persons regard- 
ing what he called his " grand concern," or his famous 
diamond. The letters form an important addition to the 
Pitt correspondence preserved in the British Museum, the 
India Office, London, and the Record Room, Fort St. 
George ; and they throw a good deal of light upon the 
gentleman whom Pope is believed to have had in mind 
when he wrote in his Moral Essays — 

Asleep and naked as an Indian lay 

An honest factor stole a gem away ; 

He pledged it to a Knight, the Knight had wit 

So robbed the robber, and was rich as P . 

According to Mr. Courthope, the last line in the Chauncy 
M.S., in the poet's handwriting, is as quoted above. But 
the more familiar line runs — 

So kept the diamond, and the rogue was bit. 

It has been said that Robert Pitt accompanied his father, 
the new Governor to Madras in 1798. Two months after 


their arrival Robert wrote to his mother in England (a 
daughter of James Innes, of Reid Hall, Morayshire) to say: 
— " We arrived here on July 6th. I am bound for China 
in a few months." To China he went ; and, on December 
10, 1700, he wrote to his mother from Canton : — " I am 
here, supercargo of a Dane ship freighted by the gentlemen 
of Madras, and if it please God, shall make no small ad- 
vantage of it. On my return to Madras I intend going 
home by the first ship that sails thence for England. As 
to the agreement between my father and me, the duty I 
owe him shall make me endeavour never to disoblige him." 
He reached Fort St. George, as he wrote to his mother, 
February 17, 1701, and " I continue," he said, " in my reso- 
lution of returning home. I find my father wavering in the 
matter, but unless his positive commands detain me, I design 
to leave for England next September." He had, however, 
to go back to Canton to complete some business. On 
December 20 he wrote to his mother : — " I am here super- 
cargo of the Hampshire freighted by the freemen of Madras, 
and, thanks to the assistance of my father, in. a post of the 
most trust, credit, and profit of any private person in 
India. I hope to arrive at Fort St. George ten days before 
the Bedford sails, on which I design sailing for England." 
So he once again reached Madras, but was detained there 
longer than he had anticipated, for his father had now 
acquired the famous diamond, and had resolved to send 
him home in charge of it. 

The Governor, on October 9, 1702, drew up " Memoran- 
dums to my son Robert Pitt on his going to England." 
In this document he related how he had made Sir 
Stephen Evance, Knight, of London, and Robert, his 
attorneys. He touched upon " complaints against your 
mother which tend to my prejudice in many respects," 
and warned Robert not to allow her in future " to meddle 
in any business of mine." " And whereas," he continued, 

I have intrusted under your care that which is of great value, 
which you must, by all meanes and diligence preserve lett what 
accident will befall you which God deliver you from ; and if you 


should have the misfortune, which God forbid, to be taken by 
an enemy, you must be sure to throw overboard every paper you 
have, and secure it in the best mannor you can, and be carefull 
afterwards that you are not discovered. But, if it pleases God that 
you arrive safe in England, I strictly charge you not to stirr out of 
the ship till Sir Stephen Evance or Mr. Alvarez comes on board, 
and would have you write from the first port you can send a 
letter to Sir Stephen Evance, desiring him to meet the ship as 
soon as possible ; till when you will remain on board, for that 
you have business of importance to impart to him. You must 
also be very carefull of this concerne on board the ship at sea 
and in harbour. 

He also gave Robert instructions about his brothers 
William and Thomas, to " putt " them to the best schools 
in England " to learne Dutch, French, mathematics, mer- 
chants' accounts," and " all other accomplishments." Robert 
was also to " putt " his mother " in mind that she gives 
her daughters good education, and not to stick at any 
charge of it." He was also to look after the Governor's 
estates, plantations, and nurseries in England ; and to 
" take memorandums " of the conversation of " relations or 
acquaintances of mine," " for or against my interest, and to 
acquaint mee of the same." Robert then embarked. Six 
days later the Governor wrote to him to say that he had 
received no letter from him after he had " got aboard." He 
requested him not to let slip any opportunity of writing : — 
" My credit as well as interest depends very much on 
your prudent management of yourself. If any should be 
inquisitive (I mean Sir Stephen or Mr. Alvarez) what that 
diamond cost, you may tell them about 130,000 pagodas. 
If the thing be kept secret, and well managed, it must yield 
an immense sum of money." In conclusion he urged his son 
to " avoid all vices, and an inconvenient or disreputable 

In the following January the Governor, writing to Sir 
Stephen Evance, said that news had arrived of the outbreak 
of war in Europe, and he expressed the pious hope that : — 
" God grant this concern may escape the danger thereof." 
Peace would in due course follow war, and then the King of 
France or Spain would be the " fairest chapman for it, being 


the greatest Jewell in the world ; though I could wish it were 
purchased for the Crown of England, provided they will 
come up to the value of it " : — 

I doubt not you will take care that it be lodged in a secure 
place, and if the times will not admit of your selling it for its full 
value, I hope you will be very cautious of letting it go out of 
your own possession. . . . You may bee sure I thinke dayly of 
this matter, and upon often meditating thereon, I am of opinion 
it bee kept intire, and if you thinke fitt to cutt it, I believe it 
will come out a cleane stone of about three hundred caratts, which, 
I hope, may bee worth, att least, fifteene hundred pounds per 
caratt. It must be sold directly to some great prince, and not to 
a club of people that shall make more advantage of it than myselfe, 
who have run the greatest of risques to purchase it. The foregoing 
is my opinion, but noe order to you, being well satisfyed of your 
worth, and assured you will doe for mee as for yourselves. 

On April 29, 1703, the Governor, writing to his son, expressed 
the hope that by that date he had arrived in England " to 
look after all my affairs, more particularly the grand concern 
you carried with you. Pray fail not to write to me by all 
sea and land conveyances." He wrote to the like effect 
on November 8, and trusted that he had made the required 
delivery of " that which, if it answers my expectations, has 
not its fellow. I could wish, though I abated something 
of its true value, that the Crown would buy it, for the 
like will never be had again in these parts." 

Soon after his arrival in England Robert Pitt fell in love 
with a grand-daughter of Lord Grandison, and married her. 
Mr. Thomas Styleman, writing from London, on November 18, 
to the Governor, assured him that the bride was a " very 
virtuous young lady with a good fortune." It was not, 
however, until December 30, or after the honeymoon, that 
Robert wrote to his father as follows : — 

You always advised me against a disreputable marriage, which 
I have avoided by marrying a lady of family and character, with 
the approval of my mother, and of uncle Curgenven. Her fortune 
is but £2,000, and £1,000 more after the death of her father-in-law, 
Lieutenant-General Stewart. I hope I shall not be abandoned by 
you at a time when I have no other support but yourself since 
my alliance with the greatest families in England is as much to 


your credit, as my wife will be a comfort to you when you know 
her. My present happiness is altogether due to you, as it was 
the universal report of your good and generous character that 
induced Lad}' Grandison to give me her daughter. Her age is 21, 
her portrait and letter, herewith, speak for themselves ; and I hope 
to obtain some genteel employment by the intercession of her 

In the same letter Robert gave his father " tidings of the 
safety of your great concern," and said he hoped that 
" something will be done in your great affair by next spring." 
With that object in view he was having a " crystal model 
made of it in its true polite style." And he observed : — 

The King of Prussia, if able, is the likeliest chapman at present ; 
though, were peace made, the King of France would certainly be the 
man. Mr. Cope has the cutting of it. Our present design is a single 
stone, and we hope to make it a brilliant. It proves the first water, 
but will be diminished almost one-half in cutting. We have so 
managed it that what is cut off is in great pieces, and will sell for a 
good sum of money. Mr. Cope says that when finished it will weigh 
about 280 carats, and will be the wonder of the world. We found 
means to enter it safely through the customs, and go on briskly per- 
fecting it for sale. When you write, it were better, for fear of the 
miscarriage of a letter, to say little about it, and what you do say, to 
have a key to ; by which means none but ourselves will understand 
it. On coming near England I thought it not safe to keep it as 
you delivered it to me ; and, for better security, let Captain 
Boulton into the secret. We secured it, I think, so effectually 
that, had we been taken, we had preserved it. I presented him 
with a large silver punch-bowl to the value of thirty odd pounds, 
on your account, which, for his fidelity ever since in the matter, 
he deserved. 

On September 12 following, the Governor, writing to Sir 
Stephen Evance, said " it was welcome news to hear of the 
safe arrival of that concern of mine " ; it was " fortunate 
that it proves so good " ; and he advised that "it be made 
one brilliant, which I would not have sold unless it be for a 
trifle less than £1,500 a carat, though, by all computations 
I can make, it is worth much more. It is my whole de- 
pendence, and, therefore, must be sold to the best advan- 
tage." But, writing on the same day to his son, he said he 
"little expected you would have paid so little attention to 


the memorandums I gave you at parting." As regarded 
his marriage, the Governor thought that his son had justly- 
brought himself " under the character of a giddy, incon- 
siderate young fellow." He chiefly disliked the " sudden- 
ness " of the marriage, and he much wondered " you desire 
a present enlargement of your fortune, which, with your 
wife's, cannot be much less than £10,000 ; a very good 
fortune for a young man qualified for business. I hope the 
great interest you value yourself on will procure you some 
considerable employ." Robert had made some allusions 
to his mother, and the Governor remarked that if what he 
wrote was true " she is mad," and he wished " she was well 
secured in Bedlam." At the same time " I charge you let 
nothing she says or does make you undutiful in any respect 
whatever." With regard to the sale of the diamond the 
Governor said : — " The Duke of Florence is more likely to 
be a chapman than the King of Prussia, but the Kings of 
France and Spain are better than either. I order you never 
to part with it under £1,500 a carat." 

Before this harsh letter from his father reached him Robert 
wrote, on December 18, 1704, to say that " the cutting of 
your great concern licks off a world of money, and I hope 
that by the next ships you will have made us some re- 
mittances, or it will be very bare with us." He trusted, 
however, that the proceeds of the pieces that were being 
cut off the stone would greatly help to defray the charge 
for cutting. " We have lately sold three for £2,000, and 
anticipate that those still to come off will fetch as good a 
sum. The sawing them off is a vast charge ; but otherwise 
they must have been cut into powder, so that what they 
produce above the charge is clear gain." In the same letter 
Robert reiterated the expression of the hope that the 
Governor had approved of his marriage. " My dependence 
on your love and generosity has made me endeavour to put 
myself on a footing in the world becoming your son ; but 
without your support I must soon sink under the pressure 
of my own narrow fortune." This letter was crossed by 
one from the Governor, dated February 7, 1705, in which 


he said : — " I have sent nothing to your wife but a letter, 
because I intend to follow speedily." He then reminded 
" both of you " that " good management is as necessary to 
preserve an estate as to raise one " ; and he enjoined his son 
to stick close to his studies so as to make himself master 
of common and civil law, and to " preserve " what he knew 
of "mercantile and maritime affairs." A fortnight later he 
repeated his former direction : — " Never part with that 
concern of mine under £1,500 a carat." On October 12 
the Governor wrote thus to Robert : — 

The disappointment in that grand concerne has not a little dis- 
quieted mee, and you nor Sir Stephen, nor any one of you never as 
much as hinted what, in all probability, it would fetch, which, you 
know, could not but have been some satisfaction to mee ; and surely 
you must have had some discourse about it, and their opinion of 
it, which it seems must be kept a secret from mee. I charge you 
that you never permit the selling of it under ^1,500 a carat, and 
that all my business bee managed with the greatest secresye, and 
quiett immagenable, and without ostentation. But I thinke it is 
too late to forbid that, since you have sett up to live at the rate 
I heare you doe, which has not created mee a little envye, and 
makes mee often remember Osborne, that children are certaine 
troubles but uncertaine comforts. 

The Governor wrote on the same day to Mr. Cope, who was 
engaged upon the cutting of the diamond, and complained 
that whereas he had been led to expect that " it would make 
a clean stone, a brilliant of 280 carats, and the pieces 
sawed off worth a great sum," Mr. Cope now reported that 
it would be but 140 carats, and the " pieces worth little 
that are sawed off." Certainly, he added, Mr. Cope's judg- 
ment " cannot fairly vary so much, there being a window 
in the crown of the stone when it went hence, and the body 
very clear, when the skilful here could discover only two 
small flaws at one end." 

The reduction in the weight was " hard to bear " after 
the stone " cost me a prodigious sum, and that I have run so 
many eminent hazards for me to meet with such usage." 

I flattered myself I was in good hands when in Mr. Cope's, but I 
am sure now I have better reason to alter my opinion than Mr. Cope 


can have to alter his from 280 to 140. None can believe but that 
it was my interest to have preserved the magnitude of the stone, 
although there had been a flaw or two in it, and, as you told my 
son, 280 would make it the wonder of the world. I am sure it 
will be so, your paring it to 140. I will be speedily with you and 
discourse more fully about this matter." 

Some time later the Governor, writing to Robert, said : — " Mr. 
Cope denies his ever telling you that my great concern would 
make a clean stone of 280 carats, and I am fully satisfied 
with his account of it." But Robert adhered to his original 

Although in the end his diamond realized a large sum, 

its possession embittered Governor Pitt's existence during 

the greater part of his service in Madras, as well as for 

some time after his return home, or while he was still in 

search of a " chapman," or buyer for it. There was, in the 

first place, its despatch, in charge of his son, to England ; 

the possibility of its loss by shipwreck on the high seas ; and 

the chance of the vessel being captured by a hostile warship, 

or pirate, with the failure of his son to secrete it. But 

the voyage was satisfactorily accomplished, and the diamond 

was placed by Robert in safe hands. Then, however, there 

appeared to the anxious Governor to be no small want of 

activity on the part of its custodians in having the gem 

properly cut, in the most economical manner. Instead of 

devoting himself heart and soul to the promotion of the 

paternal interests, both in respect to the " grand concern," 

and to the satisfactory realisation of " parcels " of diamonds 

that the Governor periodically shipped from Madras, the 

son must needs fall a victim to Cupid, and busy himself in 

the leading of a fascinating lady to the hymeneal altar. 

And the agent, Sir Stephen Evance, seemed to the Governor 

to be sometimes lacking in business-like zeal, and at other 

times to be in too poor a. state of health to attend to the 

affairs entrusted to him. The Governor thus became a victim 

to morbid discontent, so that, judging from the querulous- 

ness of his correspondence with his more well-meaning than 

perhaps judicious son, he could not have been a pleasant 


chief for his colleagues in Council, or other officials in Fort 
St. George to work with. He certainly made unfriends, not 
to say enemies, of his associates, and they retaliated as 
opportunity offered, and eventually succeeded in so pre- 
judicing the minds of the members of the Court of Directors 
against him as to secure his recall. 

But year after year passed, and found Mr. Pitt still 
Governor, with his mind warped by chronic apprehension 
about the outcome of the great venture of his life. During 
that weary period he seems to have hardly ever left Fort 
St. George. The Fort had some compensations, but it 
could scarcely have been a festive place of residence for a 
Governor living a solitary life. Exile in those days well 
deserved the name, for it was not tempered to the shorn 
lamb by mails, Hills, Clubs, polo, golf, tennis, dances, 
newspapers, magazines, ice, and tobacco, but it had to be 
borne with no better distraction than squabbles in Council, 
an occasional duel, and the constant danger of war. Madras 
was then no place for wives or daughters, or for billing and 
cooing, and the mind of the European immigrant was en- 
grossed by the Company's, or yet more by private trade ; 
so consolation for local discomforts had to be found in 
the hope of a good time coming, when the competency, or 
fortune, made in the East would render life enjoyable in 
the West. Robert knew Madras by personal experience, 
and was well acquainted with his father's manner of life 
there, so he could, and he loyally did, make generous 
allowance for the spleen that habitually characterized the 
paternal correspondence. But he had a good deal to put 
up with, and he may sometimes have wished that the " grand 
concern " had never been discovered. 

On January 3, 1706, Robert wrote to the Governor, and 
having deprecated his displeasure, and repelled some personal 
allegations, proceeded to try to cheer him up with the news 
that the cutting of the stone was almost finished : — 

It is a most glorious sight, but the outer coat was so foul, and the 
flaws went so deep in it, that it will not come net above 140 carats, 
which still, being not to be paralleled, is as inestimable as if it were 


much more. The reason why the pieces [sawn off], although well- 
spread, yielded no more was that they were very full of flaws ; 
Mr. Alvarez and Mr. Cope both think they have been sold for their 
full value. When finished the stone will be locked up pending your 
arrival or further order. 

The letter was crossed on the high seas by one that the 
Governor wrote on January 16, in which he told Robert 
that the account which the latter had given in the pre- 
vious year " of my grand concern still sticks with me, 
and nothing but a good market, and better management for 
the future can ever make me forget it." He added : — 
" Secresy, of which I fear there has been great want, though 
often and strenuously precautioned, may contribute to 
making the stone more valuable." The Governor declared 
that he had resolved to leave Madras for England in the 
following September, unless that should entail his resigning 
" the government of this place into the hands of Fraser, 
and such as are here." In a postscript he mentioned 
having " met with some diamonds," that cost 2,370 pagodas, 
and having consigned them to Robert ; and he called Robert's 
attention to the circumstance that he had " made windows 
in the large stone, fearing it was yellow. If the water be good, 
make a brilliant of it, which will be worth £2,500 or £3,000 ; 
if it be yellow, make two roses of it. Sell them to the best 
advantage, and invest the money in some Parliamentary 
fund." Then, a fortnight later, the Governor wrote : — 

I have met with a stone of 18 mangelleens. which cost me 2,100 
pagodas. It is of the first water, without flaw or foul, so I hope 
you will sell it for at least £2,000. If cutting will advance the 
price, let it be done with the advice of Mr. Alvarez, and remember 
that you trust no acquaintance at Court with a penny of mine, 
under any pretence whatever. The stone which comes on the 
Somers, is the clearest that ever I saw in India. Pray see if you 
can manage this affair to my satisfaction, without noise or pub- 
lishing it to the world. It is a noble stone, such as I have known 
sold for £4,000. God send that it comes safe to your hands, 
and that you meet with a good market for it. 

A week later he again referred to the stone, and declared it 
to be " the most perfect as to water " which he had ever seen. 


He hoped that Robert would " immediately sell it with 
the advice of Mr. Alvarez, without you have a prospect of 
advantage by keeping it, for I had rather sell and repent, 
than keep and repent." 

September came round as usual, with its steamy air, dull 
skies, and those other characteristics that render it the 
dullest month of the year in Madras ; and it was on the 
22nd of that month, in 1706, that the Governor vented his 
spleen upon his family generally. Writing to Robert he 
demanded : — " What hellish planet is it that influences you 
all, and causes such unaccountable distraction, that it has 
published your shame to the world ; which has so affected 
me that I cannot resolve what to doe. I wish you nor 
none of your family be at the bottome of it." The Governor 
had heard from several friends at home of Robert's ex- 
travagances ; of the " vaine-glorious manner " in which 
he " went down to the election at Old Sarum " ; of his 
" profuse expenditure in gaining there a seat in Parlia- 
ment " ; of his having exhausted his own fortune, and his 
wife's too. He then threatened to disinherit all his children 
unless they mended their manners. " Have all of you," he 
asked, " shook hands with shame, that you regard not any of 
the tyes of Christianity, humanity, consanguinity, duty, good 
morality, or anything that makes you differ from beasts, 
but must run from one end of the kingdome to the other, 
aspersing one another, and aiming at the ruine and 
destruction of each other ? " But he concluded his tirade 
by expressing the hope to Robert that " what I consigned 
you last year came safe to your hands, and that you dis- 
posed of it, with Mr. Alvarez's opinion, much to my 
advantage, and if sold, that the money is put into some 
national fund ; for remember it is a consignment, and not 
to be embezzled." 

A fortnight later, the Governor once again wrote a fierce 
letter to Robert : — 

Not only your letters, but all I have from friends are stuffed 
with an account of the hellish confusion that is in my family, 
and by what I can collect from all my letters, the vileness of you - 
actions on all sides are not to be paralleled in history. Did ever 


mother, brother, and sisters study one another's ruine and destruc- 
tion more than my unfortunate and cursed family have done ? 
And I wish you have not had the greatest share in it, for I cannot 
believe you innocent. This has so distracted my thoughts, stag- 
gered my resolutions, broken my measures, that I know not what 
to resolve upon, nor in what part of the world to seeke for repose. 

He declared that he had " fateagued," and " lived soe many- 
years in exile from my country and friends " though " I had 
enough to subsist on, and that very handsomely too," only 
in order to " make my children easy in their circumstances, 
and mee happy in their company " ; but now " haveing, 
by God's blessing, acquired such a competency," as he 
" never expected or could hope for," he found " all blasted 
by an infamous wife and children." Was " this the way," 
he asked " to invite mee home ? As matters stood at the 
writing of your letters I think your company hell itselfe." 
Yet he wound up his very long letter by giving Robert 
directions about planting his estates with as many trees 
as they " will take " : — " You say my great concerne is the 
wonder of the world — soe is the confusion in my family. 
As for the former, I adhere to the price 'formerly ordered, 
and let it be locked up, and be you sure to keep one of the 
keys, and soe that neither will open it alone, and that it be 
never shown till I come home." 

About the same time the Governor wrote to Sir Stephen 
Evance, and complained of the extravagant charges made by 
Mr. Cope for cutting the " grand concern." 

I could wish the magnitude had been preserved, though there had 
been some speck or flaw. Since it proves so excellent, I hope this will 
make amends for the loss in weight, and that it shall never be disposed 
of till I meet with its value ; therefore lock it up, and never expose it 
to view. I am sorry it is so much discoursed of as you mention, and 
do most earnestly desire you all to suppress gossip about it. I will 
not part with it for less than ^1,500 a carat, which I look upon 
not to be above one-third of the real value. 

In the following January Robert wrote to his father, and 
expressed sympathy with him in the disappointment he had 
been caused " in the weight of your grand concern " : — 


It has been finished ever since March last, and locked up in an iron 
chest which stands in Sir Stephen's back shop ; he keeps the key 
of the padlock, and I keep two large keys which unlock the chest. 
I fear frequent advices have been given of it from Fort St. George ; 
but am sure that by me it was never divulged. I have been asked 
about it by a hundred people, and all the answer I ever made was 
that I wished it were true, or that they could make their words 
good. The spread of it is not at all diminished ; it is a perfect 
star to look at, and has no other significant defect than that of 
a chapman to buy it. 

In February the Governor sent Robert the invoice and bill 
of lading for a " bulse of diamonds," that " are very good, 
and every one will make a brilliant, and they are not dear 
considering the times, the like of which has not been known 
for many years, which we impute in a great measure to 
the villainy of Pluymer, who informed the merchants 
here how they sold in England." The Governor warned 
Robert to be sure to be present at the opening of all "bulses 
of diamonds " consigned to him, for some persons had " the 
knack of changing stones, which is one of the worst of 
villanies." He considered it probable that England might 
succeed in placing Charles III on the throne of Spain ; and 
this prompted the idea — 

I know nothing that is portable he can so make his acknowledge- 
ments to our Queen in as that concern of mine. The like is not to be 
seen in this world, and whatever prince buys it, it will be afterwards 
reckoned inestimable. The price I have set upon it is very moderate, 
and I will not recede from it ; and when wee have a peace, it is 
not unlikely but the French King may buy it out of his wonted vaine- 
glory, that the world may see that, after so expensive a warr, he is 
able to buy such a Jewell from all the Princes in Europe. I would 
have you consider with Mr. Dolben for the securest place to lodge 
that great concern, each of you keeping a key different from the 

Time passed, but still did Governor Pitt remain in Madras, 
and invest in diamonds as opportunity offered. In February, 
1707, he consigned some " bulses of diamonds " to Sir Stephen 
Evance, Mr. Dobbin, and Robert, and said they included 
one stone, weighing 61 mangelleens, which he valued at 
£10,000. At the same time he made various suggestions 
in regard to the custody and sale of the " grand concern." 


No offer had yet been made for it, but the Governor was 
not induced by that circumstance to sanction a reduction in 
the price to be demanded for it. He wrote on September 
16, 1707 : — 

As to my grande affaire, I am firme as to the price I formerly 
fixed, unless it bee to a triffle in such a sum ; and as I hear that 
our nation is gratefully inclined, soe as to present Her Royall 
Majestye with the title of Empress, I am sure nothing can be 
soe great an ornament to soe glorious a title as the unparelleled 
jewel of the world ; soe hope you will manage it soe as to have 
it bought by the Crown, with whose conveniency if it stands not 
to pay ready money, I shall readyly agree to take a Parliamentary 
security upon a certain fund, with an usuall interest till the money 
be paid ; but if it be bought by any foreign Prince, I then desire 
you to, insist on ready money, or unquestionable security. 

He added in a postscript that should his friends be suc- 
cessful in disposing of " my grand affair," and " received 
part or the whole of the payment in ready money," he 
empowered them to lay that money out in purchases of 
land in Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, or Hampshire. Four months 
more passed, and then the Governor again remarked in a 
letter to Robert that he had heard it was " intended by 
Parliament to make our Queen " — Queen Anne — an Empress, 
and that it seemed to him that " a nobler present cannot 
accompany soe glorious a title " than " my grand concern," 
or " if wee carry our day in Spaine, which God grant, King 
Charles cannot meet with the like to perpetuate his grati- 
tude to the Queen, for that there is not the fellow of it in 
the world. God send me a good chapman for it." 

The Governor made a further consignment of a " bulse 
of diamonds " costing 6,180 pagodas, to his agents, in 
September, 1708, and took the opportunity of saying that 
the " safest place for the chest that contains my grand 
affair to stand in is the Bank of England," and he begged 
that care might be taken that " no tricks are played when 
there is a necessity to show it." On the following day, 
writing to Robert alone, the Governor said that he hoped 
his sons would not allow any persons to survive who might 
take part in the " villainy " of " blowing open or carrying 



away the chest." And " I wish in showing of it, which 
I would have you withstand without good reasons there be 
for it, and then see there be noe trick played to slide it 
away, and put a christian in the room, of the same magni- 
tude." Furthermore, in a postscript, the Governor charged 
his son 

that you never take the stone out upon any occasion, but that you 
yourselfe weigh it when you take it out and when you put it in ; 
and that it be never out of your eye as much as in shifting from 
one hand to another ; and if there should be any occasion to show 
it to the Queen, or any great man, you ought to have the charge 
of it ; and the others goe in company with you. But remember 
that you are not drawn to goe into any company or place whilst 
you have it about you, for fear of the worst ; but, I still say, the 
less it is shown the better. 

Robert was also to be on his guard against " hucksters and 
sharpers that buy up diamonds." Repeatedly during the 
years 1707, 1708 and 1709 the Governor wrote about the 
safe custody of the diamond ; and eventually the stone was 
removed from the shop of Sir Stephen Evance, in Lombard 
Street, London, to the keeping of Mr. George Pitt, M.P., of 
Strathfieldsaye, the Governor's kinsman. 

At last, on September 17, 1709, the Heathcote arrived at 
Madras from England, bringing a despatch from the Court 
of Directors, advising the " dismission " of Governor Pitt 
"from their service," and "constituting" Mr. Gulstone 
Addison — brother of Joseph Addison, the essayist — " in his 
room." Pitt wrote to his son on the 21st, and said that 
he had surrendered the Government to Mr. Addison, and 
would at the same time have delivered the cash and all 
accounts, but " he was soe indispos'd that he could not 
receive 'em " ; and when, two days later, Mr. Addison did 
appear at the Consultation Room, and went through the 
formality, he " laboured under most severe pains, which 
almost rendered his limbs useless to him." In Mr. Pitt's 
opinion the Directors " have made a very good choice in 
him for Governor, but God deliver us from such a Scan- 
dalous Councill unless it be two or three that are in it, and 


as for that fellow Fraser, they had done the adventurer 
justice if they had sent him to the galley, but I suppose 
he is kept on to serve the turn of some of the Managers 
as infamous as himselfe." But Mr. Addison died at Madras 
on October 17, the day on which Mr. Pitt had arranged to 
embark; and in order to attend the funeral Mr. Pitt de- 
ferred his departure until the 21st. He then left fearing 
that the government of the Coast would devolve, as it 
did, " upon that wicked and vilest of wretches, Fraser, 
whose infamous principles and ignorance will ruine it for 

Although Mr. Addison held the supreme office in Madras 
for only twenty-nine days, the time sufficed for the pre- 
sentation to him, in Council, of a memorial, in which two 
of his colleagues, Mr. William Fraser, and Mr. Thomas 
Frederick, together with Mr. Surapa, a native merchant, 
alleged that Governor Pitt had unfairly obtained his great 
diamond. This memorial has not been brought to light. 
It may have been destroyed by Governor Addison out of 
respect for the reputation of his predecessor, with the con- 
sent of the signatories; and were it not that it was made 
by Governor Pitt the chief reason for the " Declaration " 
on the subject which he, as will be shown, in disregard of 
the adage Qui s' excuse s' accuse I drew up at Bergen, 
nothing perhaps would have been known about it. When 
Mr. Fraser succeeded to the Governorship he was afforded 
the opportunity of gratifying any spite he may have 
cherished against Governor Pitt by instituting, avowedly 
on high moral grounds, an investigation into the circum- 
stances under which Governor Pitt came into possession of 
the gem. But, so far as is known, he refrained from taking 
this advantage of an absent man. His first act was to in- 
vite his colleagues to let bygones be bygones. The record 
says : — 

The Council being duly summoned met in consultation, and 
having taken their places, the President, rising from his chair, 
exhorted the gentlemen of the Council to forget and forgive 
whatever hitherto had given cause and occasion to the difference 


that had formerly happened amongst them, and that all such 
piques might for ever be buried in oblivion^ and that they might 
henceforward agree amongst themselves in the Unity of Love and 
firm Friendship, with all reciprocal respect to each other, in 
testimony of which they were desired to shake hands all of 
them, which was accordingly done with all promises of sincerity 
to the performance of the promises. 

But Mr. Fraser proved so inefficient as Governor that the 
Court of Directors removed him from the appointment 
eighteen months after he succeeded to it ; and as his name 
does not appear again in the records, it is probable that 
he returned home immediately after he was relieved by 
Mr. Harrison. 

Mr. Thomas Frederick, the second in the trio of " most 
unparalleled villains " as described by Mr. Pitt in the De- 
claration, was one of Governor Pitt's colleagues in Council 
during the latter part of his administration. He married a 
daughter-in-law of Lieutenant Francis Seaton, Commandant 
of Fort St. George, and a Mr. Anthony Ettrick married 
a daughter of that Officer. When the latter marriage took 
place Governor Pitt wrote to the bridegroom's father, Mr. 
Edward Ettrick, in London, who was a kinsman of his, 
and said that the bride had a dowry of " about a thousand 
pounds," but " what is most valuable is that she is a ver- 
tuous, modest, good humour'd comely young woman, and 
I don't doubt will make him a good Wife, since he was 
resolv'd to marry in these parts, for she justly deserves the 
character I give her." So, " to contribute to their happi- 
ness," he advised Mr. Ettrick to send his son " a couple 
of thousand pounds, or what you can conveniently give 
him to enable him to trade." Yet, in the following year, 
after he had, as he wrote to Robert, " discovered an un- 
paralleled villainy of Seaton's, who has been tampering with 
the Moors to inform 'em that I bought great diamonds," 
and when called to account had given expression to " the 
strongest execrations and asseverations as the wickedest 
man could be guilty of," the Governor remarked sarcas- 
tically, " Frederick, Wright, a,nd Ettrick have marry'd into a 


blessed family." There had been trouble in Madras over the 
old question of right and left hand caste, and this " poor 
mischievous wretch," Frederick, had, like Fraser, formed 
opinions contrary to those of the Governor, so " I imme- 
diately sent for " this " choice servant of yours," and 
" lock'd the door of the Consultation Room, and laid the 
key upon the table, and very freely told him how I would 
use mutineers, and begin with him, then showed him the 
list, when he let fall a few penitent tears, and promised 
amendment." Mr. Frederick eventually left Madras, and, 
after his return home, he received the honour of Knight- 
hood from King George the First. 

It remains to say something about Lieutenant Seaton, for 
although his name is not mentioned in the Declaration, 
which was executed after he had ceased to be officially con- 
nected with, and had left Madras, there is reason to believe 
that he had much to do with the dissemination of the 
scandal about the diamond. He arrived in India in the 
year 1686, for it was mentioned in a General Letter that 
was written by Governor Higginson and Council to the 
Court of Directors, in August, 1695, that " he has served 
your Honours nine years in Bengal and this garrison, and is 
a very able and useful officer." Shortly after Governor Pitt 
succeeded Governor Harrison, a complaint was made to 
the Council by Lieutenant Sinclair, that he had been called 
a coward, and assaulted by Lieutenant Seaton. The latter 
Officer was thereupon examined by the Council, and admit- 
ted that there " did pass some foolish language between 
them," but he disowned having struck Sinclair. For all that 
he was " dismissed the service," though he was subsequently 
reinstated on petition. According to Mr. Talboys Wheeler 
"a similar punishment . and reinstatement had befallen this 
officer on previous occasions. He appears to have been a brave 
man, and a good Commandant, but to have been somewhat 
addicted to drunkenness and eccentricity." On February 
27, 1707, the Governor brought before the Council " the 
insolent conduct of Captain Seaton, who on Sunday last 
marched part of his company (and had all had not the 


Governor commanded them off) over the company's calicoes 
that lay a dyeing, notwithstanding there was much more 
than room enough to have marched the men clear of them 
as usual ; and afterwards, when the Governor sent for him 
to demand his reason for doing so base an action, he had 
the impudence to tell him he did not understand it." The 
Governor was of opinion that such a man was not fit to serve 
the Company any longer ; but the Council took a more lenient 
view, and agreed that he " stand suspended, and that the 
consideration of breaking him be referred to another time." 
So Seaton was suspended, after twenty years' service. But 
he made a strong appeal to the Court of Directors, and 
eventually was reinstated in his command. 

Two more years passed, and then the Governor represented 
to the Council that he had " lately heard of some villainous 
and scandalous reflections that had been made upon him by 
Lieutenant Seaton, who he yesterday sent for from the 
Mount, and examined thereon " ; and who " with his usual 
impudence averred to him the most notorious falsities that 
ever could be thought or imagined." The Governor laid 
before his colleagues the following memorandum as to what 
had passed between himself and the Lieutenant in the Con- 
sultation Room on the preceding day : — 

This evening being the 2nd of August, about five o'clock, I dis- 
coursed with Captain Seaton in the Consultation Room, when I charged 
him with his having said that I had 500 pagodas given me to make 
Paupia Chief Dubash ; which he owned, and he told me that I was 
betrayed in whatever I did, or spoke by all my servants about me, 
and that I had not a friend in the place, whatever I thought. Then 
I asked how he durst presume to talk up and down of what I bought 
or sold, and how it was possible for him to know anything of it ; to 
which he answered that he had so good intelligence that there was not 
the least thing said or done by me but that he knew ; and to convince 
me desired leave to ask me some questions, which I permitted him to do, 
and were as follows : — " Whether Mr. Roberts did not write to me, 
requesting that he might be concerned in a great diamond I had 
bought ? " Answered : " False." " Whether a person did not come 
and wish me joy of its being sold for 500,000 dollars ? " " False." 
" Whether two persons did not come from the Dekkan to demand a 
great diamond, and that I gave one of them at coming 1 1 rupees, and 
the other at going away 150 ? " "All false, only that one man came." 


Upon which I told him that I found him a villain ; and as I 
found him endeavouring to betray me doubtless he would do 
the same to the Government, so ordered the Captain of the Guard 
to confine him to the Ensign's Room, none to come to him but 
the Council. 

The Council sent for Seaton, but before the inquiry com- 
menced, he exclaimed : — " I am come here to accuse the 
Governor for buying a great diamond to the Company's pre- 
judice." He said he was fully acquainted with the particulars 
of the transaction, and that as there would be a change of 
Government in the following month he did not care a farthing 
what Governor Pitt said to, or of him. He also brought 
other accusations against the Governor, which the latter 
indignantly denied. Seaton was remanded, but in the 
following week he was again brought before the Council — then 
formed of Thomas Pitt (Governor and President), William 
Martin, Robert Raworth, Thomas Frederick, Gulstone 
Addison, Richard Hunt and Henry Davenport — and, accord- 
ing to the record of the " Consultation " which, judging from 
the phraseology, was probably drafted by the Governor : — 

The Governor told him it was high time to read to him what 
he said to him on the 2nd instant in this Consultation room, and 
what he said the next day there, before the Governour and Councill, 
and demanded of him to prove the same, instead thereof he impu- 
dently denyed all he had said in private to the Governour and Councill, 
with strange imprecations and asseverations of God's Vengeance upon 
him if ever he had said it, this from any other man in the world would 
have amazed us all, but by the many years experience of him, we 
are entirely satisfyed that he is a person capable of perpetrating any 
villainy that can be named. 

The Governor then produced two letters that " charged " 
the prisoner " with a great deal more " : — 

So we demanded him whether he had anything more to say, to 
which he answered that he had not, and as he withdrew denyed again 
all he was charged with . . . there is no ill action can be named but 
what we believe he has been Guilty of, as well as what now charged 
with, and that he has been many years the Plague, Pest, and Disturber 
of the Peace of the Place, and now to compleat his Villainy, aims at 
nothing else than the betraying the Governour and trade of the place. 


Accordingly, it was " unanimously agreed that he be con- 
fined till the first ship goes for England, and in her to be sent 
home a prisoner to the Company." A few days later, after 
the Heathcote had arrived, it was determined by the Council 
that Seaton should be sent home under arrest in her, in which 
case he would have been a fellow-passenger of Governor Pitt. 
But Seaton first resisted removal from his house, and then, 
being taken therefrom by a " file of soldiers," and conveyed 
in a masoolah boat to the ship's side, he refused to go on 
board, or to be hoisted up. The Captain of the ship was 
requested by Ensign Dixon, who was in charge of the 
" prisoner," to render assistance ; but he declared that " all 
his passengers came on board willingly, and he would not 
hoist him in, nor suffer anybody else to do it, nor would he 
overhale the least tackle in his ship, and that he would not 
suffer any gentleman lying alongside of his ship to be forced 
on board, or ill used." The Ensign requested the Captain to 
give him a note to this effect, but the Captain replied that 
he " would give none," and that the Ensign " might go." 
The boat then returned to the Fort, by the Sea Gate, and 
Seaton landed, and was allowed by the Government to make 
his own arrangements about leaving the Presidency forth- 

But I must return to Governor Pitt, who was homeward 
bound on the Heathcote. It may have been mortifying to 
him as he pursued his voyage to reflect that the " grand 
concern " was still on his hands ; but he derived consolation 
from the belief that he had left Madras in a flourishing 
condition. He told his son : — 

I delivered it up in the most flourishing state that ever any place 
of the world was in, vastly rich notwithstanding our great losses, and 
famous throughout all those parts of the world for our honourable 
and just dealings ; free from all manner of tyranny, extortion, oppres- 
sion or corruption as to mee (I wish I could averr the same of others), 
which I suppressed as far as it was in my power, and prevented its 
being very burthensome to the commonalty ; which occasioned the 
clamours of those few who are the scum and scorne of the place, yet 
supported by their correspondents in England, who study to promote 
their private interest at the hazard of sacrificing that of all. the 


adventurers. This is demonstrable by their last yeare's generall 
letter, of which I had the perusall, when I admired as much at the 
weakeness of their management as I did at their mallice and false 
suggestions of mee. I shall give but few instances here of the 
flourishing condition of Maderass. In May or June last there was 
at one time 50 sayle of ships in the roade, besides small craft at 
least 200 ; the revenues of last yeare amounting between 70 and 
800,000 ! pagodas, of which above 10,000 arises out of the Mint. 
The place, when I left it, was not onely admired, but in favour of 
all the Kings and Princes in those parts ; a regular and peaceable 
government within ourselves, and continued friendship of all 
about us. 

This complacent sketch of the city of Madras nearly 
two centuries ago is not in harmony with a description 
of the burial-ground of St. Mary's Church, Fort St. George, 
that is contained in a petition which was addressed, four 
months after Governor Pitt's departure, to Governor Fraser 
and his colleagues in Council, by the Rev. George Lewes 
and the Rev. Robert Jones, the Ministers, and Mr. Edward 
Barkham and Mr. Francis Cooks, the churchwardens. It 
was humbly represented in that document : — 

That whereas the monuments of the dead, and the ground where 
they are interred, are held by most people in some measure sacred, 
and not lightly applied to any common or profane use, yet it is our 
misfortune that the English burying-place in Fort St. George (where 
so many of our relations, friends, and acquaintants lie buried) is 
not kept in that decent and due manner it ought to be, but every 
day profaned and applied to the most vile and undecent uses, for 
since the year 1701, when an old building that stood in the burying- 
place (and in which the buffaloes used to be shut up) was taken 
down to build lodging for the soldiers at the Gate adjoining, the 
tombs have been made use of for stables for the buffaloes, which 
is not only a thing very undecent, but also a very great damage to 
those buildings, by having so many stakes drove into the pavement, 
and with the walls to fasten the buffaloes to. 

The petitioners also complained of the nuisance which was 
caused by the toddymen who had charge of the " cocoanut 
trees standing in the burying-place " ; of how toddy was sold 
on the spot ; of how the place consequently was the " resort 
of basket-makers, scavengers, people that look after the 
buffaloes and other Parriars " ; and of how " beggars and 


other vagabonds, who know not where to go make use of the 
tombs to lie in." Lastly : — 

We hope what is here urged, together with the reflection it must 
cast on our Church and Nation to have so little regard to the reposi- 
tories of our dead when all other nations who live among us have 
so just a regard to theirs, will prevail with your Honours, etc., 
to take this matter into your consideration, and to find out some 
method to redress these abuses. 

The Heathcote did not reach the Cape until January 15 
— a voyage of nearly three months from Madras. " To pre- 
vent a long delay," as Pitt wro.te to his son, he took his 
" passage thence to Europe on a Danes ship," bound not 
for London, but for Bergen, in Norway, which he reached on 
May 30. He lost no time after his arrival there in resuming 
his complaints about the " disorder in my family," and their 
want of " defference to my orders " regarding their allowances ; 
and he reiterated his threats about the punitive provisions he 
would make in his Will. " For some particular reasons, 
with which I shall acquaint you when wee meete, I desire 
you, upon receipt of this, to deliver to my kinsman, George 
Pitt, my large diamond cutt into a brillion by Mr. Cope, 
weighing about 136 carratts." At the same time he urged 
Robert to " negotiate all his affairs with as much secresye 
as possible, which you have never regarded to the prejudice 
of my affaires, especially in regard to my grand concerne." 
Much care was to be exercised in the delivery of the stone 
to " Cousin George Pitt " ; and Robert must be on his guard 
against " villaines' informations from abroad." In case of 
George Pitt's " mortality, it is to be delivered to you, who 
are to follow the directions I have wrote him ; and if you 
have a model of it by you, or can get one made imme- 
diately, send it to me to Copenhagen with my first letters ; 
gett Mr. Cope to cutt two or three in cristyall." 

Pitt employed his leisure at Bergen in drawing up a not- 
able "Declaration," which he enclosed in an envelope on 
which he wrote : — " In case of the Death of me, Tho : Pitt, 
I direct that this Paper, seal'd as it is, be deliver' d to my 
son, Robert Pitt." ; The contents of the packet were not 


made public until 1743, seventeen years after the death 
of the Governor, and sixteen years after that of his son, 
when the Declaration was published in the Daily Post of 
London, with the following explanation : — 

The Publick will no doubt expect some Reasons for inserting 
at this Time of Day anything on so old an affair as the Manner in 
which the late Governor Pitt purchas'd the large Diamond which he 
sold to the French King. All we can say is, that we have done it 
by Desire, and hope the following Piece will give satisfaction to all 
those who may still suspect that that Gentleman did not come 
fairly by the stone. 

The Declaration was subsequently republished in the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, 1776 ; the European Magazine, 1793 ; and 
elsewhere. It is as follows : — 

Since my coming into this melancholy place of Bergen, I have been 
often thinking of the most unparalleled villainy of William Fraser, 
Thomas Frederick, and Surapa, a black merchant, who brought a 
paper before Governor Addison in Council, insinuating that I had 
unfairly got possession of a large Diamond, which tended so much 
to the prejudice of my reputation, and the ruin of my estate, that I 
thought it necessary to keep by me the true relation how I purchased 
it in all respects, that so, in case of sudden mortality, my children 
and friends may be apprised of the whole matter, and so enabled thereby 
to put to silence, and confound those, and all other villains in their 
base attempts against either. Not having got my books by me at 
present, I cannot be positive as to the time, but for the manner of 
purchasing it I do here declare and assert, under my hand, in the 
presence of God Almighty, as I hope for salvation through the merits 
and intercession of our Saviour, Jesus Christ, that this is the truth, 
and if it be not, let God deny it to me to my children for ever, which 
I would be so far from saying, much less leave it under my hand, 
that I would not be guilty of the least untruth in the relation of it for 
the riches and honour of the whole world. 

About two or three years after my arrival at Madras, which was 
in July, 1698, I heard there were large diamonds in the country to be 
sold, which I encouraged to be brought down, promising to be their 
chapman, if they would be reasonable therein ; upon which Jamchund, 
one the most eminent diamond merchants in those parts, came down 
about December, 1701, and brought with him a large rough stone, 
about 305 mangelins, and some small ones, which myself and others 
bought ; but he asking a very extravagant price for the great one, I 
did not think of meddling with it when he left me for some days, and 
then came and took it away again ; and did so several times, not 


insisting upon less than 200,000 pagodas ; and, as I best remember, 
I did not bid him above 30,000, and had little thoughts of buying it 
for that. I considered there were many and great risques to be run 
not only in cutting it, but also whether it would prove pale or clear, 
or the water good ; besides I thought it too great an amount to be 
adventured home in one bottom. But Jamchund resolved to return 
speedily to his own country so that as I best remember it was in Febru- 
ruary following he came to me (with Vincatee Chittee, who was always 
with him), when I discoursed with him about it, and pressed me to 
know, whether I resolved to buy it, when he came down to 100,000 
pagodas and something under before we parted, when we agreed upon 
a day to meet, and make a final end thereof one way or other, which 
I believe was the latter end of the foresaid month, or the beginning 
of March, when we accordingly met in the Consultation Room where, 
after a great deal of talk, I brought him down to 55,000 pagodas, and 
advanced to 4 5,000, resolving to give no more, and he likewise resolving 
not to abate, I delivered him up the stone, and we took a friendly 
leave of one another. Mr. Benyon was then writing in my closet, with 
whom I discoursed on what had passed, and told him how I was clear 
of it, when about an hour after, my servant brought me word that 
Jamchund and Vincatee Chittee were at the door, who being called 
in, they used a great many expressions in praise of the stone, and told 
me he had rather I should buy it than anybody, and to give an instance 
thereof, offered it for 50,000 ; so believing it must be a pennyworth, 
if it proved good, I offered to part the 5,000 pagodas that was then 
between us, which he would not hearken to, and was going out of 
the room again, when he turned back and told me that I should have 
it for 49,000, but I still adhered to what I had before offered him, when 
presently he came to 48,000, and made a solemn vow he would not part 
with it a pagoda under, when I went again into the closet to Mr. 
Benyon, and told him what had passed, saying that if it was worth 
47,500 it was worth 48,000, sol closed with him for that sum, when he 
deliver'd me the stone, for which I paid very honourably, as by my 
books appear. 

And hereby I further call God to witness, that I never used the least 
threatening word at any of our meetings to induce him to sell it to me ; 
and God Himself knows it was never so much as in my thoughts to 
do so, since which I have had frequent and considerable dealings with 
this man, and trusted him with several sums of money, and balanced 
several accounts with him, and left upwards of 2,000 pagodas in his 
hands at my coming away. So had I used the least indirect means 
to have got it from him, would not he have made himself satisfaction 
when he has had money so often in his hands ? Or would I have 
trusted him afterwards, as I did, preferable to all other diamond mer- 
chants ? As this is the truth, so I hope for God's blessing upon this 
and all my other affairs in this world, and eternal happiness hereafter. 

Written and signed by me in Bergen, July 29th, 17 10. 

Thomas Pitt. 


Pitt arrived in England in the autumn ox 1710, alter an 
absence of thirteen years, during which he had largely 
increased his fortune. Soon after he reached London he 
attended, by request, a meeting of the Court of Directors, 
and was informed that a letter had been received from 
the President and Council of Fort St. George, forwarding 
a translation of a letter from " Duan Saudatulla Cawn," 
" intimating something of a great Dyamond but soe 
intricate and obscure we cant perfectly tell his meaning," 
yet demanding that the diamond " should be sent to 
the Mogull." The Governor then " discoursed with the 
Court thereupon " ; and the matter was eventually referred 
to the Committee of Correspondence, who informed the 
Madras authorities that perhaps some of them did not 
know what to make of the Dewan's demand, " but we 
apprehend that those who have supported Captain Seaton 
are let further into the secrett." There the subject of the 
diamond seems to have rested so far ,as the Company was 

On October 2, 1714, the Govern6r wrote to his son 
Robert to say :— " I was this day above an hour with 
the King and Prince ; certainly their aspect promises 
prosperity to England. I showed them the great diamond, 
which they admired, and seeme desireous of it, but, I 
believe, hope the nation will give it." King George 
the First — to whom the reference is made — lacked, 
however, the necessary funds for the purchase of the 
stone. Pitt was now again in Parliament ; he had been 
honoured with the offer of, he had accepted, but had, on 
second thoughts, declined the Governorship of Jamaica ; 
he had bought large estates, and by improvements had 
greatly increased their value ; he had become connected 
with several noble families ; and he could still afford to 
hold the diamond. Yet he was not happy. He told 
Robert : — " I am overwhelmed with trouble, care, and 
confusion, and wish I was gone, hopeing then to have a 
little requiem, for here I can not." In succeeding letters 
he harped again upon the well-thumbed string [about the 


confusion in, and the extravagance of his family. On 
one occasion he said : — " I have bin at great expences at 
home, the great diamond unsold, soe in my sixty-fourth 
years of my age, I am travelling to retrieve this, and 
seeke my quiett and endeavoure to forgett it if I can. 
God's will bee done." 

Shortly afterwards, however, he was afforded the satis- 
faction of selling the diamond — after having held it for 
fifteen years — to the Due d' Orleans, the Regent of France. 
But this stroke of good fortune did not make him more 
amiable. Writing to Robert, on June 29, 1717, he said : 
— "I cannot help impertinent fools medleing with my 
busyness that they had nothing to do with. The stone 
was sold for 2,000,000 livres, sixteen to one pound 
sterling (125,000/.). I received the third of the money, 
and the remainder is in four payments, every six months, 
with 5 per cent, interest ; for security of which I have 
Crown jewels, four parcels, one to be delivered at each 
payment." He had sold the stone for a princely price, 
but he strongly objected notwithstanding to what he 
described as the " hellish and unjust demand " for 5 per 
cent, commission on the transaction that was made in the 
Court of Chancery by Sir Caesar Child and Co., on behalf 
of the trustees of Sir Stephen Evance, many years his agent. 
How the claim was settled does not appear in the manu- 
scripts just published. 

It was related in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1776 that 
the Governor having " engaged to deliver " his diamond 
at Calais, determined to convey it thither in person, and 
on his way, dining at the Crown Inn at Canterbury, where 
his son, Lord Londonderry, was then quartered with his 
Regiment of Dragoons, he called up the landlord, Mr. 
Lacy, a " man of address," who had been Consul at 
Lisbon, and told him that when he travelled he always 
carried his own wine, not being able to meet with such on 
the road, and desired him to taste it, and give his opinion. 
Lacy did so, gave it due commendation, and expressed 
the wish that he could have treated his guest with as good. 


Upon this the Governor made him fill his glass a second 
time, and at length was so pleased with his frankness as to 
tell him he liked him much, and wished it was in his 
power to serve him. To this the landlord innocently 
replied that the Governor had a pebble in his possession 
which might do him the utmost service. On this the 
Governor, thinking the secret of his having it with him was 
betrayed, and known, flew into a violent rage, abusing 
poor Lacy in the grossest terms, so that he ran out of 
the room. He declared that he would be waylaid, mur- 
dered, etc. In vain did his son and other Officers endeavour 
to pacify him, telling him that if he himself did not make 
the discovery no one would know it. He insisted on 
having a guard mounted directly. Lord Londonderry then 
said that there was one already with the standard. But 
he demanded a guard to Dover ; and at length, as a 
compromise, he accepted the escort of the Officers and their 
servants, giving them a second dinner there. He took 
two of the Officers to Calais (one of them related th : s 
anecdote) ; and, " after getting rid of the incumbrance of 
the pebble, en gaiete de cceur, he franked his companions 
to Paris and back again." , 

Mr. William Meyrick, writing to the Gentletnan's Magazine 
in 1825, said : — 

The Diamond was sold to the King of France, and the Crown 
Jewels of France, the sealed packets numbered, were pledged for the 
payment of it. My great-grandfather, Mr. Cholmondeley. of Vale 
Royal, who was for forty-two years M.P. for the county Palatine of 
Chester, at stated periods took one of these packets to Dover, which 
he delivered to a messenger of the King, and received from him an 
instalment of the purchase money. This descended principally in 
the other branches of the Governor Pitt's family ; but the estates 
I possess in Dorsetshire, Devon and Wilts, were purchased with a 
part of this money, on the marriage of his second son. Colonel Thomas 
Pitt, afterwards Earl of Londonderry, with Lady Frances, daughter 
of Robert Ridgeway, Earl of Londonderry. The ancient house at 
Woodlands, in the parish of Mere, Wilts, is a part of this pro- 
perty Ridgeway. The last Earl of Londonderry, of the Pitt family, 
having broken his leg in shooting, died at Woodgate's Manor, a part 
also of this property, eleven miles from Blandford. 

Pitt was the owner of the estate of Mawarden Court, near 


Salisbury, in Wilts, before he accepted the Governorship. He 
subsequently acquired the estates of the Down, near Blandford, 
of Kynaston, Woodyates and Gussech, all in Dorsetshire ; of 
Boconnoc, Broadoak and Treskillard in Cornwall ; of Abbots 
Ann in Hampshire ; and of Swallowfield in Berks. He suc- 
cumbed at Swallowfield on April 28, 1726, after two days' 
illness, to what Robert described in a letter to a friend as, 
" distemper, a mixture of appoplexey and palsie." He was 
then seventy-three years of age. Like his father and other 
relatives who predeceased him, he was buried at St. Mary's 
Church, Blandford — an edifice which he had assisted to re- 
store, and to which he presented some Communion plate. He 
added to it a chapel as a burial-place for members of his 
family. Shortly after the interment a brass tablet bearing 
this inscription was placed in the chapel : — 

To the Glory of God. Thomas Pitt of this place, in the year of our 
Lord 1 7 1 1 , very much repaired and beautified this Church, dedicating 
his substance to his Maker in that place where he himself was dedi- 
cated to His service. In this pious action he is alone, his own example 
and copy ; this being a specimen of many of like nature. Thus by 
building God's house he has most wisely laid a sure foundation in his 
own-; and by honouring the name of the Almighty has transmitted 
himself to posterity by such actions as deserve not only this perishing 
register, but also to be had in everlasting remembrance. 

But, by the irony of fate, the brass was removed in 1861, 
when the building was restored, and was not replaced. Nor 
is there now any memorial in the Church of the Governor ; 
but, on the north side of the nave, there is a mural monu- 
ment which he erected in 171 1 in honour of his father. The 
inscription on this monument commences as follows : — 

Vir reverendus Johannes Pitt, hujus ecclesiae per annos viginti 
octo pastor fidelis, vita? integritate morum probitate, et doctrinae 
spectabilis. Duxit uxorum Saram. Johannis Jay generosi filiam, ex 
eaq : Dei dono, suscepit liberos novem, e quibus Johannes, Sara, 
Thomas, Georgius, et Dorothea ipsi susperstites. Obiit Aprilis, Anno 
Dom. 1672, aetatis sua? 62. 

The Governor then proceeded to allude to himself : — 

Hanc inscriptionem, postquam hanc sacram a?dem instauraverat, 
ornavit Thomas Pitt, armiger/defuncti filius natu secundus, qui post 


varias utriusq ; fortunae vices, et multos terra mariq : exantlatos 
labores, demum opibus et honoribus auctus et in hanc sedem natalem 
rednx erga Patrem coelestem et terristrem pietatis suoe duplex erexit 
monumentum Anno Domini 17 12. 

Mrs. Pitt survived her husband ten months ; his eldest 
son Robert thirteen months ; and his second son, created Earl 
of Londonderry, three years. They were buried in the family 
vault at Blandford. The Governor's third son, Colonel John 
Pitt, M.P., became Lieutenant-Governor of Bermuda; and his 
elder daughter, Lucy Pitt, married the first Earl Stanhope. 1 
His grandson, William Pitt, (younger son of Robert) became 
Prime Minister of England and Earl of Chatham ; and his 
numerous great-grandchildren included Thomas Pitt, created 
Baron Camelford ; John, second Earl of Chatham ; William 
Pitt, the younger, Prime Minister ; Charles, third Earl Stanhope, 
who married Lady Hester Pitt, eldest daughter of Lord Chat- 
ham ; and Christian, who married Thomas Saunders, Governor 
of Fort St. George from 1750 to 1755. He left a large fortune, 
and Robert, the eldest son, was the chief beneficiary under his 
Will. Thus the latter became possessed of the Governor's 
house in Pall Mall, London ; of ground rents in Dean Street, 
Soho ; of " all my messuages and hereditaments in or near 
Dean Street " ; " all my manors at Blandford St. Mary, 
and Kinston, or elsewhere in Co. Dorset, Abbots Aunt in 
Co. Southampton, Stratford in Co. Wilts, and other lands 
in the Counties of Devon and Cornwall lately bought, or 
to be bought from Lady Mohun, also Manor of Swallowfield 

1 I am indebted to the late (the sixth) Earl Stanhope, for the per- 
mission which enabled me to have the portrait of Governor Pitt, by 
Sir Godfrey Kneller — now among the art treasures at Chevening — 
photographed for reproduc ion in this volume. Lord Stanhope died 
while the book was in the press. I sent him a proof of the illustration 
a few days previously, and he wrote from the Carlton Club, and 
said : — " I thank you very much for the excellent engraving which 
you have so kindly sent me from the photograph of the picture of 
Governor Pitt. It is a very good reproduction, and I am very grateful 
to you for it." In a previous note he mentioned that "the painting 
shows the high heeled boot in which Governor Pitt carried for safety 
the famous Pitt Diamond." 


in Co. Berks " ; certain leaseholds at Old Sarum ; and 
" household goods at Swallowfield, Old Sarum, Blandford, 
Kainston, and Boconnock." In addition to numerous 
legacies, amounting to about £22,000, there were several 
annuities, including one of £200 " to my grandson, William 
Pitt " — the future Earl of Chatham — " from the age of 
twenty-one during his life." 

It thus came to pass that that famous grandson was 
reminded throughout his career of his notable grandfather. 
He married Lady Hester Grenville, daughter of Hester, 
Countess Temple and Mr. Richard Grenville, of Wotton, 
Buckinghamshire ; and it was not a little owing to her 
refined taste in architecture, decoration, and especially 
horticulture, that he found abiding charm in Hayes Place, 1 
the house that he built near Bromley, Kent. It was at 
Hayes that his second son — William Pitt the younger — 
was born ; and it was at Hayes that he himself died. Lady 
Chatham's great-grand-nephew, the Duke of Buckingham 
and Chandos, became in due course a successor of Lord 
Chatham's grandfather in the Governorship of Madras. 
Essentially strenuous, unassuming, and benevolent, that 
lamented satrap seemed to be ever animated by a lofty sense 
of personal responsibility. No climatic or other inconveni- 
ences, no sense of the incongruity between his surroundings 
in India and those which he had left behind in England, 
deterred him from discharging in a genial and thorough 
manner what he honestly regarded as his duty. 

No one of such illustrious ancestry and exalted rank 
as his had ever before held office in India, • a fact 
that appealed strongly to the imagination of Indians, who 
have an instinctive reverence for good birth ; while he 
was seen on all sides to be a man of generous impulses and 
simple tastes, who took an inexhaustible interest in every- 
thing and everybody around him. He reigned ; and there 
was no mistake about his governing. In short, he lived up 

1 See Appendix IV., " Hayes Place." 

Photo by the London Stereoscopic Company. 

Governor of Madras, 1875-1880. 


to the motto conferred by Queen Victoria (at the felicitous 
suggestion of the Prince Consort), upon the Exalted Order of 
the Star of India, which he received from Her Majesty, of : — 
" Heaven's Light our Guide." 

It was my good fortune on many occasions, long years ago, 
to be the guest at Hayes of the late Mr. Edward Wilson, 
chief Proprietor of the Melbourne Argus, who had a long 
lease of it. I was usually allotted the room in which the 
younger Pitt is believed to have been born — a room, at the 
south-west corner of the mansion, that has been appro- 
priately enriched by Mr. Hambro, the present owner of 
the property, with engravings and mezzotints of portraits 
of that eminent statesman. Shortly before his death (in 
the bay-windowed room, with a westerly aspect, in which 
Lord Chatham also passed away) Mr. Wilson sent me 
;it Madras an album, labelled " In Memoriam," contain- 
ing views of the house and grounds. Subsequently, as 
the result of a conversation that I had with the Duke 
of Buckingham, I forwarded the album for his inspec- 
tion. He sent it back with the following characteristic 
note : " I return your interesting photograph book of Hayes 
with many thanks. Why did I keep it so long ? Because 
I wished to recall more clearly the many anecdotes I 
had heard and read of bygone days passed there by ances- 
tors, and also to try and find some old views of Hayes in 
those days, which I thought I had by me here amongst 
the books I brought out, but which, however, I have been 
unsuccessful in laying my hands upon." 

As for the Pitt diamond, it was first employed, after it 
became one of the Crown jewels of France, in the orna- 
mentation of the Crown that was made for the Coronation of 
King Louis XV, in 1722. In 1791 it was entered in an 
inventory of Crown jewels that was compiled by order of the 
National Assembly during the Revolution, and it was deposited 
at the Garde Meuble, after the Assembly had determined to sell 
it if a buyer at a suitable price could be found. But no offer 
was made, and so it happened that in September it was stolen 
with other jewels by a band of men who broke into the Garde 


Meuble. It was secreted by the thieves in a hole in the timber- 
work of a garret in a low lodging ; and there it remained some 
time. It was at length discovered by the Republican 
authorities, and deposited in the National Treasury. It 
was not again disturbed until 1804, when it was set in 
the pommel of the sword which Napoleon wore when 
he crowned himself as Emperor, at Notre Dame, in Paris. 
The Empress Marie Louise carried it off with other Crown 
jewels to Blois, after the Emperor Napoleon was banished 
to Elba ; but her father, the Emperor Francis of Austria, 
obtained it from her, and sent it to King Louis XVIII'. 
That King, on Napoleon's return from Elba, fled with it 
to Ghent, but, after Waterloo, returned with it to Paris. 
In 1830 the diamond was used by King Charles X at his 
coronation, but since then it has not been employed at any 
ceremonial. Shortly after the fall of the Second Empire 
many of the Crown jewels of France were sold by the Re- 
publican Government for the benefit of the State. But no 
buyer was found for the Pitt, or Regent diamond, and it 
remains in safe custody at the Louvre. 

The Pitt diamond weighs 136I carats, and is consequently 
more valuable than the Koh-i-noor, another Madras gem, 1 
which was reduced in 1852 from 186 to 106^ carats. Yet the 
latter — the "Mountain of Light," — is held by experts to be 
" pre-eminently the Great Diamond of history and romance." 
As such it was — as I well remember — the centre of attraction, 
in a gilt cage, at the Great Exhibition of all Nations in 
London, in 1851. Then it reposed half a century, until it 
was chivalrously assigned by King Edward the Seventh — 
the Kaiser-i-Hind — for the adornment, at the Coronation, 
not of his own diadem, but for that of his beautiful Consort, 
the Queen of the hearts of all his subjects. 2 That was indeed 

1 See Appendix V. : — "The Pitt and Koh-i-noor Diamonds." 

2 I am indebted to Dr. Max Bauer's Precious Stories for 
the means of making the sketches, illustrative of the respective 
dimensions of the diamonds, that appear opposite to this page. 




the crowning distinction of the emblem of " the brightest 
jewel of the British Crown." 

Her Majesty's Crown was composed (by Messrs. Carring- 
ton & Co., Regent Street, London) of diamonds set in silver. 
The base carried four large Maltese crosses and four large 
Fleurs-de-lis, from which eight arches extended towards the 
centre, carrying the Orb and Maltese cross closely set in 
brilliants. The centre of the largest cross contained the 
Koh-i-noor. The total number of diamonds used was 3,971. 
The weight of the Crown was 22 ozs. 15 dwts. 

It is conjectured that the Koh-i-noor is the diamond on 
which Jean Baptiste Tavernier, the famous French traveller 
(who was born exactly three hundred years ago) conferred 
the name of " Great Mogul," and also that the gem had 
previously been called the Kollur diamond, because of its 
supposed " place of origin," which name was gradually cor- 
rupted into Koh-i-noor. Mr. V. Ball, of the Geological Survey 
of India, inclined strongly to this opinion in his Diamonds, 
Coal, and Gold of India. Kollur, it may be added, is on the 
right bank of the Kistna, near Chantapilly, in the Kistna 
District of the Presidency of Madras, and is about forty miles 
west of Purtial, where, according to general belief, the Pitt 
diamond was found. 



Towards the close of the year 1710, Mr. Edward Harrison, 
Captain of the Kent, East Indiaman, was appointed President, 
or " Governour," of Fort St. George. On November 10 in 
that year a " petition " from him " tendering himself to serve 
the Company as their President of Fort St. George " was read 
at a meeting of the Directors, at the India House in Leaden- 
hall Street, Mr. Edmund Harrison (his father, or uncle) being 
in the chair ; and it was resolved that " this Court will, on 
Wednesday next, proceed to the choice of a President of Fort 
St. George, and to the setting the Councill there." Accord- 
ingly, on the 15th idem, the Court proceeded to " the choice 
of a President for Fort St. George, and the consideration of 
the Settlement of that Presidency, and the Petition of Captain 
Edward Harrison being again read, wherein he offers to serve 
the Company as President, ~^and the Question being put by 
the Ballott, whether Captain Harrison shall be President on 
the usuall termes — it was carryed in the affirmative." Later 
on, the Court resolved that, "he be allowed to carry out two 
tons of Beer on the Dartmouth, freight free, it being for his 
own stores on the voyage," and that he be permitted " to carry 
out Wrought Plate to the value of £300, or thereabouts, for 
the use of his Table " ; as well as " three pairs of Looking 
Glasses for his own private use." But Mr. Harrison, who 
had already seen a good deal of the Coromandel Coast, as 
well as other parts of the East, in his capacity as Com- 
mander of a merchantman, did not think that " two tons 
of Beer" would meet his requirements; and, having 
made a representation to that effect to the Court, it 
was resolved that " Governour Harrison be permitted to 


ship Beer on the Aurungzebe as he desires." At another 
meeting, the Court was pleased to agree to his request 
that " his nephew, Charles Bourchier, now on his way from 
Ireland, may be entertained a Writer for the Fort, he 
being now seventeen years old, and writes and casts accounts 
well " ; also that " Mr. Joseph Lopes may have liberty to 
send to the Fort on the Dartmouth five barrels of Snuff of the 
value of £no, each barrel weighing 22olbs., to be consigned 
to President Harrison, and Mr. Bernard Benyon on the usuall 
Termes," as well as " three chests of Rough Corrall, weight 
449lbs., value £336." Moreover, Elihu Yale and Thomas 
Pitt, former Governors of Fort St. George, were accepted by 
the Court as " security for President Harrison in £4,000 ; 
and it was resolved that Covenants be filled up with the term 
of three years." On the same day it was determined that a 
warrant be made out to President Harrison for £100, " being 
so much thought fitt to be given him for Fresh Provisions 
for his voyage." 

Meanwhile the Committee of Correspondence drew up 
Instructions for Mr. Harrison, and these having been sub- 
mitted to the Court of Directors, were " read, amended, and 
adopted." These Instructions were stated to have been 
prepared for the guidance of " Edward Harrison, Esq., Gover- 
nour of Fort St. George, and President of all the Affairs of 
the said Company under that Presidency. " Sir," they said, 

The quality of your Employment you will see by the Commission 
which appoints you Governour and President. The Nature and 
Variety of it you are not to expect so much in these Instructions as 
in our Generall Letter now sent, and those sent by the then Courts 
ever since the first union of the two Companys, and the orders before 
that time, and which you will find among the Registers of the Old 
and United Company at Fort St. George which we recommend to your 
serious perusall consideration and observance unless any parts of 
them have been contrary to the United Companys orders, in 
which case you are free so far to reject them, and for your greater 
ease therein do you appoint such of our Servants there as you 
judge proper to draw out the substance of them in a margin, or 
in a paper apart, that you may thereby the more readily observe 
what is fittest for your reflexion and giving the necessary orders 
thereupon, and also enquire how far the directions therein have 


been comply'd with, and wherein they have been omitted, or 
gone contrary to, taking care all snch omissions or transgressions 
be remedy'd in time. But that wee may give you an epitome of 
what wee look upon to be more immediately under your care and 
direction, as wee have chosen you our President, being well 
persuaded of your ability, fidelity, and zeal for our Service, wee shall 
range the same under the Generall heads which wee make use of in 
sending our orders to all our Settlements abroad to the end that 
collecting every subject matter under its proper head wee may have 
the more entire view of all matters relating thereunto. 

The Directors then expressed at some length their opinions 
and wishes about shipping, packing, home manufactures, 
imports, bullion, investments, trade " in General," and trans- 
actions with the " Countrey Government." These trans- 
actions had been " well managed by former Presidents, 
and therefore wee rest assured you will be fully informed 
what steps were trod in, and improve them as you may 
have opportunity." They were aware that " you know 
the Moors are a crafty People, and don't want oppor- 
tunitys nor inclination to be informed of the temper 
character and conduct of so considerable a Person as the 
Governour of Fort St. George, and accordingly they will 
suit their behaviour. We expect you be a good Husband 
for us, and never give a Present to any of them but when 
absolutely necessary, and with a prospect of getting some 
priviledge for it." Then they referred to fortifications 
and buildings ; the strength and discipline of the garrison 
of Fort St. George ; precautions against the spies of the 
King of Golcondah ; revenues ; the mint ; land and sea 
customs ; the necessity that " justice be readily distributed 
to every one under your Government ; the need of great 
watchfulness over conicoplys and dubashes ; the practice 
of frugality in public expenditure ; the repression of misbe- 
haviour among factors and writers ; and the deepening of 
the bar at the mouth of the river at St. David's. The 
concluding paragraphs of the Instructions were as follows : — 

The well minding these instructions will take up a great deal of 
your time and thoughts, but as the station we have placed you in 
is considerable, and wherein you may increase your fortune with 


honesty and reputation, and as you will see that by our Licence 
to Persons to send out Corrall and other goods to purchase dya- 
monds we have taken care that you shall have Two and a half 
per cent, on every consignment, so we hope these will be effectual 
inducements to you to promote our Interest to the utmost of your 
Power in all these Particulars, and whatever else shall offer for our 
Service within the Compass of your Station. 

We can't conclude these Instructions without recommending it to 
your constant care that Piety and Vertue be promoted and encouraged 
amongst all your Inferiors in our Service, and all others under your 
Government, and to that end to see the Discipline of the Church of 
England be kept up that our Servantts whether in Civil Merchantile 
or Military employment do constantly attend on the Lord's Day at 
Divine Service at the Church, and at the other usuall time. 

It will be observed that reference was made in the first sen- 
tence of the Instructions to the Commission whereby Mr. 
Harrison was constituted Governor and President. That 
document is as follows : — 

The United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East 
Indies to all to whom these Presents shall come send greeting Know 
Ye that wee the said Company reposing especiall trust and confidence 
in the Fidelity Prudence Justice and Circumspection of Edward 
Harrison Esqr have made constituted and ordained the said Edward 
Harrison Esqr to be President of and for all our affairs on the Coast of 
Choromandell and Orixa and of the Chingie and Moratta Countreys 
and of the Coast of Sumatra in the East Indies. And also to be our 
Commander-in-Chief of our Fort St. George and Town of Madraspatam 
and also of our Fort St. Davids at Tegnapatam and all the Territorys 
thereunto belonging and of all and singular the Forts Territorys and 
Jurisdictions thereof and of all the Forces which now are or hereafter 
may or shall be employed for the Service of the said United Company 
in the said Forts Towns and Places and to execute all and every the 
Powers and Authority's thereunto appertaining by order and direction 
of the Court of Directors of the said United Company for the time 
being and to continue in the exercise of the same during our and their 
pleasure and untill the contrary thereof shall be signified under the 
Seal of the said United Company of Merchants of England Trading to 
the East Indies or under the hands of Thirteen or more of the Court 
of Directors of the said Company for the time being And to the end 
the said Edward Harrison Esqr may be better enabled to order and 
manage all the Affairs of us the said Company Wee do by these Presents 
constitute and ordain Mr. Robert Raworth to be the Second of our 
Councill of Fort St. George next after our said President Edward 
Harrison Esqr and to be Deputy Governour of the said Fort. St. Davids 
Mr. Edward Fleetwood to be Third and next of our Councill after the 


said Mr Robert Raworth Mr Thomas Frederick to be Fourth Mr Henry 
Davenport to be Fifth Mr William Martin to be Sixth Mr Edward 
Bulkley to be Seventh Mr. William Jennings to be Eighth Mr Bernard 
Benyon to be Ninth and Mr. William Warre to be Tenth and last of 
our said Councill of Fort St. George for governing and managing all 
the said Company's Affairs upon the Coast of Choromandell Orixa 
Chingie and Moratta Countreys and West Coast of Sumatra and 
governing the said Fort St. George and City of Madraspatam and Fort St. 
Davids at Tegnapatam and all other our Forts Factorys and Settlements 
within any the said Territorys And we do hereby give and grant unto 
our said President and Governor Edward Harrison Esqr and to our 
Councill aforenamed or the Major part of them whereof our said 
President to be always one (the whole Councill being only summon'd) 
full power and authority from time to time to rule and governe all 
and every our Factors and Servants under the said Presidency and all 
the Soldiers and Inhabitants of our said Fort St. George and City of 
Madraspatam and Fort at Tegnapatam and elsewhere within the 
places aforesaid to administer Lawfull Oaths as occasion shall require 
and to do and perform all such other Acts and Things and to use and 
exercise all such other Powers and Authoritys as the said President 
and Governour and Councill aforesaid shall from time to time receive 
under the hands of Thirteen or more of the Court of Directors of the 
said United Company for the time being And wee the said United 
Company do hereby order and require all our Factors Servants Officers 
and Soldiers within the Limitts of the said Presidency and all the People 
and Inhabitants of our said Fort St George and City of Madraspatam 
or any other our Forts Places or Colonies within the said Presidency 
to conform submitt and yield due obedience unto the said 
Edward Harrison our President and Governour and his Councill 
accordingly And for as much as it is altogether necessary that in case 
of the Death or Removall of the said Edward Harrison our Presidency 
should be provided for the Defence and Government thereof Wee 
do therefore by these Presents Ordain and Appoint that in such case 
the said Robert Raworth shall immediately be and succeed in the Place 
and Charge of President and Governor of Fort St. George aforesaid 
And in Case of his Death or Removall the next in degree of Councill 
to succeed in the said Presidency and Government in as full and ample 
manner and with as large and ample Power Priviledges and Authoritys 
as are hereby granted unto the said Edward Harrison untill our further 
pleasure be known therein And we the said United Company do hereby 
revoke repeal annull and make void the Commission given and granted 
by the Court of Managers for the United Trade of the English Company 
Trading to the East Indies under the Seal of the said English Company 
Whereby Gullston Addison Esqr since Deceased was constituted and 
ordained President and severall persons therein named were Constituted 
and Ordained to be of the Councill of Fort St. George aforesaid which 
Commission was dated the One and Twentyeth Day of January in 
the Year of our Lord Stylo Anglice One Thousand Seven Hundred 


and Eight and all the Powers and Authoritys Given and Granted 
thereby or derived therefrom to any Person or Persons therein named 
or any others whatsoever In Witness whereof the said Company have 
Caused their Common Seal to be affixed to these Presents the Two and 
Twentieth Day of December in the Ninth Year of the Reigne of Her 
Most Exalted Majesty Anne by the Grace of God of Great Britain 
France and Ireland Queen Defender of the Faith etc. and in the Year 
of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ten. 

This Commission was signed by Mr. Edmund Harrison as 
Chairman, Richard Cocke as Deputy Chairman, and by the 
following twelve members of the Court of Directors, Edward 
Gibbon, Jonathan Andrewes, Peter Godfrey, Nicholas Tourton, 
John Lyles, Frederick Heme, William Betts, William Daw- 
sonne, John Gould, John Ward, Nathaniel Heme, Samuel 
Shepheard, and Henry Lyell. Moreover drafts of the " Cove- 
nants " to be entered into by President Harrison were " read 
and approv'd," and it was ordered that " the said Covenants 
be engross'd and executed the one part by President Harrison, 
and that the Committee of the Treasury be desired to affix 
the Company's Seal to the other part thereof." The Court 
next proceeded to the " Settlement of the Councills of 
Fort St. George and Fort St. David's," and ordered that 
" a list of the Company's servants on the Court be delivered 
to each of the Directors with the time they have been in 
India." Finally, on January 19, 1711, Mr. Harrison " took 
the oathes and leave of the Court," and was at the same 
time appointed Admiral on the Coast. 

The Directors sent a copy of the Commission to " Our 
President and Councill of Fort St. George," by the Dent month. 
in which Mr. Harrison was to proceed to Madras. They also 
forwarded a despatch, which ran to 133 long paragraphs. 
This prolix communication was divided into the following 
sections : Introductory ; Firstly, Concerning Shipping, sent 
out, and returned ; Secondly, Concerning Goods sent from 
Europe ; Thirdly, Touching Investments in India of Goods 
proper for Europe ; Fourthly, Touching the Trade of India 
in General and therein any Transactions with the Country 
Government ; Fifthly, As to our Fortifications, Buildings, and 
Revenues ; Sixthly, Touching Factors and Writers, Officers 


and Soldiers, and their Accounts ; Seventhly, Touching the 
West Coast ; Eighthly, Touching on Accounts. The Sixth 
section commenced with the statement that " Wee have for 
the Sake of Method deferred till now giving an Account of 
the Present Settlement of our Councill, and have for divers 
reasons, some of which are touch't upon in the foregoing 
parts of this Letter thought fitt to elect and establish the 
Councill at Fort St. George and Fort St. David's as follows." 
Then the names and grades of the several gentlemen who 
had been accepted for employment were given ; after which 
the letter proceeded to say that, " Wee have resolved to send 
no Factors to the Coast this season ; what Writers shall go 
thither you will have a list of in the Packet, sign'd by the 

The Directors stated that they had allowed " President 
Harrison to bring with him to Madrass Mr. Anthony Supply, 
and if you judge it for our Service wee consent that he be 
entertained one of the Surgeons when a vacancy happens." 
Also, " we understand Mr. Jeremy Harrison designs home for 
England, and therefore did not elect him afresh one of the 
Councill. If he should stay in India we leave it to you, if you 
judge it for our Service, to continue him yet in our Service." 
(It may be mentioned here that, according to an entry in the 
Proceedings of the Court of Directors on November 8, 1710, 
Mr. Jeremiah Harrison, Eighth in Council, Madras, was 
" entertained in India in the year 1700.") In the 133 rd , 
and last paragraph of their despatch, the Directors advised 
the Government, that " the following persons having paid 
divers sums of English Money into our cash, wee have 
agreed to supply them with the value in Pieces of Eight at 
Fort St. George, out of the Treasure now laden on the 
Dartmouth, they running the Risco thereon, and you must 
accordingly deliver out of the said Treasure when received 
on shore." (The list commenced with the name of " Presi- 
dent Harrison, Seventeen Thousand Six hundred forty eight 
ounces.") The despatch was signed by " Your very Loving 

The Dartmouth made a fair voyage, and arrived at Madras 


on July ii, 171 1. The " Honourable Edward Harrison Esq." 
promptly landed, and produced his Commission, " which being 
read, the late President, William Fraser, Esq., did resign the 
chair, and deliver the Keys of the Fort to the said Edward 
Harrison, Esq." Thus, at the age of thirty-seven, did his 
reign commence. It proved uneventful ; so much so, indeed, 
that, if it is true that " happy is the land which hath no his- 
tory," then Madras was never more happy than when he 
presided over her destinies, and made money the while both 
for the Honourable Company, and for himself. It may be 
placed to his credit that he did nothing to prevent the land 
having rest ; and also, that he never dreamt of crowding work 
into a quinquennium that might well be spread over half a 
century. But I need not enter into particulars about Madras 
history during his time. Suffice it to say that he escaped 
the fate that overtook Mr. Thomas Pitt, and some other 
predecessors of his, of being ignominiously recalled. He 
resigned office early in January 1717, after acquiring, as the 
Gentleman's Magazine (of 1736) suggestively remarks, " a 
large fortune with a very fair character," and he returned 
home, still in the enjoyment of the respect and confidence 
of the Court of Directors. 

A few months after his arrival he took No. 14, St. 
James's Square, London, which had been occupied for 
some years by the Earl of Torrington, who died there. The 
house has a special interest for Lady Ampthill since, about a 
century after Mr. Harrison was its tenant, it was the residence 
of her great-grandfather, Mr. William Lygon, M.P. for 
Worcester, who was raised to the peerage as Baron Beau- 
champ of Powys, in 1806, and was advanced to be Viscount 
Elmley and Earl Beauchamp in 1815. Lord Beauchamp died 
there in 18 16 ; and his widow, the Countess Beauchamp — 
Lady Ampthill's great-grandmother — continued to occupy it 
until her own death there in 1844. In the following year it 
was acquired by the London Library, and was lately rebuilt. 
During the few months that Mr. Harrison occupied it, he had 
as his neighbour in No. 13 the Marquis of Carmarthen, and as 
his neighbour in No. 15 the Marchioness of Gouvernet. It was 


while he was living there that be became a member of the 
Court of Directors of the East India Company, and he was 
Deputy Chairman 1723-24, Chairman 1724-25, Deputy 
1728-29, Chairman 1729-30, and Deputy from 1731 until his 
death. Having inherited from his relation, Mr. Edmund 
Harrison, the estate of Balls, now called Balls Park, close to 
Hertford — which had been held by his family for upwards of 
a century and a half — he was, in 1722, elected Member of 
Parliament for Hertford ; but he resigned the seat in 1727, on 
his appointment to be joint Postmaster General with Mr. 
Edward Carteret. He retained that lucrative and notable 
position until his death, which occurred on March 28, 1732, 
from " imposthume in his head," after three days' illness, at 
his house in the General Post Office. He was then fifty-eight 
years of age. He bequeathed the whole of his property to 
his only child, Audrey, who, nine years previously, had 
married Lord Lynn, son of Viscount Townshend. 

The bridegroom, aged twenty- three, had just been sum- 
moned to the House of Lords for his father's Barony of 
Lynn, so father and son had the rare gratification of 
simultaneously sitting in that Assembly. Eventually the 
father died, and the son became third Viscount Townshend. 
His wife was a wit, and was noted also for her eccen- 
tricity ; indeed, she is supposed to have been the original 
of Lady Bellaston in Tom Jones, and of Lady Tempest in 
Pompey the Little. She survived her husband twelve years, 
and died in 1788. The following notice of her appears 
in the Gentleman's Magazine of that year : — 

After a very short illness, aged 85, Audrey, Lady-dowager, Vis- 
countess Townshend, relict of the late Charles, Viscount Townshend, 
who died in 1764, and daughter and sole heir of Richard Harrison, 
Esq., of Balls, near Hertford, formerly Governor of Fort St. George, 
in the East Indies, and Postmaster General. She possessed her 
faculties in amazing , perfection until the last. Her acuteness of 
observation, and brilliancy of expression, were as forcible and brilliant 
as at her earliest state in life, when she was esteemed, and her 
society cultivated by the first wits of her time. Her Ladyship's remains 
were deposited, on the 12th May, in her family vault at Hereford. 

By her will, Lady Townshend appointed Lord Dudley, Lord 

John Townshend, General Vernon, and Mr. Woodcock to be 


her executors and trustees. In addition to her estate at 
Balls, she bequeathed to her eldest son, George, the first 
Marquis Townshend (who was created a Marquis by his 
godfather, King George the Third), £15,000, and she left 
£6,000 to each of his children. She set apart several sums 
for charitable purposes, after various legacies had been paid 
to other relatives. She had one daughter, named Audrey 
after herself, and five sons, the youngest of whom, Roger, 
was killed in 1759 at Ticonderoga. She erected a monu- 
ment to his memory in Westminster Abbey. 

The estate of Balls, now known as Balls Park, was lately 
purchased, after a long tenancy, by one of the most popular 
of the forty Knights Grand Commanders of the Most Eminent 
Order of the Indian Empire — namely, Sir George Faudel- 
Phillips, Bart., who was Lord Mayor of London in 1897, the 
memorable year of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 
He was as active, genial, hospitable and judicious a Chief 
Magistrate as the Metropolis ever had ; and it fell to his lot 
during his busy year of office to set on foot the Indian Famine 
Relief Fund that proved so successful. Thus it was that the 
Queen, who was always greatly interested in whatever related 
to India, conferred a much-prized Indian decoration upon 
him. So also, in virtue of the visit that Her Majesty 
graciously paid him at the Mansion House, as well as in cele- 
bration of the sixtieth year of her wonderful reign, he was 
made a Baronet. He then had to re-arrange his coat of arms. 
He chose for the supporters of his shield, on the dexter side 
a Hindu, and on the sinister side a Mahomedan of India, 
both " habited ppr." In common with Sir Joseph Fayrer, 
Bart., the veteran ex-Chief of the Bengal Medical Depart- 
ment, he selected as his appropriate motto — seeing how 
well he has lived up to it — the words : Ne tentes aut perfice 
(Accomplish if you attempt). 

One day in March last year the rooms of Messrs. Christie, 
Manson & Woods, the auctioneers, of King Street, St. 
James's Square, were crowded, first with inspectors of, and 
subsequently with bidders for, numerous pictures belonging 
to the present Marquis Townshend, that were brought to 


the hammer " with the sanction of the Court." The Marquis, 
a bachelor of eight and thirty, was born heir to rank rather 
than to wealth, and he has had to part with the chief adorn- 
ments for many a long year of the reception rooms and stair- 
cases at the family seat, Raynham Hall, Norfolk, which he 
is unable to occupy, and declines to let. The Hall occupies the 
site of a " moated grange " of great antiquity ; and was 
built, in 1630, by Sir Roger Townshend, the first Baronet, 
from designs by Sir Inigo Jones ; and the Marquis not only 
inherited it, with the Baronetcy, not to speak of other titles, 
but became also, by right of birth, Lord of the Manor and 
sole landowner of East Raynham (or Raynham St. Mary), of 
South Raynham (or Raynham St. Martin), and of West Rayn- 
ham (or Raynham St. Margaret), all in the Archdeaconry of 
Lynn. He is also Lord of the Manors of Hertford Priory 
and Amwell — names of which were once " familiar as 
household words " in the mouths of members of the Civil 
Service of the East India Company, since they were inti- 
mately associated with their youthful days at Haileybury. 
Amwell has this particular interest for Londoners, that it 
contains the source of the New River which has for many 
generations contributed largely to the water supply of the 
Metropolis. It has a tiny lake, with picturesque surround- 
ings, including a small church on an upland, well laid out 
shrubberies, and an island, on which there is a stone, bear- 
ing the following quaint lines that were written by a 
Quaker resident of the place, named Scott, about a hun- 
dred and fifty years ago : — 

Amwell, perpetual by thy stream 

Nor e'er thy spring be less, 
Which thousands drink who never dream 

Whence flows the boon they bless. 

Too often thus ungrateful man 

Blind and unconscious lives ; 
Enjoys kind Heaven's indulgent plan 

Nor thinks of Him who gives. 

In the " good old times," ere home-grown produce was 
swamped by imported grain, or while farming was a profitable 

Painter Unknown. 

Governor of Fort St. George, 1711-1717. 


occupation, and while landowners, consequently, could safely 
demand potential rents, the lot of the peer who had inherited 
broad acres from ancestors remarkable for their land-hunger, 
was, so far as a fine income was concerned, a happy one. 
" Bu + we have had our day ; we have had our innings, and a 
long innings too ; and we must now adapt ourselves, as well 
as we can, to the new conditions of our existence." So said 
one of them to me the other day. But it is none the less 
sad to hear of an ancestral mansion being despoiled of its 
heirlooms ; and to see them hung for a few days on the walls 
of auction rooms, prior to being dispersed over the country, 
if not to the uttermost parts of the earth. In the case under 
notice, this drastic proceeding had to be resorted to in order 
to pay off encumbrances that had accumulated on Lord 
Townshend's estate, and thereby to " extinguish the terminable 
charges." So the Court of Chancery gave permission for the 
sale of two hundred out of the four hundred pictures at 
Raynham, on being assured that, in the opinion of an expert 
in such matters, the moiety would realise, with some furniture 
and plate, £20,000. Happily for the Marquis, the valuation 
proved too modest, as the pictures alone sold for £35,943, 
although many of them fetched insignificant prices. The 
whole of them were portraits, mostly family portraits, and 
fifty of them were whole-lengths. They included a few pic- 
tures by artists of eminence, like Lely, Kneller, Reynolds, 
Gainsborough, Hogarth, Hoppner, and Romney, but a large 
proportion were unauthenticated. There was one' small por- 
trait, 30 ins. by 25 ins., by Romney, of Georgiana, wife of Lord 
John Townshend, a lady who died so recently as 1851, for 
which the artist received no more than 40 guineas in 1792, 
and which realized 3,150 guineas ; and there was a small 
Gainsborough, which was discovered in a neglected garret at 
Raynham, that fetched 2,000 guineas. A few other pictures 
realized handsome prices, and assisted considerably in com- 
pensating the owner for the small amounts obtained for some 
of his largest paintings. 

Among the latter was the portrait of the Marquis's ancestor, 
Mr. Edward Harrison, Governor of Madras. It was described 



by the auctioneers as : " Full length, standing to the front ; 
in black dress and cloak, grey stockings, powdered wig ; 
rocky background, with distant view of a town ; 93 ins. by 
57^- ins." The artist is unknown. It was knocked down for 
only 94 guineas to Mr. Colnaghi. 1 For all that, it is a remark- 
able picture, in an admirable state of preservation ; and it 
would prove an interesting addition to the collection of por- 
traits of Governors, etc., in the Banqueting Hall, Madras. It 
depicts a genial-looking gentleman, with whom the world has 
gone well, wearing a black velvet suit of his period ; and a 
glimpse is obtained of a town in the background, which 
may be intended for a town in India, though certainly 
not of Fort St. George. 

This was not the only Harrison portrait in the collection 
which for many a long year has been preserved at Raynham 
after having been removed thither from Balls, near Hertford. 
There was a William Harrison in the time of King Charles I., 
who owned the property, and died in 1643 at Oxford, from 
injuries received from his horse, which was shot under him 
while he was in the service of the King. His portrait, a large 
one, 79 ins. by 50 ins., sold for no more than 63 guineas. 
His son, Charles, who inherited the estate, and who, doubt- 
less, was named after " King Charles the Martyr," was 
knighted by King Charles II. in recognition of the loyal 
services rendered to the Crown by the family. And so the 
estate passed on to Mr. Edmund Harrison, Chairman of the 
East India Company in 1711, from whom, as has been said, 
the quondam Governor eventually inherited it. 

1 It was purchased for M. le Comte Cahen d'Anvers, of Paris, who 
has obligingly enabled me to obtain the accompanying reproduction 
of it. 

L.F.AVbotl. Pinxil 

Swan "Electric Engraving C? Sculp 1 . 


-iZowAsn&ls /£>^//k ^/Ij'^f ^^Ln^, -d>L^ ^'c^Lz^Aa^, -//£■/- 7y<f?S. 



Lord Macartney did not start in life, as did many of his 
successors in the Governorship of Madras, with the advan- 
tage of birth. He was no Give, or Hobart, or Hay, or Harris, 
or Napier, or Grenville, or Bourke, or Lawley, or Russell. He 
was the son of an inconspicuous gentleman in the County 
of Antrim, and the grandson of an Irish Prebendary. Born 
in 1737, he matriculated at Trinity College, Dublin, and took 
his Master of Arts Degree when he was twenty-two. Then he 
went abroad to pick up that knowledge of foreign countries 
and foreign languages which was regarded in his day as 
essential to the crowning of the edifice of the education 
of an English, Scotch or Irish gentleman. He was good 
looking, and his manners were in harmony with his prepos- 
sessing appearance, so that he easily made and retained 
useful friendships. Thus he became a chum of Mr. Stephen 
Fox, an elder brother of the Charles James Fox of history ; 
and this secured for him an introduction to his friend's father, 
Lord Holland. He had some idea, for a time, of entering 
Parliament ; but, doubtless through the influence of Lord 
Holland and Charles James Fox, he was, at the early age of 
twenty-seven, appointed Envoy-Extraordinary to Russia. 
Before starting for St. Petersburg he was made a Knight 
Bachelor. He was charged with the duty of negotiating a 
Commercial Treaty with the Russian Government ; and he 
showed so much tact and ability throughout the business, 
and succeeded so well in pleasing both the Russian and the 
English Governments, that he received from the former the 
order of the White Eagle, and from the latter various 
compliments that meant favours to follow. 


At the age of thirty he was offered the high position 
of British Ambassador at St. Petersburg. But he de- 
clined the appointment, and preferred to enter Parliament 
as Member for Cockermouth. Shortly afterwards he 
married Lady Jane Stuart, a younger daughter of the 
Earl of Bute, the guide, philosopher and friend of the young 
King, -George III. A year more passed, and he was made 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. This constituted him the leader 
of the Ministerial side of the Irish House of Commons ; and, 
being an Irishman of the best type, he made himself very 
acceptable in that capacity. He retained the Chief Secre- 
taryship three years, and then resigned, whereupon he was 
made a Knight of the Bath. In 1775, at the age of thirty- 
eight, he was made Captain General and Governor of 
Grenada, the Grenadines, and Tobago, grouped collectively as 
the Caribbee Islands ; and, in the following year, he was 
raised to the Irish Peerage, as Baron Macartney of Lissa- 
noure. He was at Grenada in 1779 when the Island was 
besieged by the French ; and, after a gallant defence, he had to 
yield to superior force, and became a prisoner of war. As such 
he was carried to France, but he was soon exchanged ; and 
returning home he re-entered Parliament, this time as Member 
for Beeralston. He held the seat for only a few months, as he 
was offered by the East India Company, and accepted, the 
Governorship of Fort St. George. He arrived at Madras on 
June 22, 1781, and on the following day assumed office as 
" President and Governor of Fort St. George." In February, 
1785, he became the first " Governor of Madras," so 
entitled by Act of Parliament. 

Almost immediately after his assumption of the office of 
Governor, Lord Macartney received an invitation from the 
Nabob of the Carnatic to honour him with a visit, and he 
promptly complied with it. Every mark of respect for his 
office was shown on his arrival at His Highness's palace, and 
he was probably thinking that his visit was merely one 
of agreeable ceremony, when the Nabob sprung upon him 
an offer for which he was unprepared. A brief account 
of what passed was given in the House of Commons on 


April 16, 1806, three weeks before Lord Macartney's death, by 
Mr. W. Keene, in the course of a speech regarding a motion 
which had been made by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Philip Francis, 
for the production of accounts of all sums that had been 
paid to the creditors of the Nabob of that date in part 
payment of the debt which had accumulated to £4,200,000. 
Mr. Keene stated that he had been told by Lord Macartney 
that the Nabob invited the visit in order to present him 
with a sum of money equivalent to £30,000, and at the 
same time to make handsome money presents to the officers 
of his suite. Lord Macartney proceeded to inform Mr. 
Keene that he expressed his astonishment to the Nabob ; 
declined to accept the money ; and inquired what had 
prompted His Highness to offer it. The Nabob replied that 
it was quite a customary present to every new Governor, 
and had never before been refused. So he pressed Lord 
Macartney to reconsider his decision as, in His Highness's 
opinion, it was a proper compliment for him to pay to the 
Head of the Government, especially as since the capture of 
Pondicherry he had regarded the British rather than the 
French as his protectors. But Lord Macartney remained 
firm in his refusal, though he assured the Nabob that 
that refusal would not affect his discharge of his duty to 
render His Highness every support in his power. 

As the accuracy of this statement was not challenged in 
Parliament or elsewhere it may be assumed that the episode 
really occurred. The Nabob's assertion that he had only 
followed precedent in making his offer, involved a reflection 
upon Lord Macartney's immediate predecessor, Sir Thomas 
Rumbold, whose son was living when Mr. Keene obtruded 
the incident on the notice of the House. Yet it was not repu- 
diated by any member of the Rumbold family. The Nabob 
evidently was apprehensive that it might fare ill with himself 
if he failed to place the new Governor under a personal 
obligation. From his point of view his relations with an im- 
peccable Governor might be the reverse of agreeable. He had 
only conformed to what he regarded as time-honoured custom, 
and, in his opinion, doubtless, a useful custom too for all 


parties. What the members of Lord Macartney's suite thought 
of the denial to themselves of the benefits of a practice which 
had formerly been reaped by members of similar suites, if 
the Nabob was to be believed, is not mentioned. But what- 
ever they thought or said, the action of the Governor was not 
kept secret. The Nabob may have mentioned it to subsequent 
visitors, or those around him may have done so. At any 
rate, the fact was soon noised abroad, and it caused some 
excitement in Madras, as it called in question, and threatened 
to put a stop to, an elasticity of principle by which officials 
had profited when approached by natives anxious to secure 
'* Master's favour." Mr. Keene indeed declared, when con- 
cluding his anecdote, that the " generous integrity " of Lord 
Macartney " was everywhere reviled by the servants of the 
Company, and every pains was taken to slander him for 
venturing such an innovation upon the system they had so 
long established." 

The servants of the Company in those times were not 
solely responsible for the prevailing laxity with respect 
to the acceptance of pecuniary considerations in disregard 
of regulations. The austere virtue of the Court of Directors 
led them periodically to preach against bribery and cor- 
ruption, and to command all in their employ to become 
models of forbearance, and miracles of propriety. But they 
omitted to do one important thing, namely, to grant their 
servants emoluments on a scale sufficiently liberal to enable 
them with some facility to resist temptation. The lot of 
Europeans in India at the period could not, at the best, have 
been alluring. The conditions of temperature were much 
what they are now ; but India was some six months, in- 
stead of a fortnight distant from the " old country " ; there 
were no Hill Stations to go to ; there was little opportunity 
for recreation ; there was hardly any female society to pro- 
mote refinement of manners. Moreover, India was more often 
than not the dumping-ground on which bad bargains at home 
were cast. And the rates of pay for all but officials of the 
highest rank were so small that they fell far short of being 
fair compensation for the discomforts and dangers incidental 


to exile in a strange land. It was common knowledge at the 
time that men who went out to India on small, and never 
while there drew large salaries, returned home eventually, and, 
as opulent Nabobs of extravagant habits, excited envy in 
London, Bath, Cheltenham, and elsewhere. The practice of 
making money — honestly, if possible, but at any rate of 
making it, when opportunity offered — was the rule, and Lord 
Macartney was a brave man to set his face by his own example 
against it. 

It is probable that Lord Macartney considered it incumbent 
upon him to inform the Court of Directors of the offer which 
was made to him by the Nabob, and which he had un- 
hesitatingly declined. But if so, the despatch containing his 
communication has not been brought to light. There is, 
however, a letter extant from him to the Earl of Hillsborough, 
dated Fort St. George, September 3, 1782, which shows the 
view he held the year after his arrival, both of propositions 
such as the Nabob made to him, and also of the Nabob. He 
was prompted to write this letter by the rumour which 
reached him that the Nabob had despatched a letter to 
the King, in which he indulged in severe reflections both 
on the Madras Government and their President. This letter, 
he was informed, was written by the Nabob's second son 
and Minister, Ameer-ul-Omrah, assisted by some k ' profligate 
Englishman " in Madras. As this letter was couched in 
terms calculated to stagger any one unacquainted with 
India, or the character of the Nabob's Durbar, he thought it 
due to himself, and to his Government, to take the earliest 
opportunity to explain the causes to which the Nabob's 
resentment might be attributed. He then said : — 

The real truth is, that I have acted like an honest man and a good 
Englishman, and a Governor of Madras of that stamp is by no means 
such a one as they have been accustomed to, or ever wish to see again. 
If I had acted like many of my predecessors, and come into the Nabob's 
views, it would be no exaggeration to say that I might have fully 
answered any views I could possiblv have formed of my own. It 
had been objected to me by the Nabob that I am a stranger ignorant 
of Oriental customs, unwilling to understand, or come into the ways 
of Oriental people, that I won't accept of presents, that I am uncon- 
ciliating, etc., etc. After the space of time I have passed here, and the 


intercourse I have had with the Durbar, and the gentry belonging to 
it, I must certainly be next to an idiot if I were ignorant of what is 
called the method of managing them. Nothing is more easy ; sacrifice 
the interests of the Company and of the creditors, or promise to do 
so ; engage for impossibilities Tanjore, and the succession of the second 
son ; and write lying paragraphs and encomiums upon the Nabob's 
disposition towards us, in the public letters to England ; do this, and 
I'll venture to say that a Governor of Madras, even in the present 
distress, would extract half a dozen lakhs of pagodas for himself, when 
he could not obtain a rupee for the Company. This was the mode in 
which the Durbar was managed by some politicians. But my system 
has been different, and if my predecessors had practised it, our affairs 
here would not now be in their present deplorable state. By observing 
a different conduct from theirs, I have drawn upon myself not only the 
most rancorous enmity of the Durbar, but the ill-will and opposition 
of every man in this part of the world of a different character from 
my own. Against these my only arms are steadiness and diligence, 
upright intentions, and disinterested conduct, and I have no doubt 
that they will at last carry me through with success. ... I never 
will sacrifice, as has often been done here, the smallest particle of our 
real rights, and our true policy for any private emolument or advan- 
tage whatsoever. I have ventured to say this much, because well 
I know the artifices and engines which will be employed by disappointed 
avarice and blasted ambition to misrepresent and vilify my Govern- 
ment, but I trust to a good cause, and to that conduct which will never 
give my friends reason to be ashamed of supporting me. ... I think 
I am now worth about ^10,000 more than when I arrived here, and I 
do assure you that I might have been easily worth ten times that sum 
if I pleased, without any reproaches but those of my own conscience. 
What I have is the mere savings of the Company's allowance, for I 
never have accepted for my own benefit a pagoda, a diamond, or even 
a shawl. So help me, God ! This solemn declaration which I make 
to you, from one gentleman to another, will, I trust, be some antidote 
against the poisons intended from hence for my destruction at home. 

The practice of accepting presents was then so common 
among officials in India, and the imputation that, in all 
probability, he had conformed to it, was so probable, that he 
considered it expedient to assure not only his wife, but also 
his banker of his having set his face against it. Writing from 
Madras to Lady Macartney as " My dearest Love," on March 27, 
1782, nine months after his arrival, he mentioned that, as 
exchange was favourable, he had borrowed money in antici- 
pation of his salary, and had remitted that money for his credit 
at " Thomas Coutts, Esq. and Co.'s," of London. He stated 


that he " depended upon his salary alone, having never ac- 
cepted a present since my arrival in this country. I have 
£15,000 per annum, and I save out of it what I can. Adieu 
My Love, Ever yours, M." In a letter of a later date to Mr. 
Coutts he remarked : — " I can assure you, upon my honour, that 
I have never accepted for my own benefit a present of any 
kind worth a dozen pagodas, but confined myself entirely to 
the Company's allowances, which are tolerably good." On the 
same occasion he requested Mr. Coutts to " furnish " Lady 
Macartney " without difficulty " with whatever money she 
may " want for her own occasions." Being very methodical 
and businesslike, he sent her a duplicate of his letter to Mr. 
Coutts, and observed : — " Whatever you may want for your- 
self you know you are always to command without scruple." 

During the remaining period of his residence in Madras 
he acted strictly up to the high standard of official morality 
which he adopted on his arrival. But there was an impression 
in some quarters — of which he had knowledge — that, if 
the truth were known, it might be found that he was not 
as free from reproach as he claimed to be. And he 
had cause to imagine that, as soon as he turned his back on 
India, after resigning authority there, the tongues of men 
whose ill practices he had checked would wag at his expense. 
So he considered it advisable to nip mischief in the bud by 
swearing to the following affidavit before Mr. Philip Stowey, 
Mayor of Madras, on June 1, 1785, a few days before his 
embarkation : — 

I, George, Lord Macartney, Governor and President of Fort St. 
George in the East Indies, do solemnly swear and declare that, to the 
best of my knowledge and belief, from the day of my arrival here, 
on the 22nd June, 1781, to this hour, I have never by myself, or by any 
other person for me, directly or indirectly, accepted or received for 
my own benefit, from any person or persons whomsoever, a present 
or presents of any kind, except two pipes of Madeira wine from two 
particular friends (one of whom never was in India, the other is at 
Bengal), a few bottles of Champagne and Burgundy, and some fruit 
and provisions of very trifling value : and I further swear and declare, 
that I have confined myself solely to the Hon'ble Company's allow- 
ances, which are 40,000 pagodas per annum, and the commission and 
consulage on coral which, during my Government, have produced on 


an average 1,000 pagodas per annum : that I have never embezzled, 
or misappropriated to my own use, any part of the Company's monies 
or effects : and that I have not been engaged in any trade, traffic, 
or dealing of any kind, but strictly and bona fide observed all my 
covenants with the Honourable East India Company, and acted in all 
things for their honour and interest, to the best of my judgment and 
ability. So help me God ! 

He also made and signed, on the same day, a " Declaration " 
that, " during my four years' residence in India my fortune 
has been increased by the sum of 81,796 pagodas, from which 
ought to be deducted my expenses, and the price of my passage 
to Europe which I conceive can scarcely be estimated at less 
than 5,000 pagodas." At the exchange of the day, namely, 
eight shillings per pagoda, the net amount 76,796 pagodas 
was equal to about £30,000. " When the whole of this sum," 
he wrote to the Court of Directors, " is applied to the arrange- 
ment of my private affairs I shall possess a very small, if 
any, addition to my family inheritance." 

On the departure from Madras to Bengal of Sir Eyre 
Coote (of whom more will be said in the next chapter), and 
again on that General's demise in Madras, the command of 
the troops in Madras devolved upon Major-General James 
Stuart, son of Andrew Stuart, of Torrance, in Lanarkshire, a 
member of the Scotch Bar, and Keeper of the Signet. He had 
seen much active service in Nova Scotia and the West Indies, 
before (in 1775) he entered the service of the Honourable East 
India Company as Second in Command of the forces on the 
Coromandel Coast. In the following year, in obedience to the 
orders of the majority of the Council, who had rebelled against 
Lord Pigot, he arrested that unfortunate Governor — an arrest 
which was soon followed by his Lordship's death, while still 
under restraint. Four months later, Sir Robert Fletcher, the 
Commander-in-Chief, died in Madras, and Colonel Stuart suc- 
ceeded to the command, and became a Brigadier-General. 
But as soon as the Directors of the East India Company heard 
of the revolt against and the arrest of Lord Pigot, they took 
proceedings to vindicate their authority, and suspended 
General Stuart. He remained suspended four years, vainly 
endeavouring to be brought for trial before a Court Martial. At 


length, however, he was honourably acquitted by the Directors 
of the charges alleged against him ; was restored to the com- 
mand of the forces ; and was paid arrears of pay for the whole 
period of his suspension. He reverted to the position of Second 
in Command when Sir Eyre Coote arrived the first time 
from Bengal to conduct the operations against Hyder Ali, 
and he then saw much active service, especially at the battles 
of Porto Novo and Pollilore. 

Lord Macartney had a poor opinion of General Stuart, and 
refused to grant him as free a hand as was allowed to Sir Eyre 
Coote. The General was at no pains to conceal his indignation, 
while at the same time he appeared to be very indisposed to 
(airy out the Government's plan of campaign first against 
Tippoo Sultan, and, later, against the French near Pondicherry 
and Cuddalore. Lord Macartney was thus led to consider 
that, for various reasons which he stated to the Select Com- 
mittee, and placed on record, the Government could not rely 
upon his obedience, or safely leave him longer in command at 
Cuddalore, or continue the " delegation " to him of the office 
of Commander-in-Chief from the late Sir Eyre Coote. He 
urged, therefore, that Major-General Bruce, who was also at 
Cuddalore, and who was known to be a good and gallant 
officer, should be empowered to assume the command of the 
Carnatic Army then in the field, and that General Stuart 
should be recalled to Fort St. George. This was agreed to by 
the Select Committee, and Mr. Sadleir, the second member 
of the Committee, and Mr. Staunton, the Governor's Private 
Secretary, were sent from Madras in the Medea frigate to 
Cuddalore, with instructions for both General Stuart and 
General Bruce, and with authority to negotiate with the Mar- 
quis de Bussy. General Stuart at first hesitated, and then 
complied with the orders of the Government, and returned 
to Madras ; but instead of adopting a conciliatory, he assumed 
an insulting attitude towards Lord Macartney personally, and 
the Select Committee collectively. He wrote long Minutes, in 
which he alluded in offensive terms to the President, and de- 
clared that His Lordship was personally hostile to him. Lord 
Macartney in reply represented that he was mistaken ; 


that he disdained personalities ; that if he had pronounced 
censure upon the General, he had done so without passion or 
prejudice, and simply in discharge of a painful public duty. 

So matters went on until, on September 17, 1783, Lord 
Macartney presented a Minute to the Select Committee, in 
which he advised the dismissal of the General. He referred to 
a former Minute in which he had given some instances of the 
General's misconduct ; and proceeded to say that since the 
General had returned to Madras, his " conduct indeed appears 
to have been that of a premeditated, wilful, repeated, and 
systematic disobedience, and that disobedience has been not 
only prejudicial, by its example, to the Company's regular 
government, and has a direct tendency to bring about the same 
subversion of such Government as that of which the General 
has been in a former instance " — the allusion here being to the 
General's complicity in the subversion of the authority of Lord 
Pigot — " a principal and active instrument, but such disobe- 
dience has been actually of material and lasting injury to the 
Company." General Stuart had " disobeyed the directions, 
and counteracted the intentions of the Government " ; and, 
in defiance of orders, had " assumed independent command." 
The President, therefore, recommended that, " in virtue of the 
powers given to the Government in case of the disobedience 
of any of its military Officers, Major-General Stuart be imme- 
diately dismissed from the service," and that Sir John Bur- 
goyne, as senior Officer in the King's Service upon the Coast, be 
directed to take the command of the forces. This Minute was 
read to the Select Committee in General Stuart's presence ; and, 
the proposition having been adopted by the Committee, a 
Notification of his removal from the command of the forces was 
drafted, and published immediately in General Orders. 

But General Stuart refused to admit that the Government 
had power to remove him from the command ; he considered, 
he stated, that he owed it to His Majesty the King, and to the 
troops under his command, not to relinquish such command to 
any authority inferior to that of His Majesty from whom it 
was derived. Moreover, he exercised such an influence over 
Sir John Burgoyne that that comparatively young officer 


declined, on second thoughts, to accept the command in his 
place. Then Lord Macartney, warned by the Pigot incident, 
perceived that it was incumbent upon him to take severe 
action without delay, and he ordered that the General should 
be placed under arrest. Accordingly, by his instructions, 
Mr. Staunton, his Private Secretary, Mr. Gomond, the Town 
Adjutant, and Lieutenant Cooke proceeded, with a party of 
sixty-six sepoys, to the General's " garden house," to seize, 
and convey him under close arrest to the Fort. 

The General was kept under arrest in the Fort for a few days 
until a passage was obtained for him in a ship that was about 
to leave for England. He was then required to embark. He 
reached England safely, and waited in London as patiently as 
he could, until the arrival there, in January 1786, of Lord 
Macartney from Madras. On the following day the General 
wrote a note, and intimated his intention to send a challenge. 
But no further action was taken until one night in May, 
when Lord Macartney, on returning from the Opera, found 
a note at his house in Charles Street, Berkeley Square, from 
Colonel Gordon, presenting his compliments, and saying that 
he wished to see his Lordship at Charing Cross when convenient. 

Lord Macartney called on the following day, and received 
from the Colonel a letter from General Stuart in which the 
latter demanded " immediate satisfaction." He thereupon 
invited Colonel Fullarton to act as his second, and the two 
seconds soon arranged a place of meeting twenty minutes' 
drive from outside Tyburn turnpike, near Kensington, at the 
early hour of half-past four on the morning of June 8. Accord- 
ingly the ex-Commander-in-Chief and the ex-Governor met 
at the place, and at the time agreed upon. The General was 
a one-legged man, the other leg having been shot off at the 
battle of Pollilore, after the same ball had killed another 
officer. He was, therefore, placed with his back against a 
tree. The seconds then measured twelve paces in front 
of him, and Lord Macartney took up his position at 
the further end of that distance. 

The seconds having delivered a loaded pistol to each gentle- 
man, the General remarked to Lord Macartney that he ques- 


tioned whether, as he was short-sighted, he would be able to 
see him. Lord Macartney replied that he could see him per- 
fectly well. The General now told Lord Macartney that his 
pistol was not cocked. The latter thanked him, and cocked 
the weapon. The signal was given, and the combatants fired 
almost simultaneously. The General's bullet struck Lord 
Macartney on the right shoulder, and lodged there, whereupon 
the seconds immediately intervened, and said that honour was 
satisfied. But the General would not hear of this. There 
had been " no satisfaction " to him, he declared, and if another 
discharge of pistols could not be allowed, " then I must defer 
it to another occasion." To which Lord Macartney replied : — 
" If that is the case, we had better proceed now. I am here 
in consequence of a message from General Stuart, who called 
upon me to give him satisfaction in my private capacity for 
offence taken at my public conduct, and to evince that per- 
sonal safety is no consideration with me. I have nothing per- 
sonal. The General may proceed as he thinks best." To 
which the General replied that he resented Lord Macartney's 
personal conduct. He still wished to proceed with the duel ; 
but the seconds were firm, and would not allow it, so the 
General left the ground with his second. The two surgeons 
in attendance took Lord Macartney's coat off, bound up 
the wound, and accompanied him back to his house. On 
calmer consideration the General took no further action in 
the matter. The seconds drew up a memorandum in which 
they stated that they " cannot help expressing the opinion 
that no two persons ever met on a similar occasion who showed 
more firmness and composure, and they are happy to add that 
the ball is extracted, and that there is every reason to hope for 
Lord Macartney's recovery." That hope was fulfilled, for 
Lord Macartney was soon well again. The General was ap- 
pointed Colonel of the 31st Foot in 1792, and died a year later. 
It has been stated that on the suspension of General Stuart 
the Government communicated with Sir John Burgoyne (in 
command of H.M.'s 23rd Dragoons, which he had brought 
from England to the Mount), and informed him that, in the 
exercise of their authority, they had selected him, as the senior 


Officer on the Coast — he was but thirty-five years of age — to 
officiate until further orders as Commander-in-Chief. He pro- 
ceeded to act upon this intimation ; but a few hours later he 
called upon General Stuart, in the quarters assigned to that 
officer, while under arrest, in Fort St. George ; and the 
result of that visit was that he wrote to the Government to 
say that, as General Stuart informed him that he insisted upon 
retaining the command of the King's troops, and refused to 
admit that the Government had the requisite power to re- 
move him therefrom, he, Sir John Burgoyne, considered he 
was under an obligation to obey the orders of the General, 
as his superior officer. Accordingly, he begged to decline 
to assume the command until the General relinquished it. 

As the General was embarked under compulsion a few days 
later, there was then no longer reason to argue that the com- 
mand was not vacant. But now the Government resolved to 
pass over Sir John Burgoyne, and to confer the command upon 
Colonel Lang, an Officer junior to himself, yet the senior 
Infantry Officer in the service of the Company on the Coast. 
Sir John Burgoyne remonstrated against his supersession 
by a junior, and a Company's Officer; and the King's Officers 
in Madras sympathized with him. But the Government said 
that, when General Stuart was removed from the command 
they had shown Sir John Burgoyne the consideration that 
was due to him personally, and in virtue of his military rank, 
yet he had declined to carry out the wishes of the Government, 
and had supported the General in his attempt to set the 
Government at defiance. Consequently, the Government felt 
it necessary to entrust the command to an officer on whom 
they could place more reliance than himself. This decision 
irritated Sir John Burgoyne to such an extent that, the 
day after its receipt, he " withdrew," as it is stated, 
" from the Army," and applied to the Admiral for " pro- 
tection." But the Admiral refused to take the responsibility 
of receiving him under the circumstances on board any vessel 
in the Roads under his command. So Sir John Burgoyne, 
crestfallen, had to return to his quarters on shore. On the 
following morning he wrote to Lord Macartney, frankly ad- 


mitted that he had left his post without authority, to seek 
protection in the manner described, and had thereby rendered 
himself liable to arrest previous to the holding of an inquiry. 
But he begged to say that as he was ready to surrender at 
once he hoped he might be spared the indignity of arrest 
by an armed force. The Government replied that they 
would not place him under restraint unless he should by 
some future act force them to adopt so painful a measure. 

This leniency did not have the desired effect of making Sir 
John Burgoyne more discreet, for, four months after his 
supersession, he addressed a sharp letter to Lord Macartney 
individually, in which he complained that the Governor 
had taken no notice of a request which he had made in 
two previous communications for " batta," or compensa- 
tion for exceptional expenditure, to the officers of his 
Regiment. He alluded to the poor reception which the 
Regiment had had on its arrival in Madras, and told Lord 
Macartney that it was " the first in point of discipline, 
both as to Officers and men, that ever came to defend the India 
Company's Settlements." He added : — " The Officers, my 
Lord, are not adventurers. Many of them were high in the 
King's Service, and condescended for the hope of honourable 
treatment to take Commissions in a young Regiment when 
they might have had the same in an old one at home. We 
are not come as plunderers, but as soldiers, as jealous of our 
Right as of our Honour." Lord Macartney, however, declined 
to be dictated to, and he was supported in the action he took 
by his Civilian colleagues. The batta, Sir John Burgoyne 
was informed, had never been promised, and could not be 
claimed as of right ; and if, for want of it, the officers were, as 
they alleged in a memorial which he had forwarded on their 
behalf, inconvenienced at the Mount, the Government were 
prepared to sanction the removal of the Regiment to the 
Luz, or Poonamallee. 

This did not tend to mollify Sir John Burgoyne. One thing 
led to another until, on December 31, the Government felt it 
necessary to take his conduct into consideration. They did so 
ostensibly on two grounds ; firstly, that he had summoned 


Colonel Straubenzee and two Captains of the 52nd Regi- 
ment of Foot at Poonamallee to attend a Court- Martial in 
the first week in January, although he was aware that those 
officers had received the orders of the Government to remain 
at Poonamallee fort ; and, secondly, because he had left the 
Army, on the occasion referred to, without leave. Accordingly, 
the Government resolved that it was necessary for the Public 
Service that he should be put under arrest. So they directed 
Mr. George Wasey, the Acting Secretary, to communicate their 
decision to him in these terms : — 

The whole tenor of your proceedings since their General Order 
of the 17th September last had appeared to the Select Committee so 
extraordinary, that they did not think it prudent after that to give 
their sanction to any military authority which you might think fit to 
assume. As long as it did no mischief, and the public service was not 
materially impeded, they declined taking notice of it ; but now, Sir, 
it becomes absolutely unavoidable. It is their duty to provide for 
the safety of the common weal ; and to prevent it from suffering any 
detriment ; they, therefore, cannot permit that you should assume 
and exercise a power of calling away at your pleasure, without 
the sanction of Government, such Officers as have been specially 
entrusted by it with commands. If the shadow of such authority 
in you, or any other Officer, were allowed, the Company would be 
deprived of the benefit of His Majesty's troops, which were sent 
out here for their service, at an immense expense, and might suffer 
the most serious injury where essential assistance was expected. 

Sir John Burgoyne replied, not to the Government, but to 
Lord Macartney, on the following (New Year's) day. He 
commenced by challenging the ability of the Government to 
place him under arrest, because he could find no power vested 
in them by the Articles of War that warranted their assumption 
of such authority in regard to any of His Majesty's Officers. 
He asserted, therefore, that the Government were unable to 
bring him to a General Court-Martial, which, " by the laws of 
the land, I have a right to in eight days after my being first 
arrested." But, bearing in mind that General Stuart " was 
insulted in his own house by an armed force, sufficiently proves 
to me that resistance, if I had made any, would have been 
in vain." So he accepted the notice of arrest contained in 
the Government's Order, which was delivered to him by 



Colonel Malcolm, Adjutant-General to the Company's Forces. 
He could not, however, refrain from alluding to one pretext 
employed by the Government for his arrest. " It is," he said, 
" a pretext I should have thought too poor, too pitiful, and 
too ridiculous even for the Select Committee of Fort St. George 
to adopt." The Government had declared that their " con- 
duct will ever be guided by moderation, consistency, and the 
public good." Sir John Burgoyne agreed to the consistency : 

for there is hardly one person whose misfortune it has been to have 
any transactions with you since the Right Hon'ble the President's 
arrival, who has not had reason to curse the hour his ill stars 
doomed him to have any connections with His Lordship. His 
Highness the Nabob, the Supreme Board, the late gallant and much 
revered Commander-in-Chief, Sir Eyre Coote, Sir Edward Hughes, 
General Stuart, myself, many others, both in public and private 
stations, are proofs undeniable that your consistency is one uniform 
and general plan of tyranny and oppression. 

Then, as to the Government's " moderation," Sir John 
Burgoyne was sorry that it was not in his power to quote more 
than one instance, which was that of General Stuart, the late 
Commander-in-Chief :— 

An old soldier, who had lost a limb in your service, after having 
been vilified in a letter so indecent that Mons. de Bussy, into whose 
hands a copy of it fell, could not help (though an enemy in arms at 
that time to General Stuart), expressing his indignation at the insult 
offered to the whole profession of arms ; him, I say, you ordered 
home in a vessel, generally thought by everybody so unfit for the long 
voyage that the General himself, after he was on board, wrote me a 
letter to say it must be a miracle that could preserve his life, even if 
the ship arrived safe, the accommodations were so bad, and so unfit 
for a person in his helpless situation. 

In conclusion, Sir John Burgoyne warned Lord Macartney 
that " the time must come, and you know it, when ample 
justice must be done me, and when, divested of the plumes of 
Government, you must answer for your conduct." 

Having relieved his feelings in this intemperate and in- 
subordinate fashion, the Baronet left Madras, and proceeded 
to Pondicherry (then a British possession), for change of air. 
How long he remained there does not appear in the 


records. It was fortunate for him that Lord Macartney 
was a forbearing kind of man. In illustration of that 
characteristic of his, it is worth while quoting the following 
remarks from a letter that he wrote on one occasion, when 
Sir Eyre Coote was more trying than usual, to Mr. Macpherson, 
the colleague of Warren Hastings and of Coote in the 
Bengal Council : — 

I never retort any sharp expression which may occur in his letters. 
In fact I court him like a mistress, and humour him like a child ; 
but with all this I have a most sincere regard for him, and honour him 
highly. But I am truly grieved at heart to see a man of his military 
reputation, at his time of life, made miserable by those who ought 
to make him happy, and from a great public character worked into 
the little instrument of private malignity and disappointed avarice. 
All, however, has been, and shall be, good humour and good breeding 
on my part. 

It may be assumed, therefore, that, for all his irregular con- 
duct, Sir John Burgoyne, who was relatively a young man, 
was let down lightly by Lord Macartney. Yet soon after 
Lord Macartney's departure, and while Mr. Davidson was 
acting as Governor, he again incurred the displeasure of the 
Government, and he was then not only placed under arrest, 
but was brought before a Court-Martial, which sat during June 
and July, 1785. In the end he was acquitted of the charges 
alleged against him. Two months later, while he was still 
in Madras, he fell ill, and he died on September 23, three 
days after completing his thirty-ninth year. 

There was yet another gentleman in Madras with whom 
Lord Macartney was brought into hostile relations — namely, 
Mr. James Sadleir, the third Member of his Council. It 
was characteristic of Lord Macartney to be solicitous for 
the welfare of men of good character and high attain- 
ments who worked with him. Mr. Hudleston — the first 
member of a Cumberland family that was officially connected 
with Madras for upwards of a century — was then Military 
Secretary to Government ; and it appeared to Lord Macartney, 
after he had seen much of him, that the time had arrived 
when it would be becoming of the Government to mark their 
appreciation of the manner in which he discharged his duties 


by raising his salary. Thereupon he broached the matter 
to his colleagues, and they all, it seemed to him, expressed 
approval of the step that he suggested. But, when he brought 
the subject up a second time, in view to confirmation, Mr. 
Sadleir took objection to it. His colleagues thereupon 
endeavoured to call to that gentleman's recollection that, on 
the previous occasion when the topic was alluded to, he had 
concurred with them in thinking that the advance might 
very well be made. But he denied having ever expressed 
such approval ; and he made his denial in so positive and 
exasperating a manner that the Governor lost his temper, 
and declared that he had told a lie. 

This was, to say the least, unparliamentary ; and, to make 
matters worse, Lord Macartney directed that the incident 
should be recorded in the Minutes of Consultations. He sub- 
sequently explained to the Court of Directors that he had 
followed this course " because I never will attempt to conceal 
from you anything however important which the meanest 
member of the community might wish to be laid before you." 
He further observed that " every gentleman of feeling knows 
that there is a species of audacious contradiction which can 
only be stopped by a particular mode of expression. In the 
case now alluded to that expression, although arising from 
absolute necessity, was no sooner used but was apologised for 
to the Committee." But the military friends of Mr. Sadleir 
were not slow to inform him that in their judgment he 
owed it to himself, as a man of honour, to require Lord 
Macartney to give him, as a gentleman, private satisfaction 
for the offensive expression that he had not only employed, 
but had placed on record. He deferred to their opinion, 
and accepted the offer that was made by Major Grattan, 
one of those friends, to act as his second. The Major lost 
no time about waiting upon the Governor, and stating what 
Mr. Sadleir -demanded. Lord Macartney expressed his readi- 
ness to comply with the demand, and referred his visitor to 
Mr. Davidson, the first Civilian Member of Council, who 
would act on hisjbehalf. Thereupon the two seconds had 
an interview, and arranged that the meeting should take 


place at seven o'clock the following morning, September 24, 
but whether the spot chosen was in some retired nook 
near the walls, inside the Fort, as seems possible, or in the 
open on the Island, I have not discovered. 

Accordingly, the next morning Lord Macartney, accompanied 
by Mr. Davidson, who brought pistols already loaded with 
him, reached the rendezvous at half-past six, and found Mr. 
Sadleir and Major Grattan already there. The Major had 
brought unloaded pistols with him, and he now proceeded 
to load them. The two seconds then stepped out ten 
paces, and marked the spots on which the combatants were 
to stand. Mr. Davidson availed himself of this opportunity 
to ask the Major if he did not think that after each gentleman 
had fired one shot they, as the seconds, might endeavour to 
bring the affair to a conclusion by inviting the Governor to 
offer an apology to Mr. Sadleir. Major Grattan expressed 
his willingness to do this. The principals were now put into 
their places. Then the seconds tossed for first fire, and the 
chance falling to Mr. Sadleir, he immediately discharged his 
pistol, and his bullet struck Lord Macartney in the left side, 
though the fact that it had taken effect was not immediately 
observed by Mr. Sadleir, nor by the seconds. Lord Macartney 
now fired, but missed. He then said : — " Go on Mr. Sadleir." 
But Mr. Davidson then observed from the blood exuding 
on Lord Macartney's waistcoat that he was wounded, and he 
called the Major's attention to the fact. The latter stepped 
forward, and invited Lord Macartney to make the desired 
reparation to Mr. Sadleir for the reflection which he had cast 
on that gentleman's honour. But Lord Macartney declined to 
do so. " I came here," he said, " to give satisfaction to Mr. 
Sadleir, and I am still ready to do so." 

It now, however, became necessary to open his waistcoat to 
ascertain the nature of the wound, and this had no sooner been 
done than Major Grattan expressed the opinion that, in Lord 
Macartney's wounded condition, Mr. Sadleir might be satis- 
fied, and that under such circumstances the matter should not 
be pursued any further. Mr. Sadleir accepted the decision of 
his second, and, declaring that he was satisfied, left the 


ground. A formal statement of the facts of the duel was 
drawn up by the seconds the following morning, at a meeting 
held for the purpose, at which Colonel Fullarton and Colonel 
Dalrymple were present, and it was " mutually admitted to 
be just and true, and was accordingly subscribed to by " them. 
Mr. Davidson appended this memorandum : — " Concerning 
the proposition mentioned by Mr. Davidson to Major Grattan 
in the above narrative of an interference, and reference 
to the principals after an exchange of pistols, Mr. Davidson 
declares the proposal came from himself. Lord Macartney 
not having given Mr. Davidson any instructions whatever 
relative to the meeting, Mr. Davidson made the proposal with 
a view of terminating the affair as soon as possible." 

Owing to the want of newspapers at that period in India, 
and to the omission of such papers as then existed in London 
to obtain news of what passed in the East, nothing apparently 
was heard in England about the duel — unless Lord Macartney 
in his conscientious way informed the Court of Directors about 
it — until November 1807, eighteen months after his death. 
Then it was that Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Barrow, F.R.S., a 
member of his Staff both in China and the Cape, published 
" Some Account " of his " Public Life," and a selection from 
his " Unpublished Writings," in which he gave an account of 
the incident based doubtless (as he did not go to Madras) on 
the information which he gathered from Lord Macartney. 
Within a few days a correspondent, writing, over the pseu- 
donym of " iEquitas," to the Gentleman's Magazine, said : — 

Mr. Barrow, in his Life of Lord Macartney, speaks of a Mr. James 
Sadleir in terms which I am inclined to think he by no means merited ; 
and, among other blemishes of mind, Lord M.'s biographer accuses 
him of " timidity." It, however, puzzles me greatly to determine 
whether the epithet is bestowed by ignorance or by malignity ; but, 
from some certain circumstances, I am induced to ascribe it to the 
latter ; and under that opinion I feel desirous to inform the public of 
the following facts : — During a warm debate in Council at Fort St. 
George, the Governor, Lord Macartney, gave the lie direct to a gentle- 
man who did not coincide with him in opinion. The gentleman 
requested that Lord M. would waive all advantages from his situ- 
ation, and give him private satisfaction ; they met, and the injured 
gentleman shot the Governor, either in the shoulder or in the arm, I 


forget which ; and this gentleman was the " timid Mr. James Sadleir " 
of Mr. Barrow, at that time third in Council at Madras ! The anec- 
dote I relate from memory, and pledge my honour to the substance, 
though without referring to my journal, I cannot precisely state all 
the particulars. The reading world may, however, hereby discover 
that a Biographer does not always content himself with giving a 
garbled account of the life of a Friend, but uses, occasionally, that 
opportunity to asperse the character of a person he dislikes. 

The book was published by Thomas Cadell of the Strand, 
London, who was not related to Robert Cadell, of Cockenzie, 
the famous publisher in Edinburgh, who was an intimate 
friend of Sir Walter Scott, and the grand-uncle of the late 
General Sir Robert Cadell, K.C.B., the gallant Royal (formerly 
Madras) Artillery Officer, and delightful raconteur, who not so 
long ago was a conspicuous figure in Madras. The British 
Museum has a handsome copy of it that once belonged to 
George III., whose monogram, under a Royal crown, sur- 
mounted by the Roman figures " III." is stamped in gold on 
the calf cover. This copy was presented to the nation by 
George IV. I have examined it to see if Sir John Barrow 
did attribute " timidity " to Mr. Sadleir in face of the facts 
regarding that gentleman's bearing at the duel, and I have 
failed to find justification for the remonstrance of the critic. 
It is true that Sir John Barrow described Mr. Sadleir as " a 
fickle, intemperate, and unaccommodating man," who con- 
tradicted the " assertion of his colleagues in a most positive 
and provoking manner," but he offered no other remarks 
about him. As to Lord Macartney's uncharacteristic loss of 
temper, and consequent indiscretion, he observed " that there 
are certain situations in which the greatest command of 
temper cannot prevent the escape of a hasty expression that, 
in cooler moments, the person who uttered it will rarely 
attempt to justify, unless the provocation happens to be of 
a nature not to be excused." He added that " this was the 
only dispute, and almost the only difference of opinion, that 
Lord Macartney had to encounter in the Select Committee 
in the whole course of his difficult Government." 

Lord Macartney resigned the Governorship of Madras in 


June 1785, and proceeded for Calcutta in the hope of bringing 
Sir John Macpherson, the provisional Governor-General — for 
Warren Hastings had just left for England — and his Council 
round to his way of thinking about affairs in Mysore and 
the Carnatic. While he was thus fruitlessly engaged, he 
not only fell seriously ill, but he received from the Court 
of Directors a definite offer of the Governor-Generalship. 
His relations with Warren Hastings had been somewhat 
strained, and the latter had left many friends in Bengal who 
were by no means disposed to modify their opinions to make 
them harmonize with those of Fort St. George. Moreover, 
Lord Macartney had stuck so closely to work in Madras ; had 
devoted himself so strenuously to the task of controlling 
Nabobs and Rajahs, as well as his own subordinates, most of 
whom were intent primarily on feathering their nests ; had 
had so little change of air ; and had been so subject to gout 
(which eventually carried him off), and rheumatism, that he 
felt in no humour to avail himself of the opportunity to be- 
come President of the Supreme Government. So, as soon as 
his health allowed, he embarked for England, and he arrived 
in London on January the 9th, 1786, after five years' absence. 
On the following day, as has been said, General Stuart 
commenced the correspondence which led to the hostile 
encounter above referred to. But on the 13th January, or 
four days after his arrival, Lord Macartney met the Chair- 
man and Deputy Chairman of the East India Company, at 
the India House, and explained why it was that he had not 
accepted the offer made to him by the Court of Directors. 
He represented that his health had been so much impaired 
by the climate of, and the cares of office in Madras, that he 
felt it was essential that he should refrain from entering upon 
a new sphere of public duty in India until he had recovered 
strength by a sea voyage and prolonged rest. Moreover, he 
entertained decided views about the necessity of subordi- 
nating the military to the civil authority in India, and 
regarding other administrative matters, on which he would 
be glad to be favoured with the opinions of the Court. If 
the Court were prepared to support his views, then he, on 


his part, would probably be willing to accept the brilliant 
opportunity for public usefulness which they had presented 
to him. 

Eleven days later his friend, Mr. Charles James Fox, the 
leader of the Opposition, when speaking in the House of Com- 
mons on the King's Speech at the opening of Parliament, 
referred to the affairs of India, and declared that Lord 
Macartney had acted throughout the time he was there upon 
the most upright principles, and had returned home with per- 
fectly clean hands. Mr. Fox eulogized his zeal, talent, integrity, 
and disinterestedness, and concluded by saying that he was 
expressing no more than the public estimate of his character. 
Mr. Pitt, in the course of his reply to Mr. Fox's speech, re- 
marked that, although in regard to the assignment of the 
revenues of the Carnatic Lord Macartney may not have acted 
quite prudently, with that exception his conduct in Madras 
entitled him to the highest applause that words could possibly 
bestow. Meanwhile, the Court of Directors had forwarded 
to the Board of Control — of which Mr. Henry Dundas, though 
not yet the President, was the moving spirit — a minute of the 
conversation that had passed between Lord Macartney and 
the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, on the 13th ; and, on 
the 21st February, Mr. Dundas wrote to Lord Macartney, and 
asked him to meet Mr. Pitt and himself on the following 
morning at the office of the Commissioners for the Affairs of 

Lord Macartney accordingly presented himself at the Board's 
Office on the 21st February, and received from the Prime 
Minister the assurance that, should he determine to return 
to India as Governor-General, he might depend upon his — 
Mr. Pitt's — decided countenance and support. In the course 
of his reply to this Lord Macartney stated that it seemed 
to him to be necessary for his own reputation and for the 
public services that he should receive, before his departure, 
such a mark of Royal favour as would unequivocally show 
the world that he was going out with the combined support of 
the Crown, the Ministry, and the Company. He had passed 
twenty-two years of his life in public business, and he 


aspired to receive the King's favour as a reward for past, 
and an encouragement to future services. At the same 
time he begged Mr. Pitt to understand that he felt no eager- 
ness about the appointment, for its acceptance would 
involve his banishment once again from his country "and his 
family, and would commit him to a task of infinite difficulty, 
responsibility, and risk. Mr. Pitt at once showed that it 
did not seem to him expedient to advise the King to confer 
on Lord Macartney the British peerage which the latter 
was desirous of receiving ; and three days later the Governor- 
Generalship was offered to, and accepted by Earl Cornwallis. 
Mr. Dundas subsequently gave a friend a written explana- 
tion of the refusal of Mr. Pitt to entertain Lord Macartney's 
proposal. He said : — 

We thought it a bad precedent to establish by our authority 
that so high and important a situation should not of itself be thought 
sufficiently exalted to invite the first persons in the Kingdom to look 
up to it as the object of their ambition. It appeared to us a most 
proper road to the acquisition of an hereditary honour, as a reward 
for services actually performed, and Lord Macartney would certainly 
have obtained it after his return to India ; but we could not listen 
to the idea of a grant of a peerage being preliminary to the appoint- 
ment of a Governor-General of India. The stand on our part became 
the more necessary because the Resolution was then taken of not 
confining the high situation in India to the servants of the Company, 
as it was anxiously wished that men of rank and consideration in their 
own country should become candidates for the first and most import- 
ant situation under His Majesty ; and it would take from the grace 
and character of future appointments, if such men were to be induced 
to accept the situation by the allurement of a British peerage as a 
necessary requisite previous to acceptance. If that was recognized 
candidates might offer merely to accomplish that object, and they 
would return again as soon as they had landed in India, having 
secured the favourite object they had in view. 

Mr. Dundas then alluded to objections to the selection of 
Lord Macartney having been raised not only by " the great 
body of the Directors and Proprietors of the East India Com- 
pany," but also by the partisans of Mr. Warren Hastings and 
Sir John Macpherson. " When, therefore," he continued, 
" against such an accumulation of discontent and opposition, 


Mr. Pitt was induced by me to concur in the return of Lord 
Macartney to India, as Governor-General, it was not unnatural 
that both of us should have felt hurt that he did not rather 
repose his future fortunes in our hands than make it a subject 
of a sine qua non preliminary." These arguments are more 
plausible than convincing. Lord Macartney — an Irish Peer — 
had put in, as he stated, many years of arduous service for the 
State both at home and abroad, and it would have been a 
small matter to have conceded to him the honour of admission 
to the English peerage, by way of emphasizing the fact that he 
enjoyed the confidence of the King's Government. While 
he was in India the difference in his status between being an 
Irish and an English Peer would have been of small account to 
any one but himself. But the austerity which caused none 
but an Irish peerage to be conferred on Robert Clive ; which 
refused a peerage of any description to Warren Hastings ; and 
that limited the gratification of the Earl of Mornington's am- 
bition to promotion to an Irish Marquisate and an English 
Barony, induced Mr. Pitt, on the advice, seemingly, of Mr. 
Dundas, to decline to comply with Lord Macartney's very 
moderate stipulation. Yet Mr. Dundas was not himself proof 
against " the allurement of a British peerage," for he eventually 
secured the titles of Viscount Melville and Baron Dunira, 
though not previous to his acceptance of office. 

As a matter of fact, however, Lord Macartney was not at 
all keen about going back to India. He had had trouble 
enough during the four years that he was Governor of 
Madras ; and he foresaw that were he to become Governor- 
General he would, in all probability, have more difficult 
problems to face, and more prejudices to soothe, than ever. 
But he was ready to sacrifice his private feelings to public 
duty, if called upon to do so by the King's Government. 
It was not much, after all, that he asked of that Government 
as a token of its appreciation. So when, notwithstanding 
his many services " actually performed," that little was rather 
churlishly refused, and the negotiation with Mr. Pitt fell 
through, he felt relieved rather than wronged. It is said that 
as soon as he heard of the selection of Lord Cornwallis, he 


hurried to a house where a large party was being held, and at 
which Lady Macartney was present, took out a card from his 
pocket, and wrote in pencil upon the back of it : — " I am the 
happiest man in England at this hour. Lord Cornwallis, I 
hear, is Governor-General of India." He passed the card on 
to his wife, and she treasured it to the end of her long life. 

The Court of Directors were not slow in marking their 
appreciation of Lord Macartney's services in Madras, as 
soon as it had been determined that he was not to return 
to India. On April 12, 1786, they recorded the following 
Resolutions : — 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Court that the Right Hon- 
ourable George, Lord Macartney, whilst he was Governor of Madras, 
upon all occasions manifested the greatest zeal in support of the in- 
terest of this Company, and that he faithfully discharged his duty 
as such, more especially by adhering strictly to his covenants and 
engagements with the Company, in declining to accept any presents 
from the Country Powers, or from any person whatever in India ; 
that the example set by his Lordship, in giving in upon oath a 
statement of his property gained in the Company's Service, was 
highly meritorious, inasmuch as such conduct was afterwards 
sanctioned by an Act of the Legislature ; and by which statement 
it appears, that his Lordship's fortune had been very moderately 
increased during his residence in India, and that the same arose solely 
from the savings he made from his salary and allowances authorised 
by this Court. 

Resolved, That it is incumbent upon this Court to show their fullest 
approbation of such upright and disinterested conduct, in the hope 
that so laudable an example will be followed by their servants in 
India ; and, moreover, that it is fitting that some compensation 
should be made to his Lordship, and that it will be a proper reward 
for such distinguished service, and such integrity, to grant his Lord- 
ship an annuity of fifteen hundred pounds during the term of his 
natural life. 

As Lord Macartney lived for twenty years after the annuity 
was granted he received in all £30,000, or the equivalent 
of the very sum that he had the moral courage to decline 
to accept from the Nabob. Previous to this the Directors 
granted an annuity of £500 to Mr. George Staunton, his 
Secretary, and successfully exerted their influence to obtain 
for him an Irish baronetcy. 


This put an end to Lord Macartney's views in connexion 
with India ; so, with a light heart, he now indulged in a spell of 
well-earned rest from official labour. He regained his former 
popularity as a member of Society. His " graceful person, 
his great suavity of manner, his conciliatory disposition, his 
winning address," made friends for him everywhere. Event- 
ually he was employed for two years, and rendered important 
service, as British Ambassador in China ; and yet later 
he did excellent work as Governor of the Cape of Good 
Hope, and made a good impression on the Boers. So it came 
to pass that he was created Earl Macartney and Viscount 
Deroocle, in the peerage of Ireland, and also Baron Macartney, 
of Parkhurst, Kent, in the peerage of England. 

After his return from the Cape, Lord Macartney took a 
house in Curzon Street, Mayfair, London, as well as a long lease 
of Corney House, Chiswick. The latter was built by Sir 
William Russell, father of the first Earl of Bedford, who had 
the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth there. Like 
Dr. Johnson, Hogarth, Dr. Burney, Fanny Burney, and other 
notable persons, Lord and Lady Macartney were very partial 
to Chiswick, and it was there that the former succumbed to 
his old enemy, gout, in March 1806, aged sixty-nine. He was 
buried near the grave of Hogarth, the great painter, in 
" God's acre," around the parish church (supposed to have 
been built about six hundred years ago) of Chiswick, which is 
about two miles distant from the church at Mortlake where 
Sir Philip Francis rests. 

The monument which Lady Macartney erected over his 
remains bears l the inscription printed overleaf : — 

1 It would be more correct to say that it once bore the inscription 
which I have given overleaf, since that inscription has been effaced 
from the surface of the stone by the hand of time. I obtained 
the words from a book by Mr. Thomas Faulkcner, published in 
1845. Even then, thirty-nine years only after the monument was 
erected, Mr. Faulkener remarked : — " We unwillingly observe that 
the letters of the inscription on Lord Macartney's monument are so 
badly cut, and the punctuation rendered so erroneous by the want 
of judgment in the mason, that the work may in a future day be 
adduced as a specimen of ill taste in the age that produced it." 


Sacred to the Memory of The Right Hon'ble 
Privy Counsellor, Knight of the Order of the Bath, etc. 

A nobleman endowed by nature with the most extra- 
ordinary talents, which he cultivated with a degree of 
assiduity and perseverance hardly ever equalled. The 
greatest part of his life was devoted to the public service ; 
and he filled a variety of high and important functions in 
different parts of the world with the most unsullied 
honour, the strictest integrity, good credit, and advantage 
to his King and country. His private virtues were such 
as to demand universal esteem and admiration. His 
liberality and generosity were unbounded. His superior 
knowledge, sweetness of disposition, and lively entertaining 
conversation rendered him the delight of his friends, and the 
ornament of society. 

Lord Macartney left no issue. 1 He secured the lease of 
Corney House for, and bequeathed all his property to, 
his wife, for her life, with remainder, on her decease, to Mrs. 
Hume (his niece, and adopted daughter, the widow of a Doctor 
of Divinity), and to that lady's children in succession after her, 
coupled with the stipulation that they should assume his 
surname and arms. Lady Macartney had a large circle of rela- 
tives, including her eldest brother, who was made Marquis of 
Bute, and her three sisters, the Duchess of Northumberland, 
the Countess of Lonsdale, and the Countess of Portarlington. 
She survived her husband twenty-two years ; then died, at 
Corney House, in 1828, aged eighty-six ; and was buried 
beside him. Thereupon Lord Macartney's property de- 
volved upon Mrs. Hume ; and from her it has descended 
to her great-grandson, Mr. Carthanach George Macartney, of 
Lissanoure, Ireland, the present holder of it. 

1 His portrait by Abbott is in the National Portrait Gallery, and a 
reproduction of it is given in the present volume. It represents him 
" in conference " with Sir George Staunton, his Private Secretary, 
upon the peace with Tippoo, 1784. 

See Appendix III. for descriptions of Fort St. George in 1747 and 
1783, taken from the long defunct European Magazine. The latter 
is illustrated by a sketch of Fort St. George during the period when 
Lord Macartney was Governor. 

Painter Tuknown. 

CorDmander-in-Chief in India 1779-1783. 



Lord Macartney arrived in Madras shortly after the out- 
break of war between England and Holland, and he rendered 
all the assistance in his power for securing the capture of 
Sadras, Pulicat, Negapatam, and other Dutch possessions on 
the Coromandel Coast. At the same time he worked har- 
moniously with General Sir Eyre Coote, the Commander-in- 
Chief, who was occupied with the war against Hyder Ali and 
the Mahrattas. But he did not succeed in inspiring Warren 
Hastings and the Government of Bengal with confidence. It 
is remarked by James Mill, in his History of British India, that 
Lord Macartney was not only of superior social rank to the 
Company's servants in India during the time that he held 
an official position there, but that he " set one of the finest 
examples of elevating a servant of the King to a high office 
in that country," and thereby of " intercepting the great 
prizes which animated the ambition of the individuals rising 
through the several stages of the Company's service." There 
was little disposition in Calcutta to give him credit for what 
Mr. Mill describes as his accomplishments, his talents, his 
calmness of temper, his moderation, and his urbanity. He 
spared no pains to keep his Council well acquainted with his 
views about passing events ; and he wrote despatch after 
despatch of a voluminous nature, and in courteous terms, to 
the " Governor-General and Council," in view to inducing 
them to modify their poor opinion of, and their distrust 
of him. The India Office Library and the British Museum 
contain a large number of his papers ; and I am led by 
what I have seen of them to the conclusion that Sir John 
Barrow (the author of an account of his life which has been 


mentioned on a former page), was entitled to say, that his 
minutes are " masterly performances," and that his " whole 
correspondence with the hostile and counteracting Govern- 
ment of Bengal is characterized by a clearness, closeness, 
and cogency of argument, and by a firmness and moderation 
which distinguish it, in a very striking manner, from the loose, 
the puerile, and fanciful reasoning, and the haughty, harsh, 
and acrimonious language of the letters from Calcutta." 

The somewhat independent attitude that was assumed by 
Lord Macartney in the Southern Presidency did not accord 
with the ideas of the fitness of things that were entertained 
by Warren Hastings, and shared by Sir Eyre Coote. Lord 
Macartney may have been insensibly influenced by a com- 
parison between his own experiences and those of the Governor- 
General. He, as has been stated, had occupied an important 
position in Russia ; had sat for several years in the House 
of Commons ; had filled high office in Ireland ; and was 
acquainted with the West Indies ; whereas the experience 
of Warren Hastings was confined to Madras — where he was 
at one time Deputy-Governor — and Bengal. Perhaps also 
Hastings, on his part, was just a shade jealous of the hand- 
some young nobleman in Madras, who had influential friends 
at his back, especially Hastings's remorseless enemy, 
Charles James Fox. Be this as it may, there was no love lost 
between the two ; and their official relations were so strained 
that there was a departure from usage in regard to official 
correspondence that could hardly have been conducive to the 
security of the nascent Empire in India. 

For a time Lord Macartney and Sir Eyre Coote remained on 
good terms. But, after a while, differences of opinion arose, 
partly, perhaps, because the General was impelled by the 
exigencies of a fierce and costly war against a redoubtable 
and resourceful enemy, to make demands upon the Treasury 
at Fort St. George that were in excess of the power of the 
Government to meet. Moreover, the General maintained that, 
in virtue of the terms of his appointment, or of his position 
as Commander-in-Chief in India, and a member therefore of 
the Council of the Governor-General, he should not be subject 


to any interference by the Civil authorities in Madras in his 
conduct of the campaign. On the other hand, Lord Macart- 
ney, who was in no mood to play second fiddle, contended 
with all courtesy that since Sir Eyre Coote, in virtue of his 
status in the Governor-General's Council, became, ex-officio, 
a Member of the Council of Fort St. George during such 
time as he remained in the Presidency of Madras, his proceed- 
ings must be subject to, or be governed by, the resolutions 
adopted by the majority of the Madras Council. 

The more the matter was discussed the more did each 
disputant think that he was right, and his opponent wrong. 
Lord Macartney was not too strong in his own Council, for 
Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes, who was a member of it, 
was somewhat of an un-friend ; and Major-General Stuart, 
second-in-command of the Madras Forces, made no attempt 
to disguise his sympathy with the views of his military chief. 
Moreover, the moral support accorded by the Governor- 
General and Council to that chief weighed in the balance against 
the Governor. But he held his own for all that, and so 
firmly refused to yield to Sir Eyre Coote's demands that the 
latter became disgusted, and resolved to take the earliest 
advantage of a pause in the war, which resulted from the 
enfeeblement of the moribund Hyder, to return to Calcutta. 
Colonel Mark Wilks, the Mysore historian, who commenced 
his career in the Madras Army in 1781, and was personally 
acquainted with both the Governor and the Commander-in- 
Chief, remarked that " the estimable veteran could not fail to 
discover, through the fullest drapery of Lord Macartney's 
compliments, many intelligible insinuations that much more 
might have been done than was actually accomplished by 
the Army " ; and " it must, with whatever reluctance, be 
allowed, that the temper evinced by him exhibited mournful 
evidence of his having outlived some of the most attractive 
qualities of his earlier character." 

Sir Eyre Coote's health had suffered from the hardships 
of a long and difficult campaign in Southern India, and 
his spirits may have been affected by his controversies with 
the Local Government. He felt he needed change of air, 



and he sought it, not by means of a sea voyage, but by 
returning at the height of the hot weather to Calcutta, where 
he felt quite at home, and among none but friends. The air, 
scene, and society of Calcutta soon had the restorative effect 
which he desired ; and he might have been glad to remain 
where he was had it not been that Hyder Ali died, and Tippoo, 
his son, speedily made things " hum " in a menacing manner 
in the immediate proximity of British acquisitions. The 
Governor General and Council did not consider that Major 
General Stuart was equal to the occasion, and Sir Eyre Coote 
was persuaded to retrace his steps to Madras in view to 
resuming the command of the local forces in the operations 
against Tippoo. He embarked at Calcutta in the Company's 
armed ship Resolution, which made a good voyage, and was 
nearing Madras when she was descried by two French ships 
of the line, that 'promptly gave her chase for a couple of days 
and nights. Mark Wilks says that, " justly conscious of the 
deep and irreparable wound which the country would sustain 
in being deprived of his services at this critical juncture, the 
General's anxiety kept him constantly on deck " ; and " the 
influence of excessive heat by day, the dews of night, and, 
above all, extreme agitation of mind during a long period in 
which escape appeared improbable, produced a relapse of 
complaints rather palliated than cured." The Resolution 
proved the superiority of her sailing powers to those of her 
pursuers, and, having effected her escape, she reached Madras, 
where, on March 25, Sir Eyre Coote landed. He was then in 
a critical state, but beyond the fact that he died two days 
later, I can find nothing about the pathetic close of his life. 
The public records are almost wholly devoid of information 
on the subject ; the publication of newspapers had not yet 
been sanctioned in Madras ; the Press was only in its infancy 
in Calcutta ; and the London Press was represented by the 
Advertiser and Chronicle, which rarely referred to affairs in 
the Far East, but preferred to indulge in the publication of 
poetical effusions and Parliamentary oratory. 

Lady Coote may have accompanied her husband on his 
voyage, and was probably with him at his death. If so, it 


was probably owing to her that it was decided that his remains 
should not rest in Indian, but in English soil. Accord- 
ingly they were conveyed on H.M.S. Bombay Castle from 
Madras to England, but Lady Coote remained in Madras. 
The ship arrived at Plymouth on September 1, and, on the 
following day, the body was disembarked in a boat that 
was escorted by boats from all the line-of-battleships in the 
harbour to the dockyard, minute guns being fired the while. 
A few days later it was removed to West Park, and there 
rested until the interment took place at Rockbourne parish 
church. Forty-five years passed, and then — or in 1828 — a 
monument was erected in West Park by Jane, Lady Coote, 
widow of the second General Sir Eyre Coote, to " commemo- 
rate," as is stated in an inscription, " the military achieve- 
ments and the private virtues of " General Sir Eyre Coote, 
K.B., and General Sir Eyre Coote, G.C.B., " uncle and 
nephew, whose brilliant exploits by extending the glory, and 
adding to the security of the British Empire, merited and 
obtained the approbation of their Sovereign and the thanks 
of a grateful country." The south side of the monument 
bears this inscription : — 

General Sir Eyre Coote, Knight of the Most Honourable 
Order of the Bath, was the descendant of an ancient and 
honourable family, which derives its origin from Sir John 
Coote, a native of France, who married the daughter and 
heiress of Lord Boys of that Kingdom. Two Earldoms, 
two Baronies and the Order of the Bath conferred upon 
different branches of the family attest the loyalty and 
military success for which they were always distinguished. 
Sir Eyre Coote commanded the British Forces in India, and 
after a succession of important victories he finally com- 
pleted the destruction of the French power in India by 
the conquest of Pondicherry, which surrendered to him in 
February, 1761. As a testimony of their gratitude for 
the brilliant services rendered by Sir Eyre Coote and 
their sense of the courage and conduct which had rendered 
results in victories to the British arms, the Court of Direc- 
tors of the East India Company presented him with a 
diamond hilted sword of ^700 value, and upon his death 
erected a monument to him in Westminster Abbey. In the 
year 1763 Sir Eyre Coote married a daughter of Charles 
Hutchinson, Esq., Governor of St. Helena, and dying at 


Madras in 1783 without issue, he bequeathed his property 
of West Park with his other English and Irish estates to 
his nephew General Sir Eyre Coote, G.C.B., and K.C. His 
remains were brought from India and buried in Rockbourne 
Church a.d. 1784. 

The Court of Directors of the East India Company were not 
slow to mark their sense of the great value of the services 
rendered to them by Sir Eyre Coote, for though they did not 
— as they might appropriately have done — make a grant to 
his widow, they enlisted the services of Thomas Banks, the 
famous sculptor at the time, in providing a white marble statue 
of the General to adorn their Consultation Hall, and also a 
monument in Westminster Abbey. The statue represents the 
General in full military uniform. The expression of the face 
is not engaging. 1 Shortly after the transfer of the head 
centre of the Government of India from Leadenhall Street to 
Whitehall, the statue was removed from the old India House, 
previous to its demolition, to the new India Office, on its com- 
pletion, and placed in a niche on one of the two grand stair- 
cases of the Office, in a line with the statues of corresponding 
dimensions, similarly transferred, of Cornwallis, Wellesley and 
Wellington. A somewhat amusing, though undesigned, effect 
is produced by the contiguity of the statues of Coote and Corn- 
wallis. The Marquis is represented holding an olive branch in 
his extended right hand, while his good-humoured face is 
turned blandly to the right, or towards the General. The 
General is shown gripping his drawn sword with his right 
hand, while his grim-looking face is turned rather sharply to 
the left, or towards the Marquis, as though he were exclaiming 
angrily, " What the dickens do you mean ? ", or words to 
that effect. 

The Coote monument in the Abbey was erected in the 
north transept close to the spot which, nearly thirty-five years 
later, was granted by the Dean and Chapter to Mrs. Warren 
Hastings for the placing there of the bust of her husband. 
It is on a large scale, and is of white marble throughout. 

1 His portrait, by a " painter unknown," is in the National Portrait 
Gallery, and a reproduction of it is given in the present volume. 

Sketched by the Author, From the "European Magazine", 1790. 



It will be seen from the accompanying sketch of it that a 
young female, with wings that look disproportionate to her 
probable weight in mid-air, intended to represent Victory, 
is shown lifting up to, in order to hang upon a nail driven 
into the trunk of a palm tree, a medallion bearing a repre- 
sentation in relief of the head and shoulders of Coote ; and, 
on the other side of the tree there is a figure, intended to 
represent a muscular, and totally unclad Mahratta captive, 
who is overwhelmed with grief, as he sits on the ground, 
with his broad back to the trunk of the tree. There are 
three standards beside the tree, and Eastern weapons in 
front of it, while beneath is an elephant on a very small 
scale. The inscription l is as follows : — 

This Monument is erected by the East India Company as 
a Memorial of the military talents of Lieutenant-General 
Sir Eyre Coote, K.B.. Commander-in-Chief of the British 
Forces in India, who by the success of his arms in the years 
1760 and 1 76 1 expelled the French from the Coast of 
Coromandel. In 1781-82 he again took the field in the 
Carnatic in opposition to the united strength of the French 
and Hyder Ally, and in several engagements defeated the 
numerous forces of the latter. But death interrupted his 
career of glory on the 27th of April, 1783, in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. 

It was habitual with Warren Hastings to preserve many 
letters which he received from private correspondents ; and 
he not only brought home with him a large collection that 
he formed while he was Governor General, but he added 
to it while he resided first at (what was then) No. 1, Park 
Lane, London (the house close to the Marble Arch, in which 
the late Mr. George Smith, of Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., 
long lived), and subsequently at his seat at Daylesford, in 
Worcestershire. Five letters from Lady Coote were among 
this collection ; and long after Warren Hastings's death they 
were purchased for the nation, and are now preserved at the 
British Museum, where I came accidentally upon them. The 

1 I have been compelled by the limitations of space to omit a 
portion of the inscription from my copy of the sketch of the 
monument in the European Magazine of 1790. 


first, addressed from " Ghiretty," is dated November 26, 
1780. It is a private letter, yet, in conformity with the for- 
mality of the day, it commences with the word " Sir," without 
any prefix. It contains no more than the communication of 
the circumstance, that " I have just had the satisfaction to 
receive a few lines from Sir Eyre himself, dated the 6th, who 
charges me to make his excuses to you for not having written 
to you at the same time as he did to the Board, but he had 
been so hurried as to put it entirely out of his power. He 
seemed to apprehend from the Intelligence of that day that 
Hyder was in possession of Arcot." Then Lady Coote pro- 
ceeded to say : "I beg you will make my compliments accept- 
able to Mrs. Hastings ; * it gave me much pleasure to hear 
she was so well recover' d." In conclusion she described her- 
self as " Your obedient, humble Servant." The next letter is 
dated January 12, 1781. It commences : " I feel myself very 
sensibly obliged by the Proof of considerate Attention which 
I have just received from you. The Report, whatever it is, 
fortunately had not reached me. I say fortunately, because 
however improbable, and undeserving of Credit, Rumours of 
this Kind may be, they serve at least to alarm the Hopes and 
Apprehensions which it is best to keep within Bounds ; but 
for authentick Information I shall depend solely upon Yourself 
in consequence of the Promise you have so obligingly made 

1 Warren Hastings, son of the Rev. Penniston Hastings, was born 
at Churchill, Oxfordshire, December 6, 1732 ; was educated at West- 
minster School; was appointed a "Writer in India" by the East 
India Company, 1749 ; proceeded to Bengal ; married the widow of 
Captain Campbell, of the Company's service, 1756 ; became a widower 
I 759 '> was appointed a Member of Council, Calcutta, 1761 ; returned 
home, 1764 ; was appointed Second in Council, Madras, 1769; returned 
to India in the Duke of Grafton ; had as fellow passengers Baron and 
Baroness Imhoff ; was appointed President of the Supreme Council, 
Bengal, 1772 ; became first Governor General of India, 1774 ; married 
Baroness Imhoff (Marie Anne von Chapuset) after the dissolution of 
her marriage with Baron Imhoff, 1775 ; resigned, 1785 ; was brought 
to trial at Westminster Hall, February 13, 1788 ; was acquitted 
April 21, 1795 ; had meanwhile purchased the Daylesford estate, near 
Churchill • died there in his eighty-sixth year, August 22, 1818. Mrs. 
Hastings died at Daylesford in her ninetieth year, March 20, 1837, 
and was buried beside her husband in Daylesford churchyard. 

■',,, -.A-/A />y ■ So. €U&t&n*2&. P7ZA 


me." Lady Coote then referred to military matters, and 
remarked that " the weakness of Sir Eyre's present Army 
even in Numbers, and still more in effect, as the Sepoys cannot 
be depended upon, leaves him in a situation as unprofitable 
to the Service as painful to Himself." In conclusion she 
offered her " best Compliments " to Mrs. Hastings. 

On June 15, 1783, about eleven weeks after her husband's 
death, Lady Coote wrote to Warren Hastings from 
" Choultry Plain, Madras." This letter shows that she 
declined to make an application to Lord Macartney, the 
Governor, or to any one else in Madras for aid in 
securing for her a passage to England. She wrote : — 

Sir, — Though I have hitherto been unable to address you upon 
Subjects of such a nature I beg you will believe me not less sensible 
of your ready and powerful Interference in respect to the embarrass- 
ments occasioned by Sir Eyre Cootc's Publick Debt to the Admiral. 
The extraordinary and harsh manner in which both that Gentle- 
man, and the Select Committee continued to urge a Point which their 
own unaccommodating Dispositions had put it out of my power to 
settle, as speedily as I wished, proved no small aggravation of 
Distresses already too severe ! And could anything heighten my 
sensibility for those Honourable Proofs of real Regard and Attention 
which I find have been paid to the General's Memory by Yourself, Sir, 
the Supreme Board, and through your Example, by the Settlements at 
large, it would be this striking difference of procedure, upon the very 
Spot, and by the very People who owed so much to the unremitted 
exertions of his Zeal and Abilities ! I wish my painful Recollections 
could stop even here ! But circumstances too strongly convince me 
that had any proper effort been made to spare us the Chace we were 
abandoned to, I might still have been happy, and the Publick had 
yet reaped the benefit of Sir Eyre's Services ! 

With such a heavy addition to the Calamity I have sustained my 
Spirits are hardly equal to the task of looking Homeward ; but it is 
necessary I should do so, and I fear I must become troublesome to 
you to assist me with the means of getting there. An India Ship is 
what I much prefer, and I do not find that any one is likely to be 
despatched from this Place, but I am told there is half a Cargo ready. 
Possibly in that case it may not be quite out of Rule for a Ship to call 
for it on the way from Bengal, and if so I can take advantage of the 
circumstance to secure a Passage. But as it is now of consequence to 
me to know the Commander, I take the liberty of naming two in hopes 
of your Indulgence in appointing one or other of them, if he can be 
appointed without impropriety. Captain Cooke of the Worcester 
I am well acquainted with, and Convinced that nothing which could 


make the Voyage easy would be omitted on his part. Should it inter- 
fere with his destination, or any Engagement to other Passengers, 
Captain Hoare, of the General Coote, has offered his Ship for my 
Accommodation. He was to have sailed for Bengal about this time, 
but it will now be a little defer'd by his going first to the Northward 
for a Cargo of Rice. 

Lady Coote then proceeded to say a good word to the 
Governor General on behalf of members of her late husband's 
Staff and household : — 

Having thus taxed your Friendship for the General on my own 
behalf, will you permit me to go a little further for the sake of those 
who suffer as well in their Prospects ' as their Feelings by his 
Decease ? 

His Family is now dispersing, and some of the members of it, after 
going through much of Service, fatigue, and expence, will return to 
Bengal, I doubt rather worse in circumstances than they quitted it. 
Will you kindly look towards them, and let them find from you the 
Patronage they have lost ? And when I assure you it will be a Con- 
solation to Myself to hear they have been favoured by your Attention, 
will you assist in throwing by that means some Light upon the Melan- 
choly Hours I have before me ? 

I shall engage your time no farther than to mention that Captain 
Hay, who has the pleasure to deliver this Letter, stands very much in 
the situation I have described. 

Seven more weeks passed, and then Lady Coote wrote 
to Hastings, and informed him of the somewhat churlish 
treatment which she had experienced at the hands of 
Admiral Sir Edward Hughes : — 

Sir, — I am sorry to be under the necessity of troubling you 
again upon the subject of my Passage home. In my letter of the 
1 8th of June by Captain Hay I took the Liberty of naming two 
Ships in preference to any others, as the Captains of them were 
known to me, and of requesting that one or other of them might 
be permitted to touch here on their way to Europe. But the 
engagement of Captain Cook and the Decease of Captain Hoare 
deprived me of both those opportunities. 

When thus at large, in consequence of repeated and pressing offers 
of Service sent me by Sr Edw. Hughes, I wrote to him requesting the 
Medea Frigate might be granted for my accommodation ; and it 
will perhaps surprise you to hear I was told it could not be allowed 
as he had destined it to take Dispatches home ! ! 



iJOlom, a* j6n&£s*s jsu, ly-tsjjj t^L&smAdAsu, , 


Xo time being to be lost in making some arrangements, I was under 
the necessity of securing one of the Ships now in the Roads at the risk 
of its being approved by you, Sir, and of your permission, for a Cargo 
to be put on board as expeditiously as possible, and allowing her to 
return hither in the Month of December next. I have, however, little 
doubt of your obliging concurrence in what is a matter of real moment 
to me. The Ship I have engaged is the Belmont, Captain Gamage, 
and am promised she shall be dispatched from here as soon as possible. 

The fifth and last letter is dated the 1st October. Lady Coote 
was still in Madras, but was about to see the last of India, 
and before leaving she endeavoured to interest Hastings in 
a member of her husband's Staff who appeared to her to 
be specially deserving : — 

I am rather apprehensive that Mr. Hastings will think I encroach 
upon the indulgence he has granted me of mentioning to him those 
Gentlemen of Sr Eyre Coote's Family who have suffered the most 
severely by his loss, when I acknowledge that the Person I am about 
to solicit for belongs at present to this Establishment, though, through 
the Interest of his Uncle, Lord Camden, he may have some hope of 
being removed to a better. 

In consequence of the death of Mr. Tierney, the Paymastership to 
the Bengal Detachment is vacated. Upon a presumption that it may 
not be an Object for any Gentleman to come from Bengal hither to 
fill that Post, for the few months it is said the Detachment is to remain 
absent from its Establishment, and in the prospect of being enabled 
by succeeding him to settle the Accounts of his Friend with more 
facility and attention than could be expected from a stranger, Mr. 
Tylor, the General's Assistant Secretary, has ventured to express to 
me, his wishes, that I could interest myself, on his behalf, provided 
I judged there was no impropriety in the request. If there is allow 
me to take the blame of it wholly upon myself, and to assure you 
that this young Man's fearfulness of presuming is equal to his real 
merits. Of those Sr Eyre Coote was fully sensible, and lamented 
his inability to acknowledge by the addition of some little Emolu- 
ments, to the very laborious Office he held in his Family, but 
when the opportunity of a vacant employment presented itself, 
Lord Macartney refused the General his Assent, and the event 
which Mr. Tylor laments as much from Affection as from the loss 
of his own hopes leaves him without any prospect here. 

Such is the state of the case ; and if he might be indulged in con- 
sideration of these circumstances, and of a very excellent character, 
with an appointment to the Bengal Detachment for the remainder of 
its term I should consider myself as fortunate in having made his 
situation known to you, and in seeing the General's good wishes on 
his behalf carried into some effect. 


I repeat again that I am apprehensive I may exceed my proper 
bounds in making this application, but something is to be asked in 
the cause of Merit, and in the earnest desire of fulfilling the Instruc- 
tions of a departed Friend ! And tho' Mr. Hastings may find that I 
am troublesome, he will, I venture to assure myself, be apt to forgive 
the error in consideration of what leads me into it. 

My best Compliments attend Mrs. Hastings, and I am, Sir, with 
much esteem, 

Your Obliged and Obedient Servant, 

Susanna Coote. 

Lady Coote arrived safely in England, and took up her 
residence at West Park, her husband's property, near Rock- 
bourne, Hampshire. There she lived eleven years, and then 
dying, was buried beside him in the parish church. 

It appears from the records of the Government of Madras 
that at the date of Sir Eyre Coote's death, Lord Macartney 
and the civilian members of his Council were more concerned 
about the probable diversion of public treasure from their 
almost empty exchequer than by a sense of the loss sustained 
by the State by the death of that distinguished officer. A 
meeting of the Select Committee was held in the Fort the 
day after his arrival, when the Governor brought to the notice 
of the Committee : " That Sir Eyre Coote is at length arrived, 
and he understands has brought with him both despatches 
and treasure, but as yet we have received nothing from him " ; 
and immediately after his death some brisk correspondence 
passed about the treasure between the Committee and his 
Assistant Private Secretary, who declined to make any ad- 

Accordingly the local Government wrote to Colonel Owen, 
Military Secretary to the late General, to say that they had 
been informed by the Captain of the Resolution that, on the 
15th idem, he had landed, by the Colonel's orders, four chests 
of treasure, belonging to the Hon'ble East India Company ; 
and therefore requested him to direct the same to be delivered 
immediately to Mr. Freeman, Secretary to the Committee, 
acting for the Cashkeeper. The Colonel at once replied, 
and said that as it was impossible to answer the Government's 
letter fully in so short a time, he begged to be allowed to 


explain the subject thereof in person. To this the Government 
agreed. He then attended the Council, and represented 
how the treasure had come into his possession, and that as 
Mr. Arthur Cuthbert had, on behalf of Admiral Hughes, 
threatened prosecution if a claim of the Admiral's on the late 
Sir Eyre Coote's estate was not complied with, he was unable 
to meet the wishes of the Government. He then asked to be 
allowed to go and see the Admiral on the subject. The per- 
mission being granted, he found the Admiral, and induced him 
to return with him to the Council Chamber. Thereupon, 
according to the Minutes : — 

The President relates what had passed to Sir Edward Hughes, and 
reads from the records the transaction relative to the bond as above 
stated, and observes to Sir Edward Hughes that Rs. 5 lakhs which came 
in the Resolution, and entrusted to the charge of Sir Eyre Coote, are 
the property of the Company, have their mark and seal, and were 
extremely wanted for the Army, to enable it to proceed in the present 
important expedition; that the security of Sir Eyre Coote is un- 
doubtedly good, but that any counter security that this Govern- 
ment can give shall be given in addition to it. 

The Admiral in answer informs the Council that the money was 
advanced by Mr. Cuthbert by order (out of public money) at a time 
when the Army was much distressed ; that Sir Eyre Coote assured 
him it should be repaid him out of the first money that should arrive 
from Bengal ; and that Mr. Graham has furnished him with an extract 
of a letter from the Governor-General and Council to this Govern- 
ment directing that the amount of the bond shall be paid out of the 
very first consignment of treasure from them. 

The Committee then inform the Admiral that no such Order has been 
received ; that they recollect their Secretary being applied to upon 
the subject, and his answer that he does not recollect seeing it in any 
letter from Bengal to the Military Department. The Civil Secretary 
being sent for and questioned on the subject makes the same declaration. 

Sir Edward Hughes refers the matter to Mr. Cuthbert, who, he 
observes, is the person concerned, though he, as having given him 
the order, is ultimately responsible. 

Colonel Owen being again called upon to deliver up the 
money declined to obey, but informed the Committee that he 
would go to Mr. Cuthbert, and speak to him on the subject. 
Thus baffled, the Government on the same day addressed 
the following despatch to the Governor General and Council, 
Fort William : — 


We are sorry we have to inform you of the melancholy news of the 
death of Sir Eyre Coote, which happened here yesterday afternoon. 
As from the moment of his arrival he was too ill to have any personal 
application made to him, we directed enquiries to be made among the 
gentlemen of his family for any despatches from you to this Presidency, 
or any Company's Treasure remitted here for the Public Service. As 
your letter of the nth of March mentions to us that Sir Eyre Coote 
would bring us any further instructions you might have to send on 
the subject contained in that letter, and as you knew the increased 
and pressing emergencies of this Presidency, and that we received no 
remittance from you by sea or by (?), we fully expected to receive 
at this time your assistance, as well as your instructions, but it appears 
from every enquiry we can make that there are neither despatches 
nor money addressed to the Company's representatives here. We find, 
however, by the Captain of the Resolution, in which Sir Eyre Coote 
came here, that he signed bills of lading for five lakhs of rupees received 
by him from the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with 
the Company's mark and seal affixed, but that he was directed to deliver 
the same to Sir Eyre Coote, and that he did deliver it to Colonel 
Owen, as acting for Sir Eyre Coote. We have applied to Colonel 
Owen for this money which is not denied to be the property of the 
Company, but he has not as yet agreed to our command. . . . 
As we understand that there is treasure belonging to the Company 
expected in the San Carlos, likewise consigned to Sir Eyre Coote, we 
request that you will be pleased to send us an order to the Captain 
of that vessel to deliver it to the Company's representatives here. 

flThe Government proceeded to insist that they would 
probably be caused considerable inconvenience if funds were 
still withheld, and they deprecated the entrusting and 
management in Madras of any money belonging to the 
Company to persons other than those who were placed in 
local control of the Company's " pecuniary concerns." They 
had despatched an expedition against Cuddalore in view to 
the expulsion of the French from the coast, and they could 
not have done this, or have even " carried on the most 
pressing and essential business of Government, but for the 
frequent, though not very large, supplies we receive in 
consequence of the Nabob's assignment of the revenues of 
the Carnatic." 

The Government could not receive a reply to this despatch 
for several days, and being tantalized beyond endurance by 
the knowledge that Colonel Owen had possession of " sinews 


of war " of which they stood urgently in need, they resolved 
to make another attempt to induce him to hand over the 
treasure. So they wrote to him on the 2nd May to say that, 
as the treasure was the property of the Company, they 
required him to deliver it to their Secretary without delay ; 
and they added : " Your speedy answer is desired imme- 
diately, as the Council is sitting. It is unnecessary for you 
to enter into any detail upon the matter, but either comply 
with this requisition, or signify your refusal." Colonel 
Owen replied the same day. He gave a lengthy explana- 
tion of his retention of the treasure, and concluded by 
saying that if the Government could by any method satisfy 
the demand of the Admiral on the late General's estate, " I 
shall be very happy to deliver the treasure over to you, 
but do refuse doing so on any other terms." The Govern- 
ment thereupon sent this letter, with previous corre- 
spondence, to the Attorney-General for an expression of his 
opinion as to the course which they should pursue. The 
opinion and advice of the Attorney-General are not on 
record, but that they did not tend in the direction of the 
adoption of summary proceedings against the Colonel may 
be inferred from the circumstance that the Government took 
no further action in the matter for six days. 

Then, however, they were prompted by the receipt of an 
urgent requisition for money from General Stuart — who had 
now, by Sir Eyre Coote's death, reverted to his former position 
as local Commander-in-Chief — to address themselves again 
to the Colonel, and once more demand the surrender to 
them of the " Public Treasure " in his custody. They took 
the opportunity of warning him that " in case of any failure in 
our present operations from the want of public money now in 
your possession, such failure must be imputed to your with- 
holding it, and you must be considered as responsible for the 
consequence." The Colonel replied in a prolix letter, and not 
only declined to obey the order of the Government, and 
attempted to justify the course he had taken, but presumed 
to say that, if he was " fortunate enough to command the 
Army on the present service, even with an empty Cash 


Chest — which situation our late invaluable General was, in the 
face of the enemy, often reduced to — I should meet conse- 
quences and responsibility with confidence." He declined to 
admit that because he would not part with a sum of money 
placed casually in his possession until lawfully authorized 
to do so, he could be held answerable for " the success of 
any military operations dependent on the Government's want 
of credit." At the same time, he considered that General 
Stuart's exertions " reflected the highest honour on him, pre- 
pared as he is for enterprise, and watchful to take the very 
first advantage of the arrival of his supplies at the head of 
a gallant Army inured to fatigue and hardship of every 
description, provided his supplies and stores are covered 
by sea co-operation." 

If the Government had yielded to the provocation of this 
amazing letter, placed the Colonel under arrest, and deported 
him, they might have committed a breach of the regula- 
tions, or what passed for the law at the time, but they 
could hardly have failed to be exonerated from blame by their 
Hon'ble Masters in Leadenhall Street. They preferred, how- 
ever, to bandy more words with the wordy warrior, so they 
lost no time about writing to him in peremptory terms, and at 
great length. They concluded by saying : " This Presidency 
therefore, Sir, calls upon you once more to deliver to them 
immediately the treasure in your possession ; in failure of 
doing which they will consider it their duty to represent to 
their employers the imminent risk to which you thus expose 
their service, and that of the British nation connected with it." 
On the same day they wrote to the Governor General and 
Council, and submitted a copy of all correspondence on the 
subject of the treasure. In doing so they stated that the 
" disappointment of the supply of the money " in Colonel 
Owen's possession " has involved us in greater difficulties 
than we have ever hitherto experienced in all our former 
distresses to furnish the Army with sufficient cash for its 
ordinary disbursements." 

The members of the Government had to possess their souls 
in as much patience as they could command during several 


days, while Colonel Owen sat tight on the treasure, and 
the authorities at Calcutta made no sign. At last, the Madras 
Government received the following letter from the Governor 
General and Council : — 

By letters which we have received from Admiral Sir Edward 
Hughes and Colonel Owen we find that a demand has been made 
upon the former in consequence of the unfortunate decease of the late 
Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, for the repayment of a loan of 
one lakh of Pagodas advanced to the General for the Public Service by 
Sir Edward Hughes in July last, and that Colonel Owen, not being 
authorized to discharge this claim, did not think proper to dispose of 
the consignment of treasure landed from the Resolution until he should 
be furnished with our authority. To prevent any loss of time in issuing 
our Orders for this purpose we take this early opportunity of enclosing 
an Order to Colonel Owen to deliver up the said consignment as well 
as that laden in the San Carlos, if it shall be in his charge, to your 
Order, as we had authorized Sir Eyre Coote as long ago as August last 
to discharge his Bond to the Admiral for the loan above mentioned 
out of the first supplies which should be sent from this Presidency. 
It was his fixed determination to appropriate a part of the Treasure 
which he took with him from hence in the Resolution to this use. 
We therefore desire and enjoin you to complete our intentions by order- 
ing the instant payment of the said Bond to the Admiral, with such 
interest as may be due upon it from the produce of the treasure 
landed from the Resolution. We further enclose a letter to Captain 
Murray requiring the delivery of the treasure on board the San Carlos 
to your Order, if it shall not have been delivered from his charge. 

This letter provoked a sharp reply from the Madras Govern- 
ment, which concluded thus : — 

The value of Sir Eyre Coote's bond has been paid to Mr. Cuth- 
bert, the Flag Agent, about ten days since, and we shall be happy if 
the public suffers less inconvenience from the want of that sum at 
this critical time than the Admiral would do when the immediate 
demand was made for the money upon Lady Coote early the morn- 
ing after the General's death. We felt so strongly upon the occa- 
sion that we offered to the Admiral every security this Government 
could give to prevent a repetition of it at so trying a moment, 
but without success. Ever since the care we took of the Company's 
interests in the case of the prizes and booty taken at Negapatam 
waiting the event of His Majesty's decision as directed by Charter, 
and the Company's instructions, we have lost all credit with the 
Admiral, and he has repeatedly assured us that he never would 
lend this Government one half-penny. 


This letter crossed, en route, one from the Governor General 
and Council, of three days earlier date, in which they said : 
" We are concerned that Colonel Owen, who knows that this 
money was consigned to Sir Eyre Coote for the Public Service, 
should have hesitated to deliver it up immediately to your 
orders, as by retaining it in his possession no one couid benefit 
by the supply ; but we are also concerned to observe the 
nature of your Proceedings upon the occasion, and we must in 
a great measure ascribe the difficulty which has occurred to 
your own refusal to discharge the late General's bond to Sir 
Edward Hughes." And so on. The correspondence need not 
be followed any further. In the end, the treasure was paid 
into the Company's Treasury in Fort St. George, and employed 
in the service of the Company. The episode is interesting 
as showing the extraordinary fashion in which that service 
was financed at the date of Sir Eyre Coote's demise, and as 
illustrating the relations, in face of the enemy, of the 
Governments of Warren Hastings and Lord Macartney. 

Painted by John Singleton Copley, R.A. 

"Engraved by 8. Freeman. 

G-ovemor-CreneraT of India,. 1780- 1793, and 1805. 



Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell, of Inveneil, 
succeeded Lord Macartney as Governor of Madras in 1786. 
He had previously gained distinction as a soldier, chiefly in 
connexion with the command of Highland regiments, and 
he had been Governor of Jamaica. He was well known to 
Earl Cornwallis ; and, some little time after he assumed office 
in Madras, the Governor General, writing to Lord Sydney, 
assured him that " no Governor was ever more popular, and 
I must do him the justice to say that he seconds me nobly." 
Sir Archibald Campbell's health gave way towards the close 
of 1788, and, on the 7th February following, he was compelled 
on that account to resign his post, and embark for England, 
where he died, two years afterwards, aged fifty-two. He 
was buried in the Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey. On 
his departure from Madras Mr. John Holland became Acting 
Governor of Fort St. George, but he vacated the appoint- 
ment six days later in favour of his brother, Mr. Edward 
Holland, who discharged the duties for a year, and was then 
relieved by Major-General Medows, who was transferred 
from Bombay, where he had been Governor less than a year. 
The General was accompanied to Madras by Colonel Harris, 
his Military Secretary, and principal Aide-de-Camp. 1 This 

1 A particularly interesting illustration of the adage that " great 
events from little causes spring " is furnished by the chance meeting 
of General Medows and his old comrade Colonel Harris, in London, 
on the eve of the departure of the former for India, and just after 
the latter had instructed his agents to sell his commission, prepara- 
tory to his devoting himself to farming in Ireland. Mr. Stephen 
Rumbold Lushington (Governor of Madras, 1827 to 1832), son-in-law 
and biographer of the latter, stated : "On Colonel Harris's arrival in 

113 j 


was not the first time that General Medows had been in 
Madras, for in 1783, having heard at the Cape of Good Hope 
that the British were being hard pressed by Hyder Ali in 
Southern India, he took upon himself the responsibility of 
sailing with three ships, and a large body of troops, from the 
Cape for Madras, and he accompanied Colonel Fullarton's 
expedition against Mysore. But peace was suddenly patched 
up with Hyder, and Medows, finding his local occupation 
gone, then returned home. 

During the Holland interregnum there had been a lament- 
able neglect to prepare for the resumption of hostilities with 
Tippoo that any impartial observer might have seen to be 
inevitable, sooner or later. The opinion entertained of the 
Holland Administration by Lord Cornwallis is shown by the 
following despatch, which he addressed from Fort William, 
on the 30th March 1790, to Mr. Edward Holland— 

I have received your letter, dated the 3rd instant, and although 
I dislike controversy, as much as (the Honourable John Holland, 
Esq.) the late Governor of Fort St. George, and felt it a very painful 
task to write letters of Reprehension, the duty of my station re- 
quires that I should say, that I think the late Government of Fort 
St. George were guilty of a most criminal disobedience of the clear 
and explicit orders of this Government, dated the 29th of August and 
13th of November, by not considering themselves to be at war with 
Tippoo from the moment that they heard of his attack on the lines 
of the Rajah of Travancore, which made a part of his former possessions, 

London he accidentally met Sir William Medows in St. James' Street, 
and, after mutual expressions of friendship and affection, awakened 
by the casual meeting of two such comrades in past dangers, he ex- 
plained the purpose of his visit to town, and his future intentions. 
Sir William listened with pain and impatience to the story, and asked 
if he had actually received the money, and if the new commission had 
been positively signed by the King. He was told that there would 
be the delay of another day, in consequence of Princess Amelia's death. 
1 Then,' said he, ' Harris, you shan't sell out — you shall go with me as 
Secretary and Aide-de-camp ; I am just appointed Governor of 
Bombay, and your presence will be a host to me. I'll go directly to 
the agent, and stop the sale ! ' He did accordingly, and thus, by the 
generous friendship of Sir William Medows, and the intervention 
of a kind Providence, Colonel Harris was reserved for another and a 
higher destiny." 


and were guaranteed to him by us in the late Treaty of Peace. So 
far am I from giving credit to the late Government for economy in 
not making the necessary preparations for war, according to the 
positive orders of the Supreme Government, after having received the 
most gross insult that could be offered to any nation. I think it very 
possible that every cash of that ill-judged saving may cost the Company 
a crore of rupees ; besides which, I still more sincerely lament the 
disgraceful sacrifice you have made by that delay of the honour of 
your country by tamely suffering an insolent and cruel enemy to 
overwhelm the dominions of the Rajah of Travancore, which we were 
bound, by the most sacred ties of friendship and good faith, to 

Thus it was that General Medows, on his arrival in Madras, 
found the Coast Army weak in numbers, and poor in equip- 
ment. A few weeks passed, and Tippoo again provoked 
hostilities with the British by invading the territory of their 
ally, the Maharajah of Travancore, so an expedition was des- 
patched against him. General Medows proceeded in command 
of this force to Mysore. He seized four of Tippoo's smaller 
fortresses, and he relieved and occupied Coimbatore, Erode, 
Palghat, Dindigul, and Sattymangalam. But the demands 
that he made on the endurance of his army were too frequent 
and severe, and at length Tippoo recovered Erode, Satty- 
mangalam, and Davapuram, and even laid siege to Trichin- 
opoly. General Medows then fell back upon Madras to 
recruit. Lord Cornwallis now perceived that as the balance 
of the advantage of the campaign could not be placed to 
the credit of the English, it behoved him to leave Bengal in 
order to assume the responsibility of the chief command of 
the Coast Army ; and General Medows thereupon became 

On the 4th February Lord Cornwallis, as Governor General 
and Commander-in-Chief, accompanied by his Staff and suite, 
proceeded from Fort St. George to the " ground near the 
Long Tank," and was met there by General Medows, who 
had moved from the Grand Encampment at " Vellout," the 
same morning, to meet him. Early on the following morn- 
ing the army was encamped at Vellout, with their tents 
standing, and all quiet. But in the space of half an hour 


the whole force was in motion, and every tent was struck. 
According to the Courier : — 

The sun soon rose to display the scene in all its extent and splen- 
dour, and certainly it would be difficult to imagine one more sublime. 
And when the vastness of the multitude is considered, the train of 
cannon and the quantity of baggage, with all the draught and carriage 
cattle requisite, and the servants and followers of every denomination, 
multiplying perhaps tenfold the actual number of 17,000 or 18,000 
fighting men, in their various and emulous departments of Infantry 
and Cavalry, European and Native Artillery, Volunteers, Pioneers 
and all, it will be impossible to contemplate with too much admiration 
the effect of military discipline and experience, aided by the spirit 
of a cause so great and good as the present. 

Eventually, on the 25th February, 1792, Lord Cornwallis 
concluded the treaty of peace with Tippoo before Seringa- 
patam, which the King gratefully acknowledged by raising 
him to the dignity of a Marquis. 

It may be mentioned here that if (as in respect to the 
Hollands) Lord Cornwallis could express his opinions in an 
uncompromising manner, he was ever ready to award praise 
ungrudgingly when he thought it was deserved. He occu- 
pied during the campaign a very delicate position towards 
General Medows, but there is no evidence of there ever 
having been strained relations between them. Lord Corn- 
wallis was not playing for his own hand, his own laurels ; but 
he was animated by a lofty sense of duty to his King and 
country, and General Medows effaced himself right loyally 
in order to aid his official Chief to the utmost. After the 
capture of Bangalore, Lord Cornwallis issued a General 
Order, in which he offered his congratulations to " the officers 
and soldiers of the army on the honourable issue of the fatigues 
and dangers which they underwent during the late arduous 
siege." He expressed his approbation of the alacrity and 
firmness that had been shown, and alluded to the aid he had 
received from individual officers. And then he concluded 
as follows : " Although His Lordship is unwilling to offend 
General Medows's delicacy by attempting to express his full 
sense of the able and friendly assistance which he uniformly 


experienced from him, he cannot avoid declaring that it has 
made an impression on his mind." 

Some time before this General Medows had requested the 
Court of Directors to relieve him of his appointments of 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and they prevailed upon 
Sir Charles Oakeley, a former Civil Servant in Madras, to 
accept the former. He was the son of a clergyman in Stafford- 
shire, who was acquainted with Lady Clive, wife of the Clive 
of history, and mother of Edward, second Lord Clive of 
Plassey, Governor of Madras. That lady interested herself 
in young Oakeley, and, by the exertion of her influence with 
the Court of Directors, obtained for him a Writership in 
Madras. Thus it was that in 1767, when he was no more 
than sixteen years of age, he arrived in Madras, and was at 
once appointed Assistant Secretary to Government in the 
Civil Department. He held that position for six years, 
during which he came under the notice of Mr. Charles 
Bourchier, Mr. Josias Dupre, and Mr. Alexander Wynch, 
the successive Governors. He was then promoted, at the 
age of twenty-two, to the Secretaryship, and he occupied 
that position during the administration of the ill-fated 
George, Lord Pigot. In 1777 — the year of his marriage — 
he was transferred by Mr. Whitehill, the Governor, to the 
Secretaryship of the Military and Political Department, 
and was also appointed Judge Advocate-General and Trans- 
lator to the Government. In 1782 he was selected by Lord 
Macartney for the office of President of the Arcot Committee, 
and, by his tact, conscientiousness, and experience he suc- 
ceeded in materially assisting the Nabob of Arcot to find 
means to pay his debts. In 1786 he was appointed President 
of the new Board of Revenue at Madras, and he retained 
that berth for two years, when he resigned in consequence 
of ill-health, and returned home, after a continuous service 
in Madras of twenty-two years. In all probability he had 
resolved to accept a well-earned pension, and retire there- 
with to private life. But the Court of Directors, being well 
informed of his worth, were indisposed to allow him to with- 
draw, and not only did they place on record an emphatic 


resolution expressive of their approval of his services, but, 
when difficulty was experienced in finding a suitable suc- 
cessor to Sir William Medows, Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas 
supported the invitation which the Court of Directors made 
to him to return to Madras. The current and prospective 
needs of his large family induced him in 1790 to accept the 
highly flattering offer of the Governorship, and he was 
thereupon created a Baronet. 

On the 13th October the Company's packet Swallow arrived 
at Madras from Europe, having on board Sir Charles and 
Lady Oakeley. Sir Charles Oakeley, it was announced, 
"is appointed second in council to Major-General Medows, 
and to succeed to the Government of Madras when the ap- 
pointment of General Medows to succeed to the Supreme 
Chair of Bengal shall take place. General Medows is ap- 
pointed then to succeed as Commander-in-Chief." He found, 
however, that General Medows had been compelled to post- 
pone his resignation of the Governorship in consequence of 
the outbreak of war with Tippoo. He therefore assumed, as 
Second in Council, the charge of the civil administration 
at Madras ; and, devoting himself to the task of retrenching 
expenses and developing revenue, in view to providing Lord 
Cornwallis with funds to carry on the war, he succeeded in 
restoring public credit, in improving the currency, and in 
reducing the rate of interest on the public debt. General 
Medows remained on active service until 1792, when, on the 
patching up of peace with Tippoo, he vacated the Governor- 
ship, 1 which Sir Charles Oakeley then assumed. In June, 
1793, the news reached India of the outbreak of war be- 
tween England and revolutionary France, and Sir Charles 
Oakeley, on his own responsibility, immediately made 
preparations for an expedition against Pondicherry. The 

1 There is a full-length portrait of Major-General Medows in the 
Banqueting Hall, Madras, which is attributed to Robert Home, and 
was acquired by public subscription. On returning to England he 
received the Order of the Bath, attained the rank of General, 
held for a short time the chief command in Ireland, and died 
in 1813. 


expedition was despatched in due course, and effected the 
capture of Pondicherry in August. 

In common with, and partly perhaps because of the good 
example set by Lord Macartney, his former official chief, 
Sir Charles Oakeley had a keen sense of honour in. regard 
to the acceptance of presents. He signed the then cus- 
tomary affidavit, when resigning the Governorship, setting 
forth that he " hath not directly nor indirectly, by himself, 
or by any other person or persons, for his use, or on his 
behalf, taken or accepted any sum of money, or other 
valuable thing, by way of salary, fee, perquisite, or emolu- 
ment of office other than, and except " what he had been 
authorized by the Company to do. He also stated that 
Tippoo Sultan had offered presents to Lady Oakeley to mark 
his gratitude for her kindness to his two sons when they were 
detained as hostages in Madras, and that he did not feel at 
liberty to permit her to accept them. But the Court of 
Directors thought it right to allow a departure from its strin- 
gent Regulation on this occasion, and " therefore we desire," 
they wrote after his departure to Lord Hobart, his successor, 
' that the articles in question shall be appropriated as 
originally designed, and that Lady Oakeley will receive them 
from the Company as a mark of esteem and approbation of 
her very becoming conduct in the attention she has bestowed 
in making the residence of those young Princes as happy and 
comfortable as was compatible with their situation." Lord 
Hobart communicated a copy of the Court's despatch to Sir 
Charles Oakeley, but the latter replied : "To have declined 
the presents, or even to have shown any mark of concern or 
embarrassment in accepting them, would have created a 
considerable degree of uneasiness in the minds of the hostages 
and their attendants. But, although I did not think they 
could with propriety be rejected, I was clearly of opinion 
that they ought not in any circumstances to become the 
property of my family ; and as my sentiments on this point 
continue the same, and Lady Oakeley's are in perfect corre- 
spondence with them, I trust the Honourable Court will not 
be displeased that we do not profit by their polite intentions. 


I am highly sensible, however, of the generosity which has 
influenced their conduct on this occasion, and beg, through 
Your Lordship, to make my humble and respectful acknow- 

It may be mentioned here that it was in the year 1777 
that Sir Charles Oakeley married, in Madras, Helena, a 
daughter of Robert Beatson, of Fifeshire, a lady of much 
benevolence, energy of character, and musical talent. It 
was related in the Hircarrah of Madras in January, 1794, 
that on one day early in that month a concert of sacred music 
was given at St. Mary's Church, Fort St. George, on behalf 
of the Male Orphan Asylum, and under the " special pat- 
ronage " of Lady Oakeley, wife of the Governor. The organ 
loft was occupied by a body of performers, " such as these 
countries have never heard nor seen, but which any country 
might be happy to see and hear." The chief female vocalists 
included Lady Oakeley, ex-officio Patroness of the Charity, 
Mrs. Porcher, Mrs. Gent, Mrs. Baker, Mrs. Bosc, Mrs. Smith 
and Mrs. Johnston ; and the male vocalists included Mr. 
Lewis, Mr. Baker, Mr. Lushington, Mr. Bosc, Mr. Oram, 
Mr. Paisley, Mr. Chalmers, Mr. Hurdis, Mr. Francis, and Mr. 
Linley. Mr. Topping presided at the organ. There were six 
violinists, namely, Mr. Duirstedt, Mr. Haydn, Mr. Sherri- 
man, Captain Beatson, Mr. Heefke, and Mr. Caldwell. The 
Rev. Mr. Millingchamp played the violoncello, and there 
were performers on clarionets, horns, bassoons, and kettle- 
drums. The first part consisted of selections from Handel's 
Messiah, the second part of selections from his Judas Macca- 
beus, while, in the third part, selections from Esther were 
given, concluding with the Coronation Anthem. Lady 
Oakeley commenced the beautiful recitative, " Comfort ye, 
comfort ye, my people." She also opened the third part by 
singing, with " equal spirit and taste," the air : " Prophetic 
visions strike my eye." The Coronation Anthem was 
given in full chorus. " Thus," it is stated, " ended this 
august performance, executed in a style so masterly, and 
with so much zeal and ability, as reflected no less honour on 
those who patronized, conducted, and supported it, than it 

Painted by J. Barber. 

Engraved by S. W. Reynolds. 

Governor of Madras, 1792-1794. 


conveyed delight to those who heard it." The hostage sons 
of Tippoo Sultan and the Tanjore Heir Presumptive were 
among the auditors. 

The sale of the tickets for this sacred concert realized about 
1,000 pagodas, after all expenses had been paid ; and a depu- 
tation of the Managers of the Asylum, composed of Colonel 
Brathwaite and six other gentlemen, waited upon Lady 
Oakeley, and presented her with an address, in which they 
offered her, on behalf of the Asylum, their cordial thanks 
for the service she had rendered to the institution by her 
encouragement of, and participation in, the concert. She 
gave them a reply in writing. Having acknowledged their 
politeness to herself, and her cordial appreciation of the 
assistance afforded by the ladies and gentlemen who had 
taken part in the performance, she expressed her " sincere 
wishes " for the permanent success of an institution " which 
reflects so much honour on the gentlemen who have the super- 
intending and immediate care of the objects of its benevo- 
lence." The concert was repeated at St. Mary's Church on 
the ioth February, and the second performance went off even 
better than the first. Owing to more practice and greater 
confidence, the female voices " swelled the choral harmony 
with finer and fuller effect." The performance was again 
attended by the young Princes of Mysore and the Prince of 

Towards the close of 1794 that Sir Charles Oakeley re- 
signed the Governorship of Madras, and embarked for England. 
On reaching London he waited on the Court of Directors 
at the East India House. The following entry appears in 
the Court's Journal : " Resolved unanimously : ' That the 
thanks of this Court be given to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., 
for his conduct during the government of Fort St. George.' 
Whereupon Sir Charles was introduced into Court, and 
congratulated by the Chairman on his safe arrival, who 
communicated to him the foregoing Resolution." 

He fixed his residence at the Abbey, Shrewsbury (the 
birthplace of Clive), in the parish of which his venerable 
father was incumbent, and among people with whom his 


family had long been well acquainted ; and he remained there 
until 1810, when he removed to the Palace, Lichfield. Sir 
William Pulteney offered to find him a seat in Parliament ; 
but he declined the honour, partly because he did not con- 
sider his fortune adequate to allow of the increased expen- 
diture that its acceptance would involve, but chiefly because 
he was disinclined to relinquish the prospect of spending the 
remaining years of his life in the pursuit of rural enjoyments 
and general knowledge. He was at one time spoken of as 
Governor General of India, but he at once intimated that he 
did not wish to return to that country in any capacity. Yet 
he continued to take a lively interest in the affairs of India, 
and he was consulted by politicians and others who had been 
denied the advantage which he had enjoyed of studying 
Indian affairs on the spot. The rapid advance in the civil 
charges of India often caused him concern ; and in 1805 he 
pointed out, in a letter to Mr. Dundas, the President of the 
Board of Control, that the charges for the three Presidencies 
had risen from a total of £2,152,750 in 1793, to one of 
£3,779,976 in 1803. " What is most alarming," he observed, 
" in the view of our India establishments is, that they 
baffle all expectation and promise." How little he imagined 
that in the year 1904-1905 the revenue of British India would 
amount to £84,699,100, and the expenditure to £81,213,500. 
He returned with remarkable zest to the study of the classics, 
which he had been compelled to discontinue when he was a 
lad, and he derived much pleasure from making translations 
into English from Latin authors. He was especially partial 
to Tacitus, Sallust and Pliny. He was also a great reader of 
miscellaneous literature. At the momentous period when 
Napoleon was concentrating a vast army at Boulogne for 
the invasion — after the precedent of William the Norman — 
of England, Volunteer regiments were raised throughout the 
country, and a regiment of Volunteer Infantry was thus 
embodied at Shrewsbury, of which Sir Charles Oakeley was 
appointed Commandant. He held the command until the 
apprehension of invasion having been removed, his own and 
other Volunteer regiments were disbanded. 


He was a man of strong religious convictions. He made 
it a rule to attend service at his parish church in Shrewsbury 
every Wednesday and Friday, as well as Sunday ; and at 
Lichfield he was scarcely ever absent from the daily morning 
service in the Cathedral. He was benevolent and generous, 
and he took part in the management of infirmaries and schools 
for the poor. Having known Dr. Bell in Madras, and been 
impressed by that chaplain's educational experiments at the 
Military Male Asylum at Egmore, he endeavoured to assist 
in the introduction of the " Madras system " of education 
into England. He had been the projector in Madras of the 
Provident Civil Fund that was established for the benefit 
of all the Civil Servants in this Presidency, and he earnestly 
advocated the institution of a Clergy Provident Fund, on 
somewhat corresponding lines, in England. The latter Fund 
was established, under the auspices of the two Archbishops 
and other prelates, shortly after his death, " to aid the clergy 
in the education and settlement of their children, and to afford 
them an opportunity of securing a provision for themselves, 
and their wives and families, when more than ordinarily 
needed — in sickness, in old age, and at death." 

At length Sir Charles Oakeley died at the Palace, Lich- 
field, on the 7th September, 1826, aged seventy-five. According 
to his desire he was buried at his birthplace, Ferton, Stafford- 
shire, in a vault containing the remains of his mother (a 
daughter of Sir Patrick Strahan) ; and a monument was 
erected to his memory in Lichfield Cathedral, at the ex- 
pense of his widow and children. This monument, designed 
by Sir Francis Chantrey, and surmounted by a portrait 
medallion, bears the inscription that is given overleaf : — 


Sacred to the Memory of 


Second son of the Rev. William Oakeley, 

Rector of Ferton, in this County, and Vicar of Holy Cross, Salop. 

Born Feb. 27, 175 1 ; Died Sept. 7, 1826. 

His eminent services in India 

During an eventful period of twenty-seven years ; 

The signal proofs he gave of integrity, as well as talent 

In the various Civil appointments which he held there ; 

And more especially the effects of his administration, as 


Both in improving the condition of the Company's resources 

And advancing the success of their arms ; 

Obtained the tribute of public acknowledgement, 

And the approbation of his Sovereign. 

But chiefly precious to those who erect this monument 

Is the remembrance of his private virtues, 

And his character as a Christian. 

Piety, Meekness, Simplicity, Benevolence, 

These were the more memorable distinctions of his life. 

They brought him " peace at the last," 

And are recorded by his surviving family 

With humble gratitude to God 

In whose hands he was the instrument for their good ; 

And with perfect reliance on the blessed Word 

Which forbids them to sorrow as without hope. 

He was the father of eleven children, of whom ten survived 
him. His eldest son, Charles, second Baronet, who entered 
the Diplomatic Service, and was for a time a Secretary of 
Legation, married a French lady, by whom he had no male 
heirs. His second son, Henry, entered the Bengal Civil 
Service, became Judge of Moorshedabad, and predeceased 
his elder brother. His third son, Herbert, born in Madras 
in 1791, became the third Baronet. He entered the Church, 
and became Archdeacon of Chichester. He compiled in 
1829, for private circulation, a brief account of his father's 
services, which he inscribed to his mother, " who," he said, 
" during a union of nearly half a century, possessed most 
deservedly the entire affection and esteem of him whose 
character it illustrates." To this memoir, a copy of which 
is in the British Museum, I am indebted for most of the 


information contained in the preceding pages. Sir Herbert's 
eldest son, Sir Charles W. Atholl Oakeley, for some time in 
the Bengal Cavalry, is the present Baronet ; and his second 
son, the late Sir Herbert Oakeley, LL.D., was Emeritus 
Professor of Music in the University of Edinburgh. Frederick, 
the youngest son of the Governor, had a distinguished 
career at Oxford, where he became a Fellow of Balliol. 
He took Holy Orders in the Church of England ; but in 1827 
he seceded to the Church of Rome, and was ordained. 
He became a Canon of the Roman Catholic Cathedral at 
Westminster, a position that he held for thirty years, and died 
in 1880, aged seventy-eight. He was a prolific author of letters, 
pamphlets and books on devotional and theological subjects, 
and the British Museum contains as many as forty-three of 
his productions. 

It was doubtless immediately after Earl Cornwallis, as he 
then was, concluded the famous Treaty with Tippoo, and 
secured Madras temporarily against further trouble from 
Mysore, that the official and unofficial European inhabitants 
of Madras set on foot the movement for raising a memorial 
to his honour in the Fort. He resigned the Governor-General- 
ship in October, 1793, and returned home. The subscrip- 
tions for the memorial were eventually remitted to London, 
and somebody was authorized to negotiate with a sculptor 
for the production of a statue of his Lordship. Then it was 
that the services of Thomas Banks were enlisted — a sculptor 
who, according to Sir Joshua Reynolds, the first President 
of the Royal Academy, was " the first of his country to pro- 
duce works of classic grace." l The Cornwallis statue repre- 
sents the Marquis standing, wearing Military uniform, over 
which are shown the robes of his rank in the Peerage. The 
right hand is extended, and the Marquis's arms, coronet, and 

1 The Banqueting Hall, Madras, contains a life-size portrait of 
the Marquis Cornwallis that was painted by Robert Home in 1792, 
and acquired by public subscription. The portrait by Copley, which 
has been reproduced for this volume, was painted for the Corporation 
of the City of London, and is preserved at the Guildhall. 


trophies are shown at the side. The pedestal shows figures 
of Britannia and Victory, and also a bas-relief representing 
the reception by the Marquis as hostages of the two sons of 
Tippoo Sultan. The front of the pedestal bears this inscrip- 
tion — 

This Statue 

Is erected by a General Vote at the Joint Expense 

Of The Principal Inhabitants of Madras, 

And of the Civil and Military Servants 

Of the East India Company 

Belonging to the Presidency of Fort St. George 

As a General Testimony 

Of the High Sense they entertain of the Conduct and Actions of 

The Most Noble 


During the Time he held the High Offices of 


And Commander-in-Chief of All the Forces 

In India. 

Early in May, 1800, the following Notification appeared 
over the signature of " M. Turing, Aide-de-Camp," in the 
Madras Gazette — 

The Right Hon'ble the Governor desires the attendance of His 
Majesty's and Hon'ble Company's servants, and of the other principal 
inhabitants of the Settlement, on the parade of Fort St. George, at 
a quarter before 6 o'clock on the morning of the 15th instant, being 
the anniversary of the memorable victory gained under the walls of 
Seringapatam, in the year 1 791, by the Most Noble the Marquis Corn- 
wallis, whose statue, voted as a testimony of the gratitude and respect 
of the Settlement for his eminent public services, and now erecting 
on the parade of Fort St. George, will on that day be completed. 

A breakfast will be prepared in the Exchange, at which the Right 
Hon. the Governor requests to be honoured with the company of the 
ladies and gentlemen who may be present on the occasion. 

In accordance with this Notification Lord Give, accom- 
panied by his personal Staff, and escorted by his Body Guard, 
arrived at the Parade Ground at the time mentioned, and 
was received by Vice-Admiral Rainier, by the Recorder, and 
by the principal Officers of the Company's Naval, Military, 
and Civil Services ; but Major-General (afterwards Lord) 


Harris, the Commander-in-Chief, was prevented by indis- 
position from being present. The troops in garrison, com- 
manded by Brigadier General de Meuron, had formed up 
within the square of the parade ground, and when the statue 
was unveiled by the Governor they presented arms, while 
the drums beat a march, and a salute of honour was fired 
from the Saluting Battery. Doubtless the Governor made 
a speech appropriate to the occasion, but if so, it was not 
reported by the Press, or placed on official record. Suffice 
it to know that the ceremonial concluded with the troops 
marching past the Governor and statue in subdivisions. 
Then His Excellency and the ladies and gentlemen walked 
across to the Exchange, and breakfast was served in the 
Long Room. " The attendance of ladies and gentlemen, as 
well on the parade as in the houses, balconies and terraces 
of the square was " — according to the Asiatic Register — 
" unusually numerous, and the concourse of the natives was 
proportionally great. ... It was gratifying to observe that 
absence, and an interval of several years had not diminished 
that sentiment of affectionate veneration which peculiarly 
attaches to the character of the noble Marquis, and which 
in this Settlement will long accompany the remembrance of 
his public and private virtues." Doubtless Lord Give made 
another speech, if he did not reserve his remarks for the 
dinner that he gave to a numerous company in the evening, 
when many toasts were drunk with customary honours. 

Much had been seen in Madras of Lord Cornwallis in 1790 
and 1 79 1, when he sojourned in the Fort both on his way 
from Calcutta to Seringapatam and on his triumphant return ; 
and it was but natural, as he was a man endowed with engag- 
ing manners, and readily accessible, that the " universal senti- 
ment of the day " in Madras was that " few living characters 
have ever been so sincerely or so justly honoured " as he was. 
This was the more creditable to the people of Madras, since 
Lord Cornwallis had resigned the Governor-Generalship 
seven years before the statue was erected, and memories in 
India of satraps who have passed away are apt to be short. 
Moreover, the Earl of Mornington had appeared on the scene 


in 1798, and had stayed some time in Madras in 1799, both 
before and after the fall of Seringapatam, and the death of 
Tippoo Sultan. Lord Mornington (now created Marquis 
Wellesley) had thus eclipsed the Marquis Cornwallis. For 
all that Madras cherished a kindly and grateful recollection 
of the latter while paying all respect to the former. 

In an unwise moment Lord Cornwallis agreed, in 1805, when 
he was sixty-six years of age, to again accept the offer of 
the Governor-Generalship, and to proceed a second time to 
India. He must have embarked at Plymouth in H.M.S. 
Medusa only a few days after the death of Banks, the sculp- 
tor. He called at Madras on his way up the Bay of Bengal, 
in order to see Lord William Bentinck, the Governor. The 
Medusa anchored in the Roads on the 6th of May, and 
early the following morning the Governor-General Designate 
landed under the usual salute, at the Sea Gate of Fort St. 
George, where he was met by the Governor, the Members of 
Council, the Heads of Departments, and the principal in- 
habitants of the Presidency. The troops formed a street 
from the Sea Gate, and received him with full military 
honours. An address bearing 214 signatures was then pre- 
sented. It was as follows — 

My Lord, — We the undersigned, inhabitants of Madras, beg leave 
to offer to your Lordship our most sincere congratulations on your 
Lordship's safe arrival in India to take upon yourself again, at this 
momentous period, the government of these valuable possessions. 
The signal advantages which the British Empire derived from the 
justice, wisdom, and moderation that so conspicuously characterised 
your Lordship's former Administration, are impressed on the minds 
of all, and, while we admire the pure and exalted patriotism which has 
impelled your Lordship to undertake the arduous duty committed 
to your charge, and to sacrifice to the public good that repose to which 
a life spent in the highest offices and most important duties of our 
country had afforded so just a claim, we cannot suppress the effusions 
of gratitude to our most gracious Sovereign for his parental interest 
in the welfare and happiness of his loyal and faithful subjects in India, 
evinced by his selecting for this great trust a nobleman of your Lord- 
ship's transcendent talents and virtue. Actuated by these feelings 
we approach your Lordship with the expression of our unfeigned 
respect, and of our most ardent wishes for the continued honour and 
prosperity of your Lordship's Government. 


In reply Lord Cornwallis said — 

No circumstance could be more gratifying to my feelings than the 
assurance which you give me that my former endeavours to promote 
the welfare and prosperity of the valuable possessions of Britain in 
the East are still honoured with your favourable recollection. The 
only encouragement that I could have, at my advanced period of life, 
to undertake again the arduous task to which it has pleased His 
Majesty and the Honourable Company to call me, was founded on 
the hope that the principles by which my former conduct was 
uniformly regulated would not yet be forgotten, either by the subjects 
of Britain, or by the Native Princes or Powers of Hindustan. 

It is probable that when he made this speech — the only- 
speech ever delivered in Madras by a Knight of the 
Garter, 1 not of the blood Royal — Lord Cornwallis stood 
in front of the statue of himself that then occupied, as it 
still does, the most important place on the parade ground 
of Fort St. George. Afterwards he re-embarked, and contin- 
ued his journey to Calcutta. On the 5th of October following 
he died at Ghazeepore, in the province, as it was then called, 
of Benares, where he had arrived on his progress to assume 
the personal command of the Army. The Government 
of Fort William, in announcing the event with " senti- 
ments of the deepest sorrow and regret," stated that during 
a long and active life he had " manifested all the energies, 
combined with all the virtues which can dignify exalted public 
station, and adorn the sphere of private life. As a patriot, 
a statesman, a warrior, and a man, the character of Marquis 
Cornwallis shines with distinguished lustre. History will 
record his magnanimity, his benevolence, his love of justice, 
his inflexible integrity, his ardent valour, his wise and pru- 

1 Shortly after his departure from England to assume for the first 
time the office of Governor-General of India, Lord Cornwallis was 
created a Knight of the Garter ; and writing in December following 
from Calcutta to his son, Lord Brome, he said : " You will have 
heard that I was elected a Knight of the Garter, and you may very 
likely have laughed at me for wishing to wear a blue riband on my 
fat belly. But I can assure you, upon my honour, that I neither 
asked for it, nor wished for it. The reasonable object of ambition for 
a man is to have his name transmitted to posterity for eminent services 
rendered to his country and mankind. Nobody asks or cares whether 
Hampden, Marlborough, Pelham, or Wolfe were Knights of the Garter." 



dent policy as eminently worthy of imitation and of praise." 
The observance of general mourning for three months was 
ordered. - 

The news of the death of Lord Cornwallis did not reach 
Madras until the 31st October, and Lady William Bentinck 
immediately postponed the ball which it had been her in- 
tention to have given on the evening of that day. On the 
following morning the flag of Fort St. George was hoisted 
half-mast high ; and in the evening minute guns, sixty-six 
in number, corresponding with the age of the deceased 
Governor-General, were fired from the saluting battery of 
the Fort, and from the flagship of Rear-Admiral Sir Edward 
Pellew. On Sunday morning, the 3rd November, Lord 
William Bentinck, the Governor ; Admiral Sir Edward 
Pellew ; General Sir John Craddock, the Commander-in- 
Chief ; and the civilian members of the Madras Council met 
at the Council Chamber in the Fort, and walked thence, in 
procession, to the church, where Lady William Bentinck, 
Lady Theodosia Craddock, and the Hon'ble the Mrs. Strange 
already occupied seats set apart for the family of the Governor. 
The Chaplain preached from the text 2nd Chronicles, 25th 
chapter, 24th verse : " And all Judah and Jerusalem mourned 
for Josiah." 

Meanwhile, a requisition had been addressed to Mr. John 
Oakes, the Sheriff, by numerous gentlemen, including General 
J. Pater, Colonel T. A. Agnew, and Mr. W. Balfour, to con- 
vene a meeting of the " British Inhabitants of Madras to 
consider the proper measures to be taken for erecting a Ceno- 
taph to commemorate the virtues and patriotism of the late 
venerable and Most Noble, Charles, Marquis Cornwallis." 
The meeting was held at the Exchange in the Fort, on the 
5th, and the Sheriff having been voted to the chair, made 
an appropriate speech, and called upon Mr. B. Roebuck — 
father of the famous " Tear 'em," M.P. for Sheffield, who was 
born in Madras — to move the first resolution, which was as 
follows : — 

That a Cenotaph be erected to the memory of Marquis Corn- 
wallis, by whose splendid victories and superior wisdom the British 

C. Rossi, R. A. ( Sculpt' 

From a drawing by H Corbould. 



possessions in the East have been eminently benefited ; whose politi- 
cal morals have been as strongly marked by their purity as the whole 
of his conduct through life has been uniformly distinguished by his 
patriotism and virtue ; and who, at that period of existence when 
most men retire from the fatigues of public business, sacrificed the 
remains of his valuable life in this distant and exhausting climate, to 
the calls of his King and country. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted ; a subscription 
list was opened ; a Committee was elected ; and, ere long, 
the Cenotaph was erected on the Mount Road, a little 
beyond Teynampett, on the way to St. Thomas's Mount. 
It was recently removed to where it now stands, opposite the 
Presidency Post Office. 

In one of the two grand staircases at the India Office there 
are four noble white marble statues (to which reference 
has been made on a previous page), that were brought 
from the old India House in Leadenhall Street. They are 
of the famous brothers Wellesley and Wellington on the 
right, and Cornwallis and Eyre Coote on the left. Lord 
Cornwallis is represented in Roman costume, holding a sheathed 
sword in the left hand, and the olive branch of peace in the 
outstretched right hand, with, at his feet, a cornucopia, 
from which an abundance of Indian fruits is pouring forth. 
The statue of Cornwallis by John Bacon was obtained by 
the Court of Directors of the East India Company to mark 
its sense of his " uncommon zeal and ability," and it was 
originally placed in the General Court Room in order that 
" his great services may be ever had in remembrance." 

A yet more important memorial of the Marquis Corn- 
wallis is that which was erected by the nation on the east 
side of the south transept of St. Paul's Cathedral, London 
immediately opposite a similar national memorial, also in 
white marble, of Admiral Lord Nelson. The Marquis is 
represented attired in his robes as a Knight of the Garter, 
and holding a scroll in his right hand, standing on the summit 
of an ornamental truncated column, beside which stands a 
female figure, representing India, while on the left hand 
there is a seated figure of Britannia (holding a spear in the 
right, and a shield in the left hand), and on the right side 


is a seated male figure, which Charles Rossi, R.A., the sculptor, 
intended to represent " Bagareth, one of the great rivers 
of India," holding in the right hand a small effigy " seated 
on a fish and a calabash," symbolical of the Ganges, " the 
right branch of the Bagareth." The inscription on the base 
is as follows : — 













Lord Brome succeeded his father as Marquis, Earl, and 
Baron Cornwallis, and also as a Baronet. He died in 1827, 
without issue, whereupon the Marquisate, created by George 
the Third in 1792, became extinct ; but the Earldom created 
by George the Second in 1753, the Barony created by Charles 
the Second in 1661, and the Baronetcy created by James 
the First in 1627, devolved upon the aged James Cornwallis, 
who had then been Bishop of Lichfield forty- two years. The 
Bishop died in 1828, and was succeeded by his son. The 
latter married three times, but he died in 1852 without issue, 
and the whole of the family honours then became extinct. 

Painted in Madras, by Robert Home 

Engraved by Jae. Heath 

Governor-General oi India, 1798-1805. 



In the course of researches among the multitudinous 
manuscripts preserved for the nation in -the British Museum, 
I happened to come across a letter-book of Colonel Arthur 
Wellesley (afterwards Duke of Wellington) containing copies 
— in a bold, clear handwriting, similar to, but not identical 
with his — of eighty-eight letters, which he wrote between 
the 7th and 22nd May, 1800, from Seringapatam (he being 
then thirty-one years of age) to military officers, secretaries 
to the Governments of Fort St. George and Bombay, the 
Military Board in Madras, etc. The book has a table of con- 
tents which, according to the experts in caligraphy at the 
British Museum, is unquestionably in his own handwriting 
If so, it is but another illustration of the love of order, 
and the excellent business habits of the " Iron Duke " from 
the beginning to the end of his career. Only three of these 
letters were produced in the " Indian Despatches " which were 
compiled, edited, and published, with his approval, by 
Colonel Gurwood, " Esquire to his Grace as Knight of the 
Bath." Consequently, as many as eighty-five of them may 
be regarded as " something new under the sun." 

It may be well to recall that the Duke was the third son 
of the first Earl of Mornington, 1 a nobleman who, except 

1 According to Sir George Grove's Dictionary of Music Lord 
Mornington displayed capacity for music at a very early age. With 
little or no assistance from masters he learned to play on the violin 
and organ, and to compose ; and when, with the view of improving 
himself in composition, he consulted Roseingrave and Geminiani, 
they informed him that he already knew all they could teach him. 
The University of Dublin conferred upon him the degree of Mus. 
Doc, and elected him professor of that faculty in 1764. He held it 


in regard to music, resembled the father of Napoleon in being 
a person of no particular ability. He was born, as also was 
Napoleon, in the year 1769. His mother, like "Madame 
Mere," the mother of Napoleon, was a strong-minded lady. 1 
He was educated, after the lax fashion of the time, at Chel- 
sea, Eton and Angers, without the aid of crammers, or fear 
of examiners. At the age of seventeen a commission was 
obtained for him as Ensign in the 41st Foot. His family in- 
fluence stood him in such good stead that he was promoted 
in nine months to Lieutenant ; in three and a half years more 
to Captain; and in 'two years more to Major; and shortly 
afterwards to Lieutenant-Colonel. At the age of twenty-seven 
he was full Colonel. He did not, however, remain with the 

until 1774. His compositions are chiefly vocal ; some are for the 
Church, copies of which are said to exist in the choir of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin. His chant in E is universally known. But it 
was as a glee composer that he excelled. He gained prizes from 
" The Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Catch Club " in 1776 and 1777 
for two catches, and in 1779 for his popular " Here in Cool Grot ! " 
He published a collection of " Six Glees," and John Sale included 
three others with those of his own. Nine glees, three madrigals, an 
ode, and ten catches by him are contained in Warren's collections 
and several glees in Horsley's " Vocal Harmony." A complete col- 
lection of his glees and madrigals, edited by Sir H. R. Bishop, was 
published in 1846. The Duke of Wellington appears to have in- 
herited some musical taste from his father. Sir Herbert Maxwell 
states that " when serving in India he used to play a great deal on 
the violin, until, according to Croker, it occurred to him that it 
was not a very soldierlike accomplishment, and he consigned the 
instrument to the flames." 

1 The Countess of Mornington, eldest daughter of the first Viscount 
Dungannon, was born in 1742, six years before Madame Buonaparte, 
the mother of Napoleon ; and, having survived her husband (who 
died in 1781) fifty years, she died in 1831, in her ninetieth year, five 
years before Madame Buonaparte, who survived her husband fifty- 
one years, and died in 1836, in her eighty-ninth year. It is believed 
that she disliked her son Arthur, as a boy, because of his slow, 
thick speech and dull manner, which gave him an air of stupidity ; 
and, according to her daughter-in-law (wife of the third Earl of 
Mornington, elder brother of the Duke), who lived until 185 1, she 
was wont to say in the fashion then habitual among fashionable 
ladies : "I vow to God I don't know what I shall do with my awk- 
ward son Arthur." 


41st Foot, for he served successively with the 12th Dragoons, 
the 76th Foot, the 18th Light Dragoons, and lastly with the 
33rd Foot, of which he received the command, and with 
which he was identified until the end of his life. In 1794 he 
saw a little active service in the Netherlands with H.R.H. 
the Duke of York's ill-starred expedition, and he had 
abundant opportunity then to observe how things should 
not be done in the field. In 1796 the 33rd was ordered to 
Bengal. He was prevented by ill-health from accompanying 
the Regiment to the Cape ; but he caught it up there by a 
later vessel, and he conducted it thence to Calcutta, where 
his eldest brother, the Earl of Mornington, shortly afterwards 
arrived, and assumed charge, as successor to the Marquis 
Cornwallis, as Governor-General. 

In the autumn of 1798 Colonel Wellesley obtained leave of 
absence from Bengal in order to pay a visit to his friend Robert, 
Lord Hobart, son of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, who was 
on the point of leaving Madras. Lord Hobart was a widower- 
He was married in 1792, and arrived in Madras, with Lady 
Hobart, in 1794. On the 28th November, 1795, the Madras 
Courier published the following intimation : "On Sunday 
afternoon, at Government Garden House, Lady Hobart of 
a son." But the Courier was misinformed as to the sex of 
the infant, for the child was a girl, though the paper made no 
subsequent correction of its mistake. The child grew up, 
married the Earl of Ripon, and became the mother of the 
present Marquis. Lady Hobart died in Madras in August, 
1796, and was buried in St. Mary's Church, Fort St. George, 
not far from the chancel where, in 1875, her husband's grand- 
nephew, Vere Henry, Lord Hobart, Governor of Madras, was 
interred. (Lord Ripon, her grandson, visited the church in 
1883, during his Viceroyalty, to see her grave.) It was two 
years after her death that Lord Hobart was recalled by the 
Court of Directors, who had taken umbrage at his failure 
to enlarge their authority ; but soon after his return home 
he was granted a pension by the Company of £1,500 a 
year, and was summoned, in his father's lifetime, to the 
House of Lords. In 1799 he married, as is mentioned 


elsewhere, a daughter of the first Lord Auckland ; but by 
her he had no issue. He succeeded his father as Earl of 
Buckinghamshire in 1804, and, dying in 1806, he was himself 
succeeded in that title by his nephew. 

• At the request of General Harris, who was commanding 
the Forces in Madras, Colonel Wellesley remained in Madras 
sufficiently long to enable him to witness the swearing in and 
installation of Edward, Lord Clive, as the new Governor of 
Fort St. George. That nobleman was the eldest son, born 
in Madras, of Robert, Lord Clive — the quondam " Writer " 
in the service of the East India Company at Madras, who 
became the "Clive" of history. He may have been a safe 
man in a period of profound tranquillity, but he was not 
qualified to deal with a great crisis. He was an amiable 
mediocrity. Colonel Wellesley was quick to see this, and, in a 
letter to his brother, Lord Mornington, the Governor-General, 
he said that " Lord Clive is a mild, moderate man, remark- 
ably reserved, having a bad delivery, and apparently a heavy 
understanding. He certainly has been unaccustomed to 
consider questions of the magnitude that now appear before 
him, but I doubt whether he is as dull as he appears, or as 
people imagine he is." He co-operated with General Harris 
in efforts to lead the Governor to right conclusions ; and he 
was able, a month later, to write to his brother Henry 
Wellesley, private secretary to the Governor-General, that 
Lord Clive " improves daily." At the same time " a 
violent or harsh word " from Calcutta " will spoil all. The 
conduct which I recommend is perfect confidence with 
him upon all subjects ; and I would extend it to his Govern- 
ment, when it is safe to do so." 

Meanwhile the Coast Army was being reinforced from 
Bengal in view of the impending campaign in Mysore, and 
His Majesty's 33rd Regiment was thus transferred to Madras. 
Colonel Wellesley deemed it prudent to urge the Governor- 
General to follow the reinforcements to Madras, and Lord 
Mornington immediately acted on that sagacious advice. 
The first issue of the Madras Courier for 1799 contained 
a long Proclamation, under date the 2nd January, by the 


Governor in Council, of the arrival in Madras of the Governor- 
General. This Proclamation was made in conformity with 
the Act of Parliament of 1793, which provided that when 
the " Governor-General of Fort William " should find it 
expedient to visit the Presidency of Fort St. George, or 
that of Bombay, or any other Province in India, the 
" powers and authorities of the Governor, or Chief Officer, 
or officers of such Presidency or Province " shall, from 
the time of his arrival, " be suspended except with regard 
to judicial proceedings, and shall continue to be so sus- 
pended until other Proclamation be made by the Governor- 
General to the contrary." Consequently, as long as he cared 
to remain in such Presidency, or Province, the Governor- 
General was " invested with the power and authorities of the 
Governor in Council," and " also with the same ample powers 
and authorities, as can, or may be exercised by him as 
Governor-General in Council." 

Lord Mornington was on excellent terms with Lord Clive, 
but he did not believe in two suns shining in the same hemi- 
sphere. The Mysore campaign was a very large and risky 
business in which grave inconvenience might have resulted 
from a division of counsels at head-quarters ; and Lord 
Mornington was not the kind of man to brook interference 
from anybody, except his brother Arthur. Lord Clive was 
accordingly effaced for most intents and purposes during the 
eight months that Lord Mornington occupied Admiralty 
House in the Fort. It may have been a somewhat trying 
position for him to be Governor only in name ; but it re- 
lieved him of much responsibility during an exceptionally 
anxious period ; and he prudently accommodated himself 
to circumstances. Lady Mornington had not accompanied 
her husband to India, so Lady Give's status in society 
in the Presidency was not affected by the Governor-Gen- 
eral's presence. 

One of the first acts of Lord Mornington, after he had 
superseded the Governor, was to cause Mr. J. Webbe, the 
Secretary to the Madras Government, to publish an adver- 
tisement setting forth that His Excellency " having urgent 


occasion for carpenters and smiths for the completion of 
work, essentially necessary to be executed without delay," 
was " desirous that individuals may suspend all private 
works," and he accordingly " requires them to send the 
workmen in their private service to the Military Board." 
At the same time His Lordship undertook that the work- 
men so sent "will be returned to the persons who may have 
spared them for this public exigency as soon as it may 
be possible." 

Lord Mornington held a review of the troops in garrison 
in Fort St. George on the 28th January, but the Courier 
omitted to give any information on the subject. It pub- 
lished, however, on the 6th February, a General Order, in 
which the Governor-General stated that it was with par- 
ticular satisfaction that he expressed his approbation of the 
distinguished appearance of the Body Guard at that review. 
" The admirable discipline of this troop," he said in his 
stately manner, " the correctness of its manoeuvres, and 
its perfection in the new sword exercise, exceeded the 
expectations which its long established reputation " had 
induced him to form before he arrived in Madras. He de- 
clared that "the utmost degree of credit is due to Captain 
Grant for having produced so striking an example of the 
perfection to which the Native Cavalry in the Honourable 
Company's Service may be brought by the diligence and 
attention of their officers." 

The Courier gave no information of its own about the pre- 
parations that were made in Madras for the advance on 
Mysore, but at long intervals it was permitted to publish 
Despatches concerning the progress of the campaign that 
were addressed by General Harris to the Governor-General. 
At last, on the 15th May, it stated that the fall of Seringa- 
patam had been announced to the public on the morning 
of the nth by a Royal salute from the garrison, and from 
His Majesty's ship Brave ; and that at sunset a Royal 
salute was fired at the Mount, at the Saluting Battery in 
Fort St. George, by the Brave, by the Honourable Company's 
ships, and by the private ships and vessels in the Roads. 


A feu-de-joie was also fired by the troops in garrison, after 
which the whole of the guns mounted on the Fort walls and 
on the walls of Black Town were fired, " thus impressing 
on the mind and memory of every one who has the hap- 
piness to live under the British Government an heroic deed 
which reflects the highest honour on the British troops who 
so gallantly achieved it." 

A week later the Courier published a G.O. by the Governor- 
General in Council in which he announced that he had re- 
ceived from General Harris details of the victory obtained at 
Seringapatam on the 4th May. He then offered his " cordial 
thanks and sincere acknowledgments to all the officers and 
men composing the Army which had achieved the capture 
of the city." He viewed with admiration, he said, " the con- 
summate judgment with which the assault was planned, the 
unequalled rapidity, animation, and skill with which it 
was executed, and the humanity which distinguished its 
final success." He alluded to the substantial advantages 
that would result from the victory. Finally, he reflected 
with " pride, satisfaction, and gratitude " that in this 
arduous crisis " the spirit and exertions of our Indian Army 
have kept pace with those of our countrymen at home, and 
that in India, as in Europe, Great Britain has found in the 
malevolent designs of her enemies an increasing source of 
prosperity, fame and power." 

On the 2nd June, Lord Mornington issued a Proclamation 
in which he announced that Lieutenant Harris, of His 
Majesty's 74th Regiment, having arrived in Madras from 
Seringapatam, in charge of the Standard of the late Tippoo 
Sultan, and also of the Colours of the French Corps in the 
service of Tippoo, he had appointed Tuesday, the 4th idem, 
the anniversary of the King's birthday, for the public re- 
ception in the -Fort of that young officer, after which 
ceremony His Lordship would proceed to St. Mary's 
Church to " offer up in the most solemn manner, a public 
thanksgiving for the interposition of the good providence 
of Almighty God in the late signal and important success 
of our Armies in Mysore, by which the treacherous designs 


From a lithograph 


by MauzaisBe. 


of our enemies have been frustrated, and the British 
Possessions have been delivered from the peril of foreign 
invasion, and restored to a state of security and ease." 

In obedience to this Proclamation, the Civil and Military 
officers of the Presidency met Lord Mornington, Lord Clive, 
and the principal officers of the Supreme and Local Govern- 
ments in the square of the Fort at 5 in the morning of 
the 4th. His Majesty's 10th Foot, a part of the 51st Foot, 
and the Madras Militia, with their respective Bands, were 
paraded at the same place. At half-past 5 the Standard and 
the Colours, in charge of Lieutenant Harris, and guarded by 
the Grenadiers of the 10th, were brought into the square, 
and conducted to the spot where the Governor-General 
stood. His Lordship advanced a few steps to receive 
them, and, according to the Courier, " with a dignity not 
easily to be described, he laid his hand upon the Stan- 
dard of the once haughty and perfidious Mysorean, 1 and 
by a firm and instant pressure bent it towards the earth." 
He then embraced Lieutenant Harris, and spoke a few 
words of congratulation to him. Then the Standard and 
Colours were carried into the church, and deposited in the 
chancel, while the Governor-General, the Governor, and the 
many officers who had been in the square took the seats 
assigned to them. Prayers were read by Archdeacon Leslie, 
and were brought to a termination by a thanksgiving com- 
posed for the occasion. At the conclusion of the service 
a Royal salute was fired from the Fort Battery ; three 
volleys of musketry were fired by the troops on the Grand 
Parade ; and a public breakfast was given by Lord Clive. 
The Courier remarked that " the Standard of Mysore is 
neither remarkable for its splendour of device or elegance of 
texture, being simply a flag of coarse red cotton cloth, orna- 
mented with a white, radiated sun in the centre." 

No time was lost in making the first division of prize money 
captured at Seringapatam. The fortress fell, as has been 
said, on May 4 ; and, on the 22nd idem, it was announced 
that the prize funds amounted so far to " Star Pagodas 

1 See Appendix VI. : — " A French View of Tippoo Sultan." 


25 lakhs, 5,804, and have since been daily increasing." 
This sum was equivalent to about 88£ lakhs of Rupees. 
A first dividend was declared on the 26th June, and re- 
sulted in the award of the following sums as stated in 
Rupees. The Commander-in-Chief, " one eighth of the 
whole," or say Rs. 11 lakhs ; Major-General Floyd, 
second-in-command Rs. i|- lakhs ; General Officers on the 
Staff nearly Rs. 1 lakh each ; Colonels Rs. 37,000 ; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonels Rs. 23,000; Majors Rs. 13,000; Captains 
and Surgeons Rs. 7,500 ; Subalterns and Assistant Surgeons 
Rs. 3,800; Quarter-masters Rs. 1,300; Sergeant-Majors Rs. 
190; Sergeants Rs. 126; Corporals Rs. 63; Commandant 
Subadars Rs. 370; Jemadars Rs. 126; Havildars Rs. 63; 
Naigues, Sepoys, Gun Lascars, Pioneers, Black Doctors, 
Puckallys, Trumpeters, Drummers and Fifers Rs. 42 each. 

A requisition, signed by many European inhabitants of 
Madras, having been made to him, the Sheriff of Madras 
convened a Public Meeting at the Exchange in the Fort, 
on the 26th June, for the purpose of adopting an Address 
to the Governor-General with respect to " the late glorious 
and unexampled successes " at Seringapatam. The Sheriff 
opened the proceedings, and Major-General Ross was voted 
to take the chair. He explained the object of the meet- 
ing, and called upon Mr. Roebuck, who delivered an 
animated speech, and concluded by moving that an 
Address should be presented to the Governor-General ex- 
pressing the high sense which the meeting entertained 
of the " brilliant, unexampled, and incalculable advantage 
derived to them by the wisdom of His Lordship's counsels, 
and the energy of his measures." This motion having been 
carried unanimously, a Committee was formed to prepare the 
Address. The Committee then retired to an adjoining room, 
prepared the Address, and returned with it to the hall. The 
draft was thereupon " read, put, and carried." It was 
placed for signature in the Exchange, and was signed by 
nearly two hundred European inhabitants, commencing with 
Sir Thomas Strange, the Chief Justice, and including 
such familiar Madras names as Chamier, Oakes, Sullivan, 


Kindersley, Sewell, Chase, Binny, Gordon, Parry, Dent, 
Arathoon, Branson, Franck, Clarke, Underwood, Barclay, 
Goldingham, Shaw, etc. 

The Address was presented to Lord Mornington, at 
Admiralty House on the 3rd July. The Committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose was received by His Lordship, who 
was accompanied by Lord Clive, the Members of Council, 
General Stuart, etc. Mr. Oakes having read the Address, 
the Governor-General made a long reply, and employed 
the opportunity to offer his acknowledgments of the 
" honourable, generous, and disinterested support " that 
he had received from Lord Clive, and " the zealous co- 
operation of the Members of the Council, the Civil and 
Military officers throughout every branch and depart- 
ment of this Government," etc. He concluded by saying 
that " with such an union of loyalty and public spirit we 
may confidently expect to counteract every device and 
machination of our enemies ; to detect their intrigues ; to 
disappoint their treachery ; to repel their violence ; and to 
perpetuate the British Empire in India on solid foundations 
of Humanity and Valour, Justice and Power." 

On the 2nd September Lord Mornington held a fare- 
well Levee at Admiralty House, at 11 in the morning, and 
afterwards gave private audience to gentlemen who desired 
the honour until 3 p.m. Then, on the evening of the 5th, he 
left for Calcutta. The troops in garrison were formed into 
a street through which His Lordship, attended by Lord Clive 
and the principal Civil and Military officers at the Presidency, 
proceeded to the beach, where he was met by the Nawab of 
the Carnatic, of whom he took leave. He then embarked 
with the usual honours in the Earl Howe. 1 On the following 

1 The portrait of the Marquis Wellesley in Madras, of which a 
reproduction is given in this volume, was published as a steel 
engraving in 1804, by T. Daniell, of Howland Street, London. 
It is from a painting by James Home, the " place of origin " 
of which is demonstrated by the representation in the back- 
ground of the spire and west end of St. Mary's Church, Fort St. 
George (consecrated in 1680, the oldest Anglican Church not only 
in Madras, but also in Asia). The artist was a son of Robert Boyne 


morning Lord Clive issued a Proclamation in which, having 
recapitulated the contents of his previous Proclamation of 
the 2nd January, he proceeded to say that, the Governor- 
General having " found it expedient to depart," and having 
" actually departed " from the Presidency of Fort St. 
George, he, Lord Clive, had " in consequence, ordered 
and directed," that such departure should be publicly 
proclaimed, " and all persons are hereby strictly enjoined, 
and required, to take notice thereof, and to obey, for the 
time to come, Edward, Lord Clive, Governor in Council 
aforesaid." The same issue of the Courier contained an 
announcement that Lord Clive requested the gentlemen of 
His Majesty's and the Hon'ble Company's Naval, Civil, and 

Home, Army Surgeon, of Greenlaw Castle, Berwick, and a brother 
of Edward Home, Sergeant Surgeon to the King, who was created 
a Baronet in 1808. He was a pupil of Angelica Kauffmann, R.A., 
and he studied subsequently at Rome. He worked for two years 
in Dublin ; and then, proceediug to India, settled at Lucknow, 
where he secured lucrative employment as Chief Painter to the 
King of Oude. After some years he migrated to Mysore, and 
painted the well-known pictures of the " Reception of the Mysore 
Princes as Hostages by the Marquis Cornwallis," and " The Death 
of Colonel Morehouse at the Storming of Bangalore." He also 
published Select Views in Seringapatam. He died in India in 1836. 
He left two sons, who entered the Indian Army, and one of whom 
fell at the battle of Sobraon. It may be added that he was akin 
to the present Sir James Home, 1 ith Baronet, of Blackadder, 
Berwick, and also to the present Sir Anthony Home, K.C.B., V.C., 
some time Surgeon-General, British Medical Department, Madras. 
The Homes are descended from Sir David Home, of Wedderburn, 
who fell, with his eldest son, at Flodden, in 15 13. In 1671, John 
Home, the head of the family, was created a Baronet of Scotland. 
The 8th Baronet was in the Civil Service of the East India Company, 
and, like the artist, died in 1836. 

The Banqueting Hall, Madras, contains a life-size portrait of the 
Marquis Wellesley that was painted by Thomas Hickey, in 1800, 
and acquired by public subscription. The Marquis is represented 
seated in the verandah of Government House in Fort St. George, 
and a steeple in the background is evidently intended to represent 
the steeple of the Fort Church. The shrewd face and slight figure 
closely correspond with the portrayal of the Marquis by Home. 


Military Services to honour him with their company at a Ball 
and Supper at the Garden House on the 9th, at 8.30 p.m., to 
meet Lieutenant-General Harris, on his safe return to Madras 
from the conquest of Mysore. It was also notified that he 
would hold a Levee at Admiralty House, on the nth, at 

The same issue of the Courier contained the latest of the 
G. O.'s issued by the Governor-General in Council while in 
Madras. One of these had reference to the appointment of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Barry Close to be Resident of Mysore, 
and his resignation of the office of Adjutant-General of the 
Army. Lord Mornington's hand can be readily discerned 
in the following gracious recognition of the services of Colonel 
Close — 

If it was possible for the Governor-General in Council to express 
in stronger terms than those he has already used his approbation of 
the conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Close, His Lordship would on 
this occasion have again published to the Army his respect and 
esteem for that distinguished officer. But His Lordship trusts that 
his selection of Lieutenant-Colonel Close, for the arduous and ex- 
tensive duty which has been committed to his care, will be received 
as sufficient testimony of the estimation in which His Lordship 
holds the extensive knowledge, correct judgment, and pure integ- 
rity of Lieutenant-Colonel Close. 

At the same time Lord Mornington conferred the post of 
Adjutant-General upon Lieutenant-Colonel Agnew, Deputy 
Adjutant-General, " to reward his highly meritorious services " 
during the recent campaign, " as well as on other important 
occasions." His Lordship stated that he " felt a peculiar 
satisfaction in calling an officer of Colonel Agnew's distin- 
guished abilities, integrity, and experience to the important 
and confidential post of Adjutant-General of the Army." 
The same Gazette contained the appointment of Captain 
John Malcolm to be British Envoy at the Court of Persia, 
one of the stepping-stones of that officer to the Governor- 
ship of Bombay. 

Colonel Wellesley was now appointed head of the military 
and civil administration of Mysore, which was to remain 



under British "authority during the minority of the very 
young member of the family of the old Hindu dynasty 
who had been selected to become Rajah. Colonel Wellesley 
was then only thirty-one years of age, but he was worthy 
of the great responsibility. Indeed, he was to exemplify the 
truth of the rather bold assertion of Le Maistre : " Qui rCa 
pas vaincu a trente ans ne vainer a jamais." But it was 
a heavy task that was set him. In the first place he had 
occasion to be much concerned about his want of troops 
to hold the newly-conquered country. " All our Corps," 
he remarked in a letter to Maj or-General Braithwaite, "are 
very weak, particularly in officers, and this is a subject 
which in my opinion has not been sufficiently adverted 
to, and is one of the most serious importance." He pro- 
ceeded : — 

It is well known that the exertions of a Native Corps depend almost 
entirely upon their officers, yet some of them have lately gone out 
with a Commanding Officer, and one, or at most two young men, just 
landed in the country, and there is not a larger number of officers 
with a majority of them. It is impossible to expect success when 
that is the case. There are in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, etc., 
many young men who have been brought out to this country by 
objects and pursuits of different kinds in which they have failed. 
These would be happy to enter the service as officers, and they 
would really be a valuable acquisition to it. It may be said that 
this will interfere with the patronage of the Court of Directors. 
But I can't see how that can be the case when they don't use their 
patronage to a sufficient extent ; and, even if it did interfere with 
it, it is evident that the interference will have a consequence which 
will be beneficial to the public interests. If I could procure a 
public statement of the true cause of the failure at Arakeery I 
should certainly lay it before you, with a public representation of 
the want in the Army of officers. However, the fact is obvious, 
and it may be in your power to propose a remedy for it without 
such a statement. 

In a letter to his intimate friend " My dear Munro " — then 
a Captain, but afterwards Maj or-General Sir Thomas Munro, 
Bart., Governor of Madras — he said that " upon the whole 
we are not in the most thriving condition in this country ": — 

Poligars, Nairs and Moplahs in arms on all sides of us ; an army 
of disaffection and discontent, amounting to the Lord knows what, on 


the Northern frontier, which increases as it advances like a ball of 
snow. To oppose this we have nothing that ought to be taken from 
the necessary garrisons, and the Corps we have in them are incom- 
plete in men, and without officers. If we go to war in earnest, how- 
ever, (and if we take the field at all it ought to be in earnest), I will 
collect everything that can be brought together from all sides, and 
we ought not to quit the field as long as there is a discontented or 
unsubdued Poligar in the country. 

On the 7th he reported to Colonel Close that Doondia had 
obtained possession of Dumbal in the same manner that he 
had seized Guduk, and that he was advancing with his whole 
force to Havanore, in the Savanore country, " about two 
coss from Oollah, but on the other side of the Toongabadra." 
On the 8th he received the orders of Government to collect 
all the troops which could be spared from the garrisons 
with a view to opposing Doondia. He then wrote to 
Colonel Sir William Clarke at Goa, to say that the weak 
state of the garrisons, and the general situation of affairs in 
Mysore, Malabar, and Kanara would prevent him from form- 
ing such a body of troops as he would like to see in the 
field. He accordingly asked him to spare a battalion of 
Native Infantry from Goa, to march at once by a route 
that he carefully indicated : — 

I am fully aware of the extent to which I am weakening your post 
by these different calls upon it for assistance, without any special 
order from Government to authorise it. But I consider that the 
British troops were established at Goa for one of two purposes, or 
probably for both. They were intended as a defence for that place 
against any attempts which might have been made upon it by the 
French when established in Egypt, or they were intended as a means 
of influence at Goa, or both these objects might have been in view 
when they were sent there. The French have now evacuated Egypt, 
and even if they had not, it would not be very probable that 
they would make any attempt upon Goa during the monsoon. 
Therefore, as far as defence was the object, no inconvenience will 
be suffered by weakening your post ; and if the establishment of 
an influence there was looked to, the force which will still remain 
with you will be fully equal to that object, and to that of retain- 
ing at Goa the footing which we have got there. Upon the whole, 
then, I have no reluctance in calling upon you for assistance upon 
this occasion, and I have no doubt but that Government will ap- 
prove of my asking, and of your granting it. 


Sir William Clarke agreed to this well argued proposal. 
But he had no sooner done so than Colonel Wellesley was con- 
strained by the urgency of his military requirements to ask 
him to spare a second battalion. ' Writing on the 15th he 
stated : — 

The small body of troops which I have been able to collect for the 
service to the northward, and the probability, from intelligence lately 
received, that it will be desirable that a large body should be collected, 
induce me to call upon you for a second Native Battalion. ... I need 
not now enter into a detail of those considerations which lead me to 
believe that your leaving Goa without a Native Battalion will not be 
attended with any inconvenience, as I entered fully into the subject 
in my letter of the 8th instant ; and, although the necessity of calling 
upon you for this second Battalion is much more urgent than that 
which induced me to call for the first, my ideas of the inconveniences 
to be apprehended from your sending it are precisely the same as when 
I wrote to you last. 

Colonel Wellesley did not conceal his conviction that in 
the long run severity in war is good policy. Colonel Mon- 
tresor was conducting operations for the pacification of Coorg, 
and in doing so he resorted to very drastic proceedings to 
suppress rebellion. To him Colonel Wellesley wrote : — 

I received last night your letter of the 9th which has given me great 
satisfaction. It is a great object that we should establish a superiority 
which it appears you have done, and the burning of the houses which 
is to the full as disagreeable to the owners of them as it could be to 
ourselves, will show the inhabitants that rebellion is not passed over 
unnoticed, and will probably induce them to consider a little before 
they join the Poligar upon another occasion. The more deserted 
villages and forage you burn, and the more cattle and other property 
that are carried off the better ; and you will find that by these little 
expeditions the confidence of our Native Troops will be increased, 
and that of their opponents diminished in such a degree that your 
camp, etc., will be much more quiet, and your neighbourhood more 
open than it has been hitherto. 

At this period Lieutenant-General (eventually Field-Marshal) 
Sir Alured Clarke was Commander-in-Chief in India. On 
the nth May Colonel Wellesley brought the services of two 
officers to His Excellency's notice: — 


The Officers in His Majesty's Service employed in this Country 
in a particular manner look up to you for favour and protection, and 
for a representation to His Majesty of the Services which they may 
have it in their power to perform, and it therefore becomes the 
duty of those under whose authority they may be employed to 
make known to you their merits when they have had an oppor- 
tunity of distinguishing themselves. I undertake this pleasing 
duty at present upon the subject of two Officers, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Montresor of the 79th, and Lieutenant-Colonel Cumine of the 75th, 
of whom similar reports have doubtless been made to you. 

Colonel Wellesley then described the services rendered by 
those Officers in the Beil Country and in Kanara respectively, 
and added : " The detail of these affairs will probably 
reach you through another and a more regular channel ; but 
it is but justice to the Officers above mentioned to make it 
certain that you should have a knowledge of their conduct." 
As regarded Colonel Montresor he related that he had " de- 
stroyed the fort, burnt the villages and magazines, which were 
in the forest in which it was placed, and dispersed the Poligar's 
adherents." Also, in a letter to Colonel Agnew, he alluded 
to Colonel Montresor having made some excursions towards 
the Bipelee ghaut, and to his having " burnt and destroyed 
everything that came in his way, I understand to the amount 
of about fifty villages, with forage, grain, etc., and he has 
carried off cattle." He also wrote to Captain Munro, and said — 
" Colonel Montresor has been very successful in Bulum, has 
beat, burnt, plundered and destroyed in all parts of the 

A remarkable example of the sympathetic manner in which 
Colonel Wellesley recognised the ability, and stimulated the 
zeal of officers under his command is afforded by a long letter 
that he wrote, on the 14th May, to Captain Moncrieff, whom he 
addressed as "My dear Sir." He commenced that letter as 
follows : — 

I this morning received your letter of the 6th instant, from which 
I derived much satisfaction, as I have from all your letters to Colonel 
Sartorious which he has regularly communicated to me. You are well 
apprised of the nature of all my plans in case of the projected warfare 
in the western side of the Peninsula being put in execution, and I am 


sure there is no man more able and willing to make arrangements with 
a view to their success. What has been done is well calculated for 
that purpose, and what you propose equally so, and I acknowledge 
that although I don't now see a prospect of being able to put your 
works to the use for which they are intended, I should be glad that they 
were executed to the extent that may be practicable in this season. 
... I shall always be glad to hear from you how matters are going 
on in the countries below the ghaut in which you may be situated. 

It is the conviction of Lord Roberts, who habitually put his 
theories on the subject into practice during his own brilliant 
career, that no Commander of Troops in India can hope to be 
successful unless he acquaints himself with every detail of 
his profession. " He must know not only how to manoeuvre 
and fight, but how to feed and clothe his men, to arrange for 
their payment, to provide for the care of the sick and wounded, 
and to improvise means for overcoming the countless difficul- 
ties which are continually presenting themselves in the course 
of a campaign." These observations are made by Lord 
Roberts in his admirable monograph on the Duke of Welling- 
ton, with special reference to the Duke's habit of mastering 
detail. The Duke had no sympathy with the adage that a 
master mind doth not waste itself on detail, but he acted 
on the belief that " labor omnia vincit." He never, however, 
studied detail at the risk of neglecting more important 
claims on his attention. He was masterly in large as well 
as small things, and he set a salutary example by his own 
conduct to those under his command not to ignore, or slur 
over, what might at first sight have the appearance of being 
comparative trifles. It is said by Sir Herbert Maxwell in 
his biography of Wellington, that when Colonel Gurwood's 
edition of the Indian Despatches appeared the Duke read 
them with much interest, and expressed his surprise to find 
them " as good," he declared, " as I could write now." For 
" they show the same attention to details — to the pursuit of 
all the means, however small, that could promote success." 

The Letter Book under notice abounds in illustrations of 
this striking characteristic of the Duke. Take the feeding of 
his troops, for example. This is what he wrote on the nth May, 
1801, from Seringapatam to Mr. G. H. Gordon : — 


I have received the directions of the Military Board to desire that 
the captured paddy in store at Seringapatam may be beat into rice 
in such quantity as I may find necessary in order to answer any 
demands I may have occasion to make for the supply of the troops. 
As I cannot at present state what I shall want I have only to 
request that you will have the best of the captured paddy beat 
into rice, and that you will report to me every ten days the 
quantity of rice which shall be in store thus beat out. 

Colonel Wellesley informed Colonel Stevenson — who was, 
presumably, in chief command at Chittledroog — of the in- 
structions he had given to Mr. Gordon, and requested him 
to " make such an arrangement of your granaries, as that a 
place may be allotted both for the gram, and for the rice." 

Then he took much interest in elephants as Transport 
animals, but he did not think it worth while to maintain a 
service of the camels that had, probably, formed part of 
Tippoo's military equipment. Writing to Captain Barclay, 
the officer in charge of these animals at Seringapatam, he 
said : — 

I have to request (by desire of the Military Board) that you will 
dispose by auction of the Company's camels, excepting twelve which 
are to be retained in the service as Hucarrah Camels, and six, respecting 
the disposal of which I will state to you my wishes hereafter. You 
are to strike off the rolls of the elephants those which have 
been sent to Hyderabad, and you will dispose by auction of the old 
male unserviceable elephants, and all the young which are not fit 
for work excepting that which is white. I will give you further 
notice respecting them and the old unserviceable female elephants 

The reservation of the six camels above referred to was 
made by Colonel Wellesley in view to meeting a claim for that 
number of animals that had been made by " the family of 
the late Seyed Sahid." Writing to the Secretary of the 
Military Board, he observed : — 

This claim I understand came before the late Commander-in-Chief, 
and I have reason to believe that he promised that the family should 
have the camels as soon as they should be no longer necessary for the 
service of the Army. It will be proper that his promise should be 
performed, and I shall be obliged to you if you will make me acquainted 
with the orders of the Military Board upon the subject. I have 


likewise given directions that the old male, and the young elephants 
not fit for service, should be disposed of as directed by the Board, 
excepting a young: white elephant which the Resident has requested 
may be presented to the Rajah. I shall be obliged if you will 
communicate to me the Board's orders upon this subject, as well 
as respecting the sale of the old female elephants which it is 
desirable to give to the Rajah's Government for the purpose of 
catching others. 

He considered that arrangements were needed to secure an 
adequate supply of gram for the use of the horses in his force. 
In a letter to Major-General Braithwaite he remarked : — 

What you mention about gram has quite surprised me, as I have 
never received from Chittledroog the slightest hint of a want of that 
article. In contemplation of a probability that it might not be so 
plentiful when the three Regiments should be assembled as I might 
wish, I made arrangements for sending to the northward a number of 
Brinjaries loaded with gram ; but as it is a gram country in general 
I never had an idea of a want much below scarcity. I rather imagine 
that what you have heard originated in my refusal to authorise such 
large advances to the Gram Agents as they asked for. They wanted 
a sum equal to about three months' expenditure. I consented that 
they should have one equal to that of one month, when they settled 
their account of the month preceding. They said that they could 
not purchase gram at so cheap a rate, etc., etc., unless they got the 
advance for which they asked, and I was at last obliged to tell them 
that if they were not satisfied with the sum advanced to them they 
must put on paper their objections to it, and that their representation 
should go before you. As I am convinced that Colonel Stevenson would 
not have concealed from me any scarcity in this article, I am induced 
to believe that the report of it is to be attributed to the circumstances 
above stated. I'll lay in a store of gram at Chittledroog at all events, 
as I am convinced we shall find it of the greatest use. As a proof that 
gram cannot have been very scarce, the price at Chittledroog has in 
general been about 40 seers for a rupee. 

Colonel Wellesley was always a temperate man himself, 
and he had no sympathy with persons who were not similarly 
moderate in the use of stimulants. But he recognised the 
need of supplying the troops under his command with the 
country spirits to which they were accustomed. Accordingly, 
on the 7th May, he reminded the Military Board at Madras, 
that "it is very desirable that a supply of arrack should be 
sent to this country to last 2,500 troops six months." Of this 


supply two-thirds, he suggested, should be sent to Seringa- 
patam, and the remainder to Chittledroog. And on the 
same day he advised Major-General Braithwaite of what he 
had written to the Board. 

He did all in his power to develop his Transport service, and 
he did not fail to perceive the importance of showing every 
reasonable consideration to cart maistries. Writing, on the 
nth, to the Military Board at Madras, he remarked: — 

I have considered and made enquiry into the circumstances of the 
petition of the cart maistries which you enclosed. It is certainly 
true that the carts which brought the stores were on the road for a 
great length of time, as they did not arrive here till the 1 2th February. 
They were at Seringapatam till the 24th February, and the reason 
why they were not dismissed sooner was that the conductor was so 
drunk for several days as to be incapable of delivering the stores. 
The circumstances attending their being employed in the carriage of 
bricks are as stated in the enclosed paper. Many of the owners of 
the carts sold them to the maistries of this place, and they were hired 
by the Commissary of Supplies to carry provisions for the Troops 
at that time about to take the field. On their return to the 
Presidency they took from hence some old arms sent by order of 
the Military Board, and some tents for the 4th Regiment of 
Cavalry at Bangalore, and I believe that many of the carts were 
hired out to individuals. 

Colonel Wellesley added in a postscript : — 

Upon further enquiry into the complaints of the cart maistries, 
I find that they were dismissed by the Commissary of Stores on the 
21st February, and that their stay here was on their own business. 
It appears clearly that they were paid for any extra labour which their 
carts performed. 

It came under his notice that in order to complete the 
equipment of the Corps in Mysore, which he was preparing 
for active service, some " boys " (i.e. palanquin and dhooley- 
bearers) should be sent up from the Carnatic, as there were 
few bearers of the description required in the former country. 
The Mysorean " boys," he found, were but little accustomed 
to carry palanquins, or dhooleys, " their common occupation 
being that of ryots in the villages, and they were unwilling 
to leave their homes in order to follow the Troops in the field. 


To take them from their present occupation will, besides, be 
attended with some inconvenience and loss to the country." 
Colonel Wellesley accordingly wrote to the Secretary to the 
Government of Fort St. George to say : — " I shall, therefore, 
be obliged if you will lay my request before the Right 
Hon'ble the Governor in Council that he will give directions 
that 600 dhooley boys may be sent to this country from 

At this time Colonel Beresford (who eventually was raised 
to the Peerage as Viscount Beresford, for distinguished military 
services in the Peninsula), was appointed to the chief command 
in Malabar, and he wrote to Colonel Wellesley, at Seringapatam, 
proposing a meeting. The latter replied : " Although I should 
certainly be glad to see you, I don't see any necessity for 
desiring that you will undertake so long a journey at such an 
unseasonable period of the year as the present, in order that 
I may talk to you upon subjects which will be equally well 
explained by letter. Besides, I am about to take the field 
with the Troops, and even if it was absolutely necessary that 
we should have a meeting I should not know what place to 
propose for it. I have much business on my hands, and much 
to consider which I hope will plead my excuse for the shortness 
of this letter." 

On the 20th May Colonel Wellesley delivered over the 
charge of the garrison at Seringapatam to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Saxon, and wrote: — "I feel perfectly confident that everything 
will go on as usual." He recommended Colonel Saxon " to 
keep the guards as they are, if not to increase them a little 
during the Mohurram by adding a picket of Europeans to the 
Main Guard. During that period also it will be necessary to 
shut the gates at an early hour, to have frequent patrols 
through the streets to prevent the procession of tom-toms, and 
in short, no ceremony or -anything must be permitted which 
was not allowed in the time of the Sultan." The Cutwal 
would wait upon Colonel Saxon with his daily report, and 
receive orders upon it. " He requires some looking after, 
but I don't believe him to be worse than any other who must 
be employed in his place if he is dismissed from his office, 


and he knows his business, which is a great reason for keep- 
ing him." 

The operations against Dhoondra resulted in his defeat and 
death, and the dispersion of his followers. Colonel Wellesley 
spent the greater part of the years 1802 and 1803 at Seringa- 
patam, and was engrossed during that time in the direction 
of the local administration. In the autumn of 1803 opera- 
tions were resumed, under his command, against the Mahrattas, 
and, on the 23rd September, he fought and won the decisive 
battle of Assaye. He spent the following eleven months in 
the Bombay Presidency, chiefly at Poona ; and, being then 
summoned to Calcutta, to consult with the Governor-General, 
he proceeded from Poona to Seringapatam, and thence to 
Madras, where he embarked for Bengal. He remained a short 
time in Calcutta, and then returned once more to Seringa- 
patam, where he remained until February, 1805, when he 
returned for the last time to Madras. 

He remained seven weeks in Madras, and wrote several 
despatches during that period, all of which were addressed 
as from " Fort St. George." Lieutenant-General Sir John 
Craddock, K.C.B., was Commander-in-Chief, and Major- 
General Sir Arthur Wellesley, K.B. (as he had now become), 
applied to him for leave to go to England. Sir Arthur made 
a similar application to Lord William Bentinck, the new 
Governor-General, and resigned all appointments and offices 
which he held in the Army serving under His Lordship's 
Government, including that of Major General of the Staff. 
He had put in eight years of continuous service in India, and 
he considered, as he wrote to a friend, that : — " I have served 
as long in India as any men ought who can serve anywhere 
else, and I think there appears a prospect of service in Europe 
in which I should be more likely to get forward." 

On the eve of his embarkation he received an Address 
from the native inhabitants of Seringapatam, in the course 
of which they said : — 

Gratitude for the tranquillity, security, and happiness we have 
enjoyed under your auspicious protection since this country was thrown 
by Divine Providence under the just and pacific waving banners of 


the Hon'ble Company ; respect for the brilliant exploits you have 
achieved, which strengthened the foundations of that tranquillity ; 
and reverence for your benevolence, glow all at once in our hearts 
with such force, that we are unable to find language sufficient to express 
our feelings and regret on the occasion of your departure. We pray 
to God to grant you health, and a safe and pleasant voyage to 
Europe ; but we earnestly hope, and look with anxiety for the period 
of your speedy return to this country, once more to extend and up- 
hold that protection over us which your extensive local knowledge 
of our customs and manners is so capable of affording. 

In his acknowledgment, under date Fort St. George, 
4th March, 1805, of the receipt of this " affectionate address " 
Sir Arthur Wellesley stated that he was " much gratified by 
the proof which it affords ,that my endeavours to extend to 
you the benefits to which the subjects of the Honourable 
Company residing at Seringapatam are entitled, under the 
existing regulations, have been successful, and that you are 
fully impressed with the advantages of your situation." He 
added that he would " not cease to feel the most lively interest 
in everything which concerns you." 

The " Officers Present at the Headquarters of the Division 
of the Army " lately commanded by him, also presented an 
address, dated Seringapatam, 27th February, 1805, in which 
they said that they had "heard with unfeigned regret" of 
his intended embarkation to England ; they touched upon 
his "exalted talents and splendid achievements"; his "con- 
sideration and justice in command, which has made obedience 
a pleasure " ; and his " frank condescension in the private 
intercourse of life." They would follow, they said, his 
career with the sincerest good wishes ; and they begged him 
to accept " our most respectful but cordial farewell." Sir 
Arthur Wellesley in his reply, under date Fort St. George, 
8th March, 1805, said he was " much flattered " by this expres- 
sion of regret on the occasion of his departure ; and having 
referred to the eventful period that had passed since he was 
appointed to the command at Seringapatam ; and having 
alluded to the " discipline and good order of that garrison 
and the efficiency of the public departments," he concluded 
by saying that he would " always be interested in the welfare 

Painted in India, by Robert Home 

Engraved by C. Turner. 

On the Staff, Madras, 1802 to 1805. 


of Officers, with whose conduct in their several public capacities 
I have so much reason to be pleased, and in whose private 
society I have enjoyed so much satisfaction." 

He also received an Address from the " European Inhabitants 
and Native Officers of the Presidency of Fort St. George," 
in which he was requested to " allow them to possess your 
picture, for the purpose of its being placed in the Exchange 
Room at this Settlement, among the portraits of illustrious 
characters which already adorn its walls." He replied at 
considerable length ; and concluded by saying : "I shall have 
great pleasure, Gentlemen, in complying with your desire, 
and I consider myself to be highly honoured by being num- 
bered among those who have been deemed by you to be worthy 
of this mark of your approbation by the services they have 
rendered to their country in this part of India." ' Finally he 

1 A life-size portrait was painted by John Hoppner, R.A., in 1807, and 
acquired by public subscription in Madras in 1808. It is thus described 
by Lieutenant-Colonel H. D. Love, R.E., in his valuable Descriptive 
List of Pictures in Government House and the Banqueting Hall, Madras : 
" The General stands bareheaded in the open, fronting the spec- 
tator, his face turned somewhat to the left, and his eyes glancing 
still further in that direction. His right hand holds his plumed cocked 
hat. His smooth, youthful face is of pleasing contour and healthy 
colour, the mouth and chin well and firmly cut. He has good eyes 
and eyebrows, and abundant brown hair inclining to grey. His face 
wears a singularly calm and confident expression, notwithstanding 
that his grey charger, which is of conventional pattern, and which 
possesses an off fore-leg of amazing length, plunges wildly close behind 
him. A turbaned syce, whose features bear no trace of the Oriental, 
clings to the bridle. Mr. Arthur Wellesley wears the uniform of a 
Major-General : a double-breasted scarlet coatee, epauletted and 
closely buttoned, with blue collar and cuffs. The collar is slightly 
open, displaying a white cravat above. There are four gold em- 
broidered chevrons on the sleeves, arranged in pairs. Across his 
right shoulder passes the broad ribbon of the Bath, and the star of 
the Order is on his left breast. He wears white pantaloons and black 
hessians, and has a crimson waist sash, which partly conceals a narrow 
red leather sword-belt, with slings of the same colour. This is 
one of the few youthful portraits of Arthur Wellesley extant. There 
is an earlier one, also by Hoppner, representing him as a Lieutenant- 
Colonel ; and one by Home in Government House, Calcutta." 

A swantype reproduction of a mezzotint copy of the picture by 
Home is given on the opposite page. 


issued a General Order, in which he took leave of " the 
Officers and Troops with whom he had served so long." He 
embarked on board H.M. Ship Trident. Writing from sea 
on the 29th March he said that, "we have had very fine 
weather ever since we left Madras " ; but he was very sea- 
sick ; " otherwise," he added, "lam very comfortable, and 
in good health." The great Duke was, therefore, as Lord 
Roberts is known to be, a bad sailor. So also, strange to 
say, was Lord Nelson, for a short time after returning to his 
ship from a rest ashore. 

In addition to the varied military experience that he had 
acquired in India the distinguished passenger took home with 
him the Indian habit of early rising which he never relin- 
guished during the remainder of his long life. This is what 
is said on the subject by the Right Hon. Sir Herbert 
Maxwell, M.P., in his biography of the Duke : — 

He was born in that rank of life the members of which usually 
wait to begin their daily amusements, or business, till the world 
has been aired and warmed for them, till carpets have been swept, 
morning papers laid out, and a variety of other trivial offices per- 
formed, the sum of which insensibly becomes essential to what most 
of us set greatest store by — comfort. To secure this well-to-do 
people are generally content to surrender to the majority of their 
fellow-creatures a start of about three hours each day — a sacrifice 
confirmed into invincible habit by the accumulated sanction of gen- 
erations. The world at large loses nothing by lazy people lying in 
bed ; idle folk out of the way are at least out of mischief. But 
Wellington, setting no store by comfort, knew that to get through 
his work would take all the time he could give to it ; so he rose at six 
every morning, thereby adding three hours to each working day. 
Think what this daily increment amounted to from the time he went 
to India, for there is no evidence to show that he practised early 
rising before that period. Three hours a day for fifty-five years 
(allowing for leap years) amount to 61,359 hours — 2,556 days — 
almost exactly seven years of wakefulness, and, constituted as he was, 
of activity, filched from fashion, and added to his life — undoubtedly 
a large factor in the volume of his life-work, even if the quality thereof 
be attributed entirely to his intellectual powers. The greater part of 
those wonderful despatches, much also of his private correspondence, 
was penned before most of the writer's friends had left their break- 
fast tables. 

It may consequently be assumed that alike at Apsley 
House, Hyde Park, and at Strathfieldsaye, Hampshire, it 


was characteristic of the Duke to " rise with the lark." 
And doubtless he spent many an early morning, busily 
engaged, in the study on the west side of the hall of the 
palatial residence in London which was given to him by the 
nation. That study is now the repository of a very large 
number of pictures, banners, collars, stars, garters, badges, 
medals, caskets, presentation swords, plate, books, and 
parchments that belonged to, and are closely identified with, 
the career of the quondam Colonel in Madras, who became 
Prince of Waterloo, Duke of Wellington, Duque da Vittoria, 
Marquez de Torres Vedras, Marquis of Douro, Earl of Wel- 
lington, Earl of Mornington, Conde de Vimiero, Viscount 
Wellesley, Viscount Talavera, Baron Mornington, Knight 
of the Garter, Knight of the Thistle, Knight of St. Patrick, 
Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and Knight of the highest 
grades of foreign Orders too numerous to mention. 

I had the privilege of examining these objects of art 
at my leisure in 1883. I was at home on furlough at 
the time, and being fond of pictures, I ventured to write 
to the Secretary of the second Duke, and begged him to do 
me the favour of asking his Grace to permit me to see his 
Landseers. In reply, I received the following note : — 

Dear Sir, — I shall be glad if you will come and see my pictures. 
But I have one request to make, namely, that you will come on a 
dry day, as I have a great objection to dirty boots. 

I remain, 

Yours sincerely, 


As I was being conducted by a particularly well-informed 
housekeeper around the study, up the grand staircase, and 
through the Waterloo Gallery, and the other rooms, I could 
but think of the contrast that my surroundings offered to 
those of the small house at Teynampett, Madras, which the 
Duke, as Colonel Wellesley, occupied for many a day. How 
little could the Colonel have foreseen, as he sat in his verandah, 
conducting incessant, and sanguinary warfare against mos- 
quitoes bred in the adjacent Long Tank, what fate had in 
store for him ; how little could he have dreamt that, on 


June 28, 1814, it would be his unparalleled good fortune 
to be admitted to the House of Lords by the successive 
stages of Baron, Viscount, Earl, Marquis and Duke ; and 
that, on June 18 in the following year, it would be his lot 
to give the coup de grace to Napoleon at Waterloo. 

The ceremony of the introduction of the Duke of Welling- 
ton to the House of Lords, at about 3 o'clock on the day 
mentioned, was thus described in the Times of June 29, 
1814 :— 

A considerable number of Peers attended, not in their robes. The 
space before the Throne was filled by the Members of the House of Com- 
mons, and the space below the bar was filled with a crowd of strangers. 
His Grace entered, attended by the Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, the 
Duke of Richmond, and Duke of Beaufort, preceded by Sir Isaac 
Heard, Lion King at Arms, and having delivered the writ to the Lord 
Chancellor, he went to the table. This being his Grace's first ap- 
appearance in the House since his elevation to the Peerage, the whole 
of the patents were delivered in their order, beginning with that of 
Baron Douro and Viscount Talavera, and proceeding through the 
whole — Earl of Wellington, Marquis of Douro, Marquis of Wellington, 
and Duke of Wellington. His Grace having taken the usual oaths 
of allegiance and abjuration, then sat with the attendant Dukes 
on the ducal bench. 

Painted by L. F. Abbott. 

Private Secretary to Earl Macartney. 



When Lord Macartney went to Madras, he took with him, 
as Private Secretary, a gentleman for whom he entertained 
much regard. This was Mr. George Leonard Staunton, aged 
forty-four, who had so far had a chequered career. Son of 
a Colonel of Militia in Ireland, and born in Cargin, County 
Galway, in 1737, he studied medicine for some time at a 
College at Montpellier, in France ; and having, at the age of 
twenty-one, graduated as M.D., he proceeded to London in 
view to practising his profession. He attracted attention by 
his translations into English of professional books in French, 
and by other contributions to medical literature. Partly 
owing to this he formed the acquaintance of Dr. Johnson 
and Mr. Boswell. But his practice was not lucrative, and he 
resolved to try his luck as a medical practitioner in the Colony 
of Grenada. Thereupon, according to Boswell, Dr. Johnson 
wrote the following admirable letter to him — 

Dear Sir, — I make haste to answer your kind letter, in hope of 
hearing again before you leave us. I cannot but regret that a man 
of your qualifications should find it necessary to seek an establishment 
in Guadaloupe, which if a peace should restore to the French, I shall 
think it some alleviation of the loss that it must restore likewise 
Dr. Staunton to the English. 

It is a melancholy consideration that so much of our time is neces- 
sarily to be spent upon the care of living, and that we can seldom 
obtain ease in one respect but by resigning it in another ; yet I suppose 
we are by this dispensation not less happy on the whole than if 
the spontaneous bounty of Nature poured all that we want in our 
hands. A few, if they were thus left to themselves, would perhaps 
spend their time in laudable pursuits ; but the greater part would 
prey upon the quiet of each other, or, in the want of other objects, 
would prey upon themselves. 



This, however, is our condition, which we must improve and solace 
as we can ; and though we cannot choose always our place of residence 
we may in every place find rational amusements, and possess the 
comforts of piety and a pure conscience. 

In America there is little to be observed except natural curiosities. 
The New World must have many vegetables and animals with which 
philosophers are but little acquainted. I hope you will furnish your- 
self with some books of natural history, and some glasses and other 
instruments of observation. Trust as little as you can to report ; 
examine all you can by your own senses. I do not doubt but you 
will be able to add much to knowledge, and perhaps to medicine. 
Wild nations trust to simples, and, perhaps, the Peruvian bark is not 
the only specific which those extensive regions may afford us. 

Wherever you are, and whatever be your future, be certain, dear 
Sir, that you carry with you my kind wishes ; and that whether you 
return hither, or stay in the other hemisphere, to hear that you are 
happy will give pleasure to, Sir, 

Your most affectionate humble servant, 

June i, 1762. Sam. Johnson. 

Arrived at Grenada the young doctor succeeded beyond his 
most sanguine expectations ; and partly by his profession, but 
chiefly, it may be supposed, by other means, he speedily 
gained a considerable fortune, which he invested in estates for 
the cultivation of sugar and other commercial products. Then 
he resigned medicine, and applied himself so well to the study 
of law that he was summoned to the local Legislative Council, 
and was soon appointed Attorney-General. In 1774 Lord 
Macartney arrived as Governor, and Mr. Staunton there- 
upon became acquainted with him. The acquaintance soon 
developed into mutual esteem, which endured unimpaired for 
the rest of their lives. In 1779 the French invaded Grenada, 
and not only effected the ruin of Mr. Staunton by desolating 
his estates, but gained possession of the island, took the Gover- 
nor and Attorney-General prisoners, and shipped them off as 
prisoners of war to France. Mr. Staunton's familiarity with 
the French language and French people now stood both him 
and Lord Macartney in good stead, and eventually he per- 
suaded the French authorities to permit him to go on his 
parole to London to negotiate for an exchange of prisoners, 
which resulted in his own and Lord Macartney's release. 


So it was that when Lord Macartney accepted the offer of 
the Governorship of Fort St. George, he succeeded with 
comparative ease in inducing Mr. Staunton to accompany him, 
in view to his redressing in the far East the disaster to his 
fortune that he had sustained in the far West. The Private 
Secretaryship to a Governor in those days carried with it 
very little in the way of pay, but much in the shape of 
responsibility, though to a person unburdened with scruples 
it afforded opportunities for the accumulation of a fortune. 

The passage from London to Madras, via the Cape, was ex- 
peditious, for it took but little more than three months. Three 
days after his arrival Mr. Staunton wrote to his parents to say 
that, " we found all things in confusion and distress arising 
from the invasion of the country by a famous Indian Prince 
named, Hyder Ally. ... As His Lordship puts his whole con- 
fidence in me you may judge how exceedingly I am employed, 
but no motive shall prevent my writing to you on every oppor- 
tunity." Seven months later he wrote to his relative Mr. 
Thomas Staunton, M.P., and stated that affairs in Madras 
continued in the " same uncertain, and I fear dangerous 
state, with the rest of the British Empire. It is in vain that a 
few men of integrity and real patriotism are employed, and 
busy in doing all the good, and averting all the evil in their 
power ; their efforts will be counteracted by a bad and ruinous 
system." A year afterwards he was deputed by Lord Macart- 
ney to proceed to Calcutta, in view to removing differences 
of opinion on public questions of moment that had arisen 
between the Bengal and Madras Governments. By the exer- 
cise of the tact and courtesy which were characteristic of him 
Mr. Staunton succeeded in his efforts — at least temporarily — 
to disabuse the minds of the Governor-General and his col- 
leagues of the prejudice with which they had previously 
regarded the action of the sorely pressed, and habitually 
impecunious Government of Madras. 

On his return to Madras, Mr. Staunton found that affairs 
had undergone no change for the better during his absence, 
and as the months passed by he began to feel how little he was 
the gainer, and how much the loser by remaining in India. 


His thoughts began to dwell upon returning home. Lord 
Macartney did not wish to part with him, for he was invalu- 
able ; yet he did not permit any selfish consideration to 
deter him from doing what he could to secure a good position 
elsewhere for his friend. So, on the 5th August, 1783, he wrote 
to Mr. Charles James Fox, and having made some general 
observations about the position of affairs in India, he pro- 
ceeded to say that, " the old system cannot answer any 
longer, for that which was adapted to the regulation of mere 
commercial factories cannot now suit the administration of a 
great Empire." The great want was men of high character 
and good attainments in the Company's service. There were 
some men in Madras who "are not ill-qualified for continuing 
in office, but the number is small." The most capable of the 
whole of them was "Mr. Staunton, who came with me from 
England, and is still here. He is a gentleman of very good 
family, nearly related to old Mr. Staunton, the Member for 
Ipswich; of a liberal education, enlarged mind, uncommon 
industry and information, and one of the best head-pieces I 
have ever met with. He is withal a man of strict honour, and 
uncorruptible integrity, and of moderate views. Of these 
points I can speak with more precision and certainty than any 
man, and if I could not, you may rest assured, I would not 
recommend him with the warmth which I do." Accordingly 
he expressed the hope that for personal and public reasons 
Mr. Fox would not let slip any occasion that might offer, 
or that he could make, " for giving Mr. Staunton such a 
respectable appointment in this part of the world as may en- 
able him to do what I know he will do, the most essential service 
to his country, and honour to his employers." Lord Macartney 
concluded by saying that Mr. Staunton's conduct as Attorney- 
General of Grenada was such as showed that he was " qualified 
for the highest office in India." 

In November Mr. Sadleir, then Senior Civilian Member of 
Council, and Mr. Staunton were deputed by Lord Macartney 
to proceed to Seringapatam to negotiate terms of peace with 
Tippoo. They left Madras, accompanied by aides-de-camp, 
guards, and a train of attendants and followers ; and they 


travelled the whole distance, about four hundred miles, by 
palanquin. The change did Mr. Staunton good. Lord 
Macartney kept in touch with his Secretary, and on the 27th 
December, writing to " Dear Staunton," he said, that he had 
for some days been prevented from writing " by a variety of 
circumstances, rheumatism, gout, Christmas holidays, and a 
thousand indispensable avocations. In short, my dear friend, 
I am really worn down with distempers and fatigue. For 
God's sake, therefore, make a good peace as fast as you can, 
and return to us." But Tippoo was in no hurry, and so great 
was his dilatoriness in coming to terms that Lord Macartney, 
writing to Mr. Staunton on the 21st February, 1784, expressed 
his uneasiness at the situation of affairs, and concluded : — 
" Adieu, I look most anxiously for favourable news from you- 
I think really if this business fails I shall not survive it." A 
week later he concluded another letter by saying : — " In truth 
I am very ill calculated at present to write upon anything, for 
I am sick, sick at heart — your letters of yesterday have not 
been a cordial. Bengal has begun again to plague us with 
letters of reproach, but in such a manner as to give us every 
advantage we can wish." At length, peaCe with Tippoo was 
settled, though Mr. Staunton foresaw that " with a man of 
so little scruple it is not likely to be maintained longer than 
he will think it his interest to break it." 

From Seringapatam Mr. Staunton proceeded to Tellicherry, 
and then returned to Madras. In July he embarked with de- 
spatches for England. He also carried with him a generous 
letter of introduction from Lord Macartney to the Court of 
Directors. The Government, too, collectively advised the 
Court as follows — 

In a former address we took occasion to make mention of the 
merit of Mr. Staunton, and of the able assistance which this Govern- 
ment has derived from his distinguished talents in every branch of 
the administration ; but we feel ourselves now more particularly 
called upon to express our sense of his eminent services, and the still 
higher sense we entertain of the strict integrity which has uniformly 
marked his conduct, in a situation which presented the greatest 
temptation to deviate from it. 

These talents and integrity, which have already been devoted to 


the Company, during the course of three arduous years, give Mr. 
Staunton an undoubted claim to your favour ; and joined to the 
knowledge which he has acquired in that time, they qualify him to 
fill any station of trust and importance in your service, and bear a 
share in those disinterested labours and exertions, which will be found 
indispensably necessary to the retrieval of your affairs, if to retrieve 
them be yet attainable. 

Lord Macartney preserved a Memorandum, which is now 
in the British Museum, of the numerous letters that he en- 
trusted to the care of Mr. Staunton, and this shows that he 
was a good man of business, and that he kept up, while he 
was in Madras, an active correspondence with many of his 
friends at home. Mr. Staunton thus took charge of the de- 
spatches of the Madras Government to the Court of Directors ; 
despatches to the first Lord of the Treasury, the Secretary of 
State, and the Secretary of State for War respectively ; and 
Lord Macartney's private letters to Lady Macartney, the Duke 
of Richmond, Lord Sandwich, Lord North, Lord Sydney, Lord 
Beauchamp, Lord Loughborough, Mr. Fox, Mr. Burke, Mr. 
Dundas, and twenty-one other gentlemen ; as well as dupli- 
cates of a few letters from Lord Macartney to his bankers 
"Thomas Coutts, Esq. and Co." Lord Macartney wrote again 
to Mr. Fox to remind him of the merits of Mr. Staunton. 

The first result of these testimonies to Mr. Staunton's 
worth was that, on the nth April, 1785, it was resolved unani- 
mously by the Court of Directors, to grant him £500 per annum 
during his life, to commence from the 12th March, 1784, being 
the day on which the treaty of peace with Tippoo was signed. 1 
In the following October the King conferred upon him the 
" honour of Baronet of the Kingdom of Ireland." In February, 
1787, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; and in 
April, 1790, he received the degree of Honorary Doctor of Laws 
from the University of Oxford. He remained out of employ 
until 1792, when he accompanied Lord Macartney's Embassy 
to China ; and, on his return home with Lord Macartney, he 
published an " Authentic Account of the Embassy." He died 
in London, on the 14th January, 1801 in the sixty-fourth year 

1 The portrait facing this chapter is reproduced from the right 
half of the painting by Abbott, referred to on page 94. 


of his age, and was buried at Westminster Abbey. A monu- 
ment, designed and executed by Chantrey, was erected in the 
North Aisle, exactly opposite the fine memorial and statue 
of Sir Stamford Raffles, the famous Governor of the Straits 
Settlements, and within a few inches of tablets, or tombstones, 
commemorative of five eminent Doctors of Music, namely, 
Charles Burney, John Blow, Samuel Arnold, Henry Purcell, 
and Michael Balfe. The chief feature of the Staunton memorial 
is a sarcophagus, on the side of which a European, seated, 
is represented in conversation with a native of India, who 
occupies a place on the ground beneath a tree. Below the 
sarcophagus is a white marble tablet which bears the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

In the North Aisle of Westminster Abbey 

Are deposited the Remains of 


Baronet, of Cargin, County of Galway, Ireland. 

His life was devoted to his Country's service 

In various parts of the globe : 

His conduct on all occasions was distinguished 

By Firmness, Prudence, and Integrity, 

And in a peculiar manner displayed by the 

Treaty of Peace concluded with 

Tippoo Sultan, in 1784, by which 

The British interests in India were promoted and secured 

Born 19th April, 1737 ; Died 14th January, 1801. 

The only surviving son of Sir George Staunton, also named 
George, succeeded him not only in the Baronetcy, but also, 
later on, as Fellow of the Royal Society, and as Doctor of 
Laws at Oxford. This second Sir George Staunton had an 
aptitude for Oriental languages, and acquired, at the Propa- 
ganda at Naples, the ability not only to talk but also to write 
Chinese. He accompanied the Macartney Embassy as the so- 
called " page." He was one of the founders of the Asiatic 
Society, and was Member of Parliament for St. Michael's, 
Haylesbury, South Hampshire and Portsmouth successively, 
almost continuously from 1818 until 1852. He was the author 
of numerous books connected with Oriental languages ; and 
he compiled, for private circulation, a brief memoir of his 
father, to which I am indebted for much of the information 


contained in this sketch. He died, unmarried, in 1859 ; and 
the title thereupon became extinct. 

Mr. Alexander Dalrymple. 
On the nth May, 1783 — a date made memorable by the 
death of the Earl of Chatham at Hayes Place, Alexander 
Dalrymple arrived in Madras from England, after a voyage of 
five months. He had not completed his sixteenth year, yet 
he had been appointed a Writer on the Madras establishment 
of the East India Company. He was the seventh son of Sir 
James Dalrymple, and grandson of the Hon'ble Sir David 
Dalrymple, of Hailes, in the county of Haddington, Scot- 
land. He received the rudiments of education at a school 
in Haddington, which was then in some repute, and he was 
regarded as a good Latin scholar ; but he did not proceed 
to the University of Edinburgh. His father, who taught 
him some geography, died when Dalrymple was thirteen 
years of age. Two years later, or in 1752, the lad's paternal 
aunt, Lady Baird, widow of Sir John Baird, married General 
the Hon'ble St. Clair, an intimate friend of Alderman Baker, 
then Chairman of the East India Company. The boy had 
read " Nieuboff's Voyages," " Joe Thomson," and other books 
which inspired him with a desire to go to India ; and the 
Alderman was induced by General St. Clair to obtain employ- 
ment for him there. Accordingly, he was sent to a school at 
Four Tree Hill, Enfield, near London, to learn writing and 
accounts, the only qualifications required of aspirants to their 
service by the East India Company. According to the con- 
ditions of that service a candidate must have completed his 
sixteenth year, and it was only by a quibble, which was 
disapproved by his conscientious mother, Lady Christian Dal- 
rymple, that the lad was allowed to pass the simple tests of 
Leadenhall Street. He embarked at Gravesend in the Suffolk. 
The ship was commanded by Captain William Wilson, a 
relative of Sir Thomas Wilson, an old acquaintance of General 
St. Clair ; and this officer proved an excellent friend to 
young Dalrymple not only during the voyage, but for many 
years afterwards. 


The Suffolk remained a month off Madras, and during that 
time Captain Wilson occupied a house on shore, and entertained 
Dalrymple as his guest. The latter had brought out with him 
a letter of introduction from Lord Northesk, who had been 
in India, to Mr. Saunders, Governor of Fort St. George, as 
well as to other persons, most of whom, he found on his arrival, 
had either left Madras, or died. The Governor did not take 
much interest in the lad. Mr. Charles Bourchier, who was then 
Secretary to Government, and who some years later succeeded 
to the Governorship, was more amiable, and endeavoured to 
find work for him in the Secretariat. But Dalrymple wrote 
such a shocking hand that it was difficult to know what to do 
with him. He was a Writer who could hardly write. So Mr. 
Bourchier placed him under the Storekeeper, where for a time 
he was forgotten. In October 1754, by which time Dalrymple 
had been seventeen months in Madras, Mr., afterwards Lord, 
Pigot succeeded Mr. Saunders as Governor. It happened that 
the Governor's brother, Admiral Pigot, was one of General 
St. Clair's many friends, and, at the instance of the General, 
the Admiral urged the Governor to give a helping hand 
to the young Writer. But the Governor found that he still 
wrote very badly. Thereupon he good naturedly showed him 
how to hold his pen, and how to write with ease. " From 
this instruction," — it is related in a paper in the European 
Magazine for 1802 which has the look of being autobiographical 
— " he benefited more, in a few days, than by anything that 
he had been taught at school, and specially succeeded in writing 
a very good and fluent hand ; and though not so masterly as 
Lord Pigot's, so much like his ordinary writing that he often 
mistook it for his own." 

Mr. Robert Orme, the Indian historian, was then a Member 
of Council and Accountant in Madras, and he wished to 
make Dalrymple Sub- Accountant, notwithstanding his inex- 
perience in book-keeping. The selection was not, however, 
approved by the Governor. Mr. Orme then, by way of con- 
solation, gave Dalrymple the use of his valuable library, 
and continued to the end of his life to show him much kind- 
ness. Meanwhile Dalrymple was employed in the Secretary's 


office, where he availed himself of the opportunities that offered 
for the examination of old records, and the study of the de- 
velopment of commerce in the East. There he remained until 
September, 1758, when his old friend Captain, now Commodore, 
Wilson arrived at Madras in the Pitt, 50 guns, bound for China, 
with Colonel, afterwards Sir William, Draper and a large body 
of troops on board. " It occurred to Commodore Wilson that 
the same principle by which ships went to the Malabar Coast 
and Persia from Madras in the South West monsoon was 
applicable in a passage to China, viz. by crossing the line, and 
taking advantage of the contrary monsoons that prevail at 
the same time in North and South latitudes." He proposed 
this to the Governor, who is stated to have consulted Dal- 
rymple, with the result that the Commodore was authorised 
to put his project into execution. The voyage was success- 
ful, and the East India Company marked their sense of the 
Commodore's merit in the matter by presenting him with a 
gold medal. 

All this led to Dalrymple studying navigation, and, with 
Lord Pigot's permission, he resolved to go on a voyage of 
observation in the Eastern seas in the schooner Cuddalore. 
But the French laid siege to Madras from December, 1758, 
to February, 1759, and caused so much devastation that it was 
found impossible afterwards to supply all the stores required 
by the vessel for a long cruise. So she was ordered to proceed 
to China to obtain the stores she needed there. Meanwhile 
the Hon'ble Thomas Howe, commanding the Winchelsea, East 
Indiaman, gave Dalrymple a passage with Lord Pigot's 
approval, to China, and initiated him in nautical matters on 
the voyage. " The evening before Dalrymple embarked Gov- 
ernor Pigot presented him with an instrument making him a 
present of whatever profits might accrue from the three-fourths 
concern in the Cuddalore. Having never insinuated such an 
intention he left no ground for mercenary imputation against 
Dalrymple in undertaking the voyage, or against the Governor 
himself for ordering it." Thus it was that Dalrymple reached 
Singapore in the Winchelsea, and then transferred himself to 
the Cuddalore. 


The latter vessel went cruising about Malaya, Borneo and 
China for nearly three years, and returned to Madras in January, 
1762. Dalrymple submitted to the Governor a report of his 
proceedings, and the Government in forwarding it to the Court 
of Directors expressed the opinion that he had shown himself 
" a man of capacity, integrity, and unwearied application." 
About the same time Admiral Kempenfelt, commanding 
H.M.'s ship Norfolk, then in the Madras Roads, stated that 
Lord Pigot had been " very happy in his choice of this 
young gentleman for such a service, as I e is a person of good 
education, quick parts, and talents naturally adapted for such 
an employ." The Madras Government now resolved to send 
Dalrymple on another voyage to the East, in search of political 
and commercial advantages for the Company. With that 
object in view they appointed him by commission to be Captain 
of the London, in May, 1762. The expedition was not as suc- 
cessful as had been anticipated ; but one result of it was the 
grant of the island of Balambangan to the Company. Dal- 
rymple returned in the London to Madras in 1763. He re- 
mained a few weeks there, and then sailed, in the Neptune, 
for Sooloo, from whence, early in 1765, he returned to England, 
as the Madras Government considered that the success of future 
intercourse in the Eastern Islands might depend in a great 
measure on the Court of Directors receiving full information 
from him on the subject. But the Court of Directors were 
slow to avail themselves of his experience. Yet in 1769, 
four years after his return home, they made him a grant of 
£5,000 for his past services, being the equivalent, it was stated, 
of the emoluments which he had relinquished in Madras, ten 
years previously, when he made his first Eastern voyage. 

He continued to devote himself to hydrographical and geo- 
graphical studies until 1775, when he was appointed a Member 
of Council, and returned to Madras during the brief and ill-fated 
second term of Lord Pigot's Governorship. He held that 
appointment two years, and was then recalled with Messrs. 
Stratton, Floyers, Mackenzie, Russell, Stone and Lathom, all 
of whom were implicated in the revolt against, and imprison- 
ment of the Governor. But this did not prevent his be- 


coming the first Hydrographer to the East India Company, 
in 1779, or receiving a pension of £500 a year. In 1795 the 
King's Government resolved to appoint an Hydrographer to 
the Admiralty, and Earl Spencer made the first offer of the 
appointment to Mr. Dalrymple. With the approval of the 
Court of "Directors he accepted it, and he held it until 1808, 
when he was summarily dismissed. He was then seventy-one 
years of age, and a bachelor. He died broken-hearted three 
weeks afterwards. 

The incident aroused a good deal of sympathy at the time, 
and Lord Henry Petty drew attention to it in the House of 
Commons ten days after Mr. Dalrymple's death. Having 
paid a high tribute to the scientific attainments and dis- 
tinguished services of that gentleman, he proceeded to say 
that he had been offered a pension equivalent to his salary 
as Hydrographer if he would resign ; but that he declined to 
accept the offer, whereupon he was summarily dismissed 
from the public service, a circumstance that had un- 
doubtedly accelerated his death. He, therefore, moved for a 
copy of the letter of dismissal which the Lords of the Admiralty 
had addressed to Mr. Dalrymple. Mr. R. Ward, on behalf of 
the Government, replied that no objection would be raised 
to the production of papers bearing on the case. He endorsed 
what Lord Henry Petty had said about the merits and 
services of Mr. Dalrymple, and he added that the Lords of 
the Admiralty also held Mr. Dalrymple's genius in much esteem. 
But, for several months before his dismissal, they could not 
prevail upon him to comply with their orders for the production 
of charts for the use of the Navy. He filled folios with his 
reasons for not executing those orders, until the Board consi- 
dered it was necessary to take a decisive step. The Board had 
not, as Lord Henry Petty imagined, made Mr. Dalrymple an 
offer of a pension equivalent to his official salary, but they had 
guaranteed him the highest proportion of salary that could be 
given on retirement. In their letter requesting him to retire 
they did not allude to what they could not but regard as his 
numerous acts of disobedience, but they expressed in the softest 
terms their wish that he would vacate the position that he 


occupied in order that other arrangements might be made. 
Professor Laughton, the author of a notice of his career in 
the " Dictionary of National Biography," states that his work 
at the Admiralty was onerous and important, involving the 
collecting, collating, and publishing of a large number of charts, 
and the organisation of a new Department. " His services," 
adds the somewhat unsympathetic Professor, " were unques- 
tionably good, but he seems to have placed a higher value on 
them than his superiors for the time being did ; and he was 
thus involved in frequent unpleasantnesses, and experienced 
frequent disappointments and mortifications both at the 
Admiralty and from the Court of Directors." He published 
fifty-nine brochures. They included a collection of South Sea 
Voyages that he compiled during the siege of Madras, when 
he was Deputy Secretary to Government, which shows inci- 
dentally, as the European Magazine remarked, " how little 
influence that siege had on persons' minds at the time." He 
probably made the mistake of not " sticking to his last " ; 
for not only was he an exceedingly prolific writer about charts, 
surveys, voyages, wrecks, ports, and such like, but he also venti- 
lated his opinions about the cases of Lord Pigot, General 
Stuart, and the Tanjore Raj, Parliamentary Reform, and so 
forth ; while on one occasion he wrote an introduction for 
the story of " Dooshyanta " and " Sakoontala " as translated 
from the Mahabharata. Doubtless he had his foibles, like most 
people. But, for all that, he may be regarded as one of the 
most notable of the Members of Council of Madras. 

Mr. Josiah Webbe. 

Previous to July, 1800, the head of the Government Secre- 
tariat, Fort St. George, was designated " the Secretary to 
Government " ; but, on the 12th of that month, an Order was 
issued by the Governor in Council, directing that for the future 
all letters and applications of the nature of those heretofore 
addressed to " the Secretary to Government," should be di- 
rected, either to " the Chief Secretary to Government," or to 
the Secretary of the Department to which the business referred 
to in the communication specially related. At the same time 


all officers, military as well as civil, were requested to observe 
that they were in no case " to blend in one letter subjects be- 
longing to different Departments " ; but were, in all such cases, 
to address separate letters to the Departments to which the 
subjects respectively belonged. Answers, it was added, would 
be returned either by the Chief Secretary to Government, 
or by the Secretary of the Department to which the letter or 
application might, in accordance with the new Order, have 
been forwarded. This Order was signed by Mr. " J. Webbe," 
as " Chief Secretary to Government." That gentleman was 
accordingly the first to hold that responsible and influential 
position. It is no disparagement of his numerous successors 
to say that, judging from the estimation in which he was 
held by those with whom he was associated, he was not 
inferior in ability or attainments to any of them. He was 
only thirty-three years at the time of the publication of the 
Order under reference ; but he had already made his mark 
in India ; and had it not been for his untimely death he 
might, it is reasonable to suppose, have preceded both Sir 
Thomas Munro and Mr. Stephen Rumbold Lushington in 
the Governorship of Madras. 

He arrived in Fort St. George, as a Writer, in 1783, in his 
sixteenth year ; and was initiated into administrative work 
as Assistant for three years to what was called the Select Com- 
mittee. In 1786, when he was just completing his " teens," 
he was appointed Assistant to the Secretary in the Military 
Department. He had applied himself so industriously to the 
study of the local vernaculars that he was at the same time 
made Mahratta Translator to the Government. In the follow- 
ing year he was transferred, still as Assistant Secretary, to the 
Public and Revenue Department. In 1790, at the age of 
twenty-three, he was appointed Secretary to the " Board of 
Assumed Revenue " ; in 1792 he was gazetted Deputy Secre- 
tary to the Public, Commercial and Revenue Department ; and 
in 1795 he became Secretary in that Department, as well as 
Clerk to the Court of Appeal, and to the Committee of Treasure. 
Two years later, at the age of thirty, he became Secretary to 
Government, and still retained the Mahratta Translatorship. 


It will be observed that he was afforded no opportunity 
for gaining up-country experience. His knowledge of the 
Mofussil may have been comprehensive and exact, but it was 
inevitably second-hand, and founded largely on hearsay, and 
official documents. 

Lord Hobart, who had been Governor three and a half years 
when Mr. Webbe became the Chief of the Madras Secretariat, 
remained in office until February, 1798, when he was recalled, 
and embarked for England before his successor had arrived. 
The responsibility thereupon devolved upon General Harris, 
as Commander-in-Chief, and First Member of Council, of 
provisionally assuming the office of Governor without pre- 
judice to his military duties. His previous experience had 
been exclusively of a military character, and he was thus 
rendered dependent on his civilian colleagues in Council, but 
especially on Mr. Webbe, as the Secretary, for guidance in 
regard to the civil matters that came before him. And it 
was while he was occupying this uncongenial position that the 
Earl of Mornington arrived off Fort St. George from England 
in the Sybille, en route for Calcutta. General Harris de- 
spatched his Private Secretary and son-in-law, Mr. Lushington, 
to the frigate to congratulate the new Governor-General on 
his safe voyage, and to accompany his Lordship ashore. 
Lord Mornington landed without delay, and was accommo- 
dated, with all suitable respect for his high office, at Govern- 
ment House in the Fort. He remained several days in Madras, 
and spent the time in a close study of the public functionaries, 
resources, and capabilities of the Presidency. He then resumed 
his journey to Bengal. Shortly afterwards he wrote privately 
to General Harris, to say that he had determined " to call upon 
the Allies without delay, and to assemble the Army of the 
Coast with all possible expedition " for the invasion of Mysore. 
He told the General that his public instructions would follow 
in the course of a few days. " Until you have received them," 
he added, " it will not be proper to take any public steps for 
the assembling of the Army ; but whatever can be done 
without a disclosure of the ultimate object, I authorise you 
to do immediately," since " it is my positive resolution to as- 


semble the Army upon the Coast." After an anxious night 
of meditation General Harris sent the Governor-General's 
communication to Mr. Webbe, for that gentleman's informa- 
tion before it was laid before Council. Its perusal called forth 
from Mr. Webbe expressions of astonishment and alarm which 
so dismayed Mr. Lushington that he reported them to General 
Harris, who saw that while his own course as a soldier was 
to obey without questioning the orders he might receive from 
higher authority, it was probable that his civilian colleagues 
would share Mr. Webbe's views. He requested Mr. Webbe to 
state his opinions in writing for the information of the Governor- 
General. Mr. Webbe thereupon drew up a Memorandum. 

Mr. Webbe said at starting that it seemed to him that the 
project of introducing a new state of things by the deposition 
of Tippoo as a power in India, involved a " greater danger of 
evil than a chance of good." He showed how Tippoo held the 
vantage ground, while " in respect to ourselves, a very large 
portion of the Coast Army is detached, our means of resources 
are curtailed by the war in Europe, and our credit in this coun- 
try, at least upon this Coast, is bankrupt." It therefore ap- 
peared to him that if with the exceptional advantages that were 
commanded in 1790 the operations against Tippoo " were not 
made successful without the greatest difficulty, I am fearful 
that, under the general change of circumstances which I have 
reviewed, an attack upon him now is more likely to end in dis- 
comfiture than victory." There was no grain at Arnee, Vellore, 
or elsewhere ; and it would be difficult to enable the Coast Army 
to assume the offensive for several months to come. " Nothing 
can be more urgent than our representations to Bengal upon 
the state of our finances except the necessities which produce 
them. It is a fact that without assistance in money from 
thence, our military expenses upon the peace establishment 
cannot be provided for beyond the month of September " ; — 
or for only three months from the date of the Memorandum. 
" I am afraid, therefore, that, far from being in a state to equip 
an Army for the field, we shall scarcely have the means of 
marching the different corps to Wallajahbad, while the state 
of the treasury renders it utterly impracticable to make any 


suitable advance for draught and carriage cattle." Thus he 
could " anticipate none but the most baneful consequences 
from a war with Tippoo." But " if war is inevitable, and 
the present are judged the most advantageous circumstances 
under which it can commence, I fear that our situation is 
bad beyond the hope of remedy." 

General Harris sent on this document to the Governor 
General, and left him to form an opinion of the arguments 
it contained. " I should not," he stated in a postscript to a 
despatch, with which the Memorandum was forwarded, " have 
troubled you with it if I did not feel an anxiety that you should 
be prepared to meet all the arguments which will be stated 
with so much virulence by the Opposition at home against the 
author of the war, if, unfortunately, we should be compelled to 
endure that calamity." The Governor General did not con- 
descend to refute Mr. Webbe's opinions ; but the perusal of the 
Memorandum which so unhesitatingly challenged the wisdom 
of his own resolution, may have had something to do with the 
qualified terms that he employed when writing a few days later 
to Edward, Lord Give, to welcome him on his arrival at 
Madras. In this letter he offered for the new Governor's in- 
formation his " unreserved opinion " of the character of such 
persons as he had an opportunity of knowing at Madras ; and 
he commenced by saying that Mr. Webbe, the Secretary of the 
Government, appeared to him to be " a man of talents and 
knowledge ; his integrity I believe to be unblemished." He 
represented to the new Governor that the Governor General in 
Council " must frequently issue instructions, the fundamental 
principles and final scope of which cannot at first sight be fully 
understood by the other Presidencies." He stated that the 
duty of those Presidencies " can never be to mix direct or 
indirect censures with their formal obedience to the legal 
authority of the Governor-General in Council." He observed 
that an examination of the records of " the late Government 
of Fort St. George will manifest to your Lordship a constant 
tendency towards this fatal error." He then alluded to " a 
letter to me in Council, containing both direct and indirect 
censures of the orders which I have lately issued for assem- 



bling the Army on the Coast, a measure indispensably neces- 
sary, and founded on a variety of reasons, of which the 
Government of Fort St. George could not at that time com- 
prehend either the nature or extent." 

It has been said in a former page that the Governor-General 
went to Madras early in 1799, and remained there nearly 
seven months watching the course of the campaign which 
culminated in the fall of Seringapatam, and the death of 
Tippoo. The Government of Madras was during that time 
totally eclipsed by the Supreme Government ; but all orders 
issued by the Governor-General in Council were signed by 
Mr. Webbe, as Secretary. He was thus brought into close 
contact with Lord Mornington, and each, doubtless, saw 
much to respect and admire in the other. Meanwhile the 
Court of Directors had strongly resented Mr. Webbe's gloomy 
apprehensions about the war, and seriously thought of re- 
calling him. But Lord Mornington and Lord Clive persuaded 
them to relinquish that intention. The Directors, however, 
insisted in 1804 in removing him from Madras, in disregard 
of the Governor General's and the Governor's opinion, and 
appointing him Resident in Mysore, and afterwards at the 
Court of Dowlut Rao Scindiah. When proceeding to take 
up the latter appointment, he fell ill, on the 9th of November, 
at Mussingabad, on the banks of the Nerbudda, and, sad to 
say, he died there, aged thirty-seven. 

A meeting was speedily held in Madras for the purpose of 
marking the public sense of his official merits and high char- 
acter. It had transpired that when the Governor General 
endeavoured to induce the Court of Directors to leave Mr. 
Webbe in Madras, he expressed the opinion that that gen- 
tleman " possessed knowledge, talents and virtue never sur- 
passed in India," and had " devoted the best years of his 
valuable life for the honour and benefit of the Company." 
So, when it was decided to raise a monument to Mr. Webbe's 
memory in St. Mary's Church, Fort St. George, — which he may 
have attended during those years — it was resolved to beg 
the Governor General to write the epitaph to be placed 
upon it. But he replied that he was debarred by his official 


position from complying with the request. Then the duty 
was assigned to somebody else, and the result was the produc- 
tion of the epitaph that may still be seen on the monument. 
After a few introductory words the epitaph sets forth that 
Mr. Webbe's 

mind by Nature firm, lofty and energetic, was formed by classic 
study to a tone of independence and patriotism not unworthy of the 
best days of Greece and Rome. Disdaining the little arts of private 
influence, or of vulgar popularity, and erect in conscious integrity, 
he rested his claims to public honours on public merit. An extensive 
knowledge of the Eastern languages forwarded his rise to stations of 
high trust, where his ambition was fired to exalt the honour and interests 
of his country ; and during an eventful period of Indian history 
his services were crowned with important success. In the midst of 
a career thus honoured and distinguished he was cut off by sickness 
in the prime of life, beloved with fervour by his friends, regretted by 
his rulers, and admired by all. 

It is interesting also to know that Purnaiya Dewan erected 
a column near Seringapatam to the memory of Mr. Webbe " as 
a tribute " — so runs the inscription upon it — " of veneration 
and respect for splendid talents, unsullied purity, and eminent 
public virtue." Mr. Webbe included among his friends Colonel 
Arthur Wellesley (subsequently Duke of Wellington), who took 
home with him from Madras a copy of an engraving of a portrait 
of Mr. Webbe that was painted in Madras by Mr. Hickey. The 
Duke reserved a prominent place for this engraving in the 
dining-room of Strathfieldsaye ; and it is related that on 
one occasion, when he was asked by a guest whose portrait 
it was, he replied by mentioning Mr. Webbe's name, and 
added, " He was one of the ablest men I ever knew, and 
what is more, one of the most honest." 

Mr. Thomas Cockburn. 

It has already been mentioned that Lord Clive, shortly 
after his arrival as Governor, in August, 1798, received a long 
letter of welcome and warning from Lord Mornington, whose 
personal acquaintance he had yet to make, in which the 
Governor General thought it expedient to deliver his " unre- 
served opinion of the character of such persons as I had an 


opportunity of knowing at Madras " during his stay there, 
while outward bound from London to Calcutta. " I must 
observe," he added, " that although my continuance at Madras 
was but short, I had very frequent opportunities of seeing 
all the persons of whom I shall speak to your Lordship." 
He assured Lord Clive that he would find all the members 
of the Board of Revenue worthy of confidence. He then 
said : — 

Mr. Cockburn, however, deserves particular notice. He bears 
the highest reputation for integrity, talents, and knowledge of the 
business of the country, and I found him fully answerable to his 
general character. I have very seldom met with a more valuable 
man in any part of the world ; and I take the liberty of recommending 
him to your Lordship's attention, as a person upon whom you may 
rely for the most accurate information, and for the soundest and 
most honest opinions, entirely exempt from any taint of passion, 
prejudice, or self-interest. 

This encomium may have been partly attributable to the 
circumstance that Mr. Cockburn was almost the only official in 
Madras who expressed warm approval instead of strong disap- 
proval of Lord Mornington's determination to force war upon 
Tippoo. The proposed expedition was, according to Mr. 
Lushington, the Acting-Governor's Secretary, contemplated 
with great alarm by nearly every civil and military servant of 
the Presidency except Mr. Cockburn. " His able and ardent 
mind entered cordially into the wisdom and sagacity of Lord 
Mornington's policy, and he rendered every aid in his power 
to its success by his comprehensive knowledge and animated 
example." Eight years previously, during the first war with 
Tippoo, Mr. Cockburn filled the office of Commissary-General ; 
and, at the end of the campaign, Colonel Ross, Secretary to 
Lord Cornwallis, wrote to him to say that " no man can 
entertain a higher sense of your zeal and exertions than his 
Lordship does, and while he sets a just estimate on your ser- 
vices, to the public, I am persuaded he is not without feeling 
a considerable share of personal obligation to you for them." 
Moreover, Lord Cornwallis, after his return home, at the con- 
clusion of his first term of office as Governor General, did 


not forget Mr. Cockburn, for, in March, 1798, when Lord Clive 
was preparing to leave for Madras, he mentioned to him in 
London — as he wrote to Mr. Cockburn — " my sense of your 
merits and abilities, and the slender rewards with which they 
have been hitherto attended, and I pointed you out as a 
person who deserved his confidence." Soon after Lord dive's 
assumption of office, it was perceived, as has been stated, 
that, with every desire to carry out the imperious behests of 
the Supreme Government, he was not the type of man to hold 
the helm of state during a crisis, and Mr. Cockburn united with 
General Harris and Colonel Wellesley in entreating Lord Morn- 
ington to assume the personal control of affairs at Madras. 
The Governor General rose grandly to the occasion, and — 
according to Mr. Lushington, an eye-witness — " from the day 
of his arrival at Madras the word difficulty was little heard ; 
all heads and hearts soon worked for the great object in 
view, the due equipment and supply of the army, and none 
more efficiently than Mr. Cockburn." 

He was appointed a Writer in Madras in 1779, at the age, 
presumably, of sixteen ; and upon his arrival he was placed 
under the Secretary to the Select Committee. In 1782 he 
was made Sub-Accountant ; from which in 1785 he was 
promoted to Agent Victualler, in recognition, as the Govern- 
ment said, of the " great diligence and attention " which he had 
shown in the former capacity. In 1786 he became Accountant 
to the Board of Revenue, and in 1787 Commissary General of 
Grain and Provisions. The attention of the Court of Directors 
was drawn by the Government to the " ability and unremitting 
attention " which he had displayed as Revenue Accountant, 
and a special allowance of 200 pagodas per month, in addition 
to his other emoluments, was sanctioned. In 1788 he was 
elected by the creditors to be Registrar of the Private Debts of 
the Nabob of Arcot and of the Rajah of Tanjore. He now 
resigned the post of Accountant to the Board of Revenue 
owing to the great claims made upon him as Commissary- 
General, and the Board forwarded his resignation to the 
Government, and said that, as frequent mention had been made 
of his " diligence and ability in the discharge of his laborious 


duties," it was unnecessary to do more than to say that he had 
given the Board "entire satisfaction." In 1791 when the 
above mentioned operations against Tippoo were being con- 
certed by Lord Cornwallis, Mr. Cockburn, as Commissary- 
General, was, among other things, Principal Agent for the 
provision of draught and carriage bullocks with a special 
allowance of 600 pagodas a month ; and he was permitted as 
a special case to draw this allowance, as a reward, for two 
years after the conclusion of the war. In May, 1793, he was 
relieved of the office of Commissary-General, and appointed — 
presumably in the thirtieth year of his age, and the fourteenth 
year of his official service — Third Member of the Board of 

The members of that Board were not then remunerated in 
proportion to the duties which devolved upon them ; and, in 
1796, the Government urged the Court of Directors to sanc- 
tion an increase in the scale of salaries. In doing so the 
Government said of the Board : — " We can vouch (and the 
records support the assertion) that their labour has been inces- 
sant, that their investigations have been minute, that their con- 
duct has been vigorous and firm, that the information which 
they have brought forward is material, that the energy of their 
superintendence has introduced a system which before was 
wanting, that their vigilance has enabled us to detect and 
to correct much abuse, and, finally, that we conscientiously 
believe them to have acted upon public motives and the 
most rigid integrity." The Government therefore submitted 
that the Members "ought to have greater inducements for 
the employment of their talents and experience than the 
situations which they now hold at the Board of Revenue." 
The Court of Directors in reply expressed their " entire concur- 
rence in the opinion you have expressed of the merits of the 
Members of which that Board is at present composed." 
But no increase of salaries was made at the time. 

In October, 1798, shortly after Lord Clive's arrival, Mr. 
Cockburn submitted to Government a claim for 14,472 
pagodas, which he considered due to him in consequence of 
the loss he had sustained by his exchange of the Commissary- 


Generalship for a seat on the Board. The Government sup- 
ported his request. But the Court of Directors declined to act 
on the recommendation of the Government, for fear, as they 
said, of " encouraging a revival of old claims." But, as a mark 
of their approval of Mr. Cockburn's conduct while acting as 
Commissary-General, which they observed " stood honourably 
distinguished," they presented him with 2,500 pagodas. 
Mr. Cockburn was not satisfied with this slice of the whole loaf 
to which he considered he was entitled, and he respectfully 
begged the Court to reconsider his case on its merits. But the 
Court replied that they " saw no reason for entering into a 
revision of his claim." He was a member of the Committee 
of Reform appointed in 1798 to revise the Civil Establish- 
ments in the Presidency. The Court of Directors eventually 
acknowledged the " useful, zealous, and able labours of the 
Committee," the members of which had " shown a very 
extensive acquaintance with the affairs of the Company, 
strict impartiality in the application of reform, and great 
attention to public interests." 

In 1797 the Board of Revenue were busily engaged in the 
production of a report upon the proposed introduction of a 
permanent system of revenue and judicature ; and the Court 
of Directors, two years later, expressed its approbation of the 
" industry and abilities which the Board had displayed in the 
investigation and elucidation of this extensive and complicated 
subject." About the same time the Court sanctioned an 
increase to the salaries of the members of the Board as from the 
1st September 1799, or two years previously, as follows : — 
First Member, from 10,000 to 12,000 pagodas per annum ; 
Second Member, from 8,000 to 11,000 ; and the Third Member 
from 8,000 to 10,000. Mr. White, the First, and Mr. Kindersley, 
the Second Member, soon afterwards resigned, whereupon 
Mr. Cockburn became First Member, and two new men were 
appointed Second and Third Members respectively. Strange 
to add, Mr. Cockburn was not long in proposing to follow the 
example of Mr. White and Mr. Kindersley. In September, 
1801, when he had been twenty-two consecutive years in the 
service, he had the option of retiring upon a pension of £400 a 


year from the Civil Fund, and he resolved to avail himself of it. 
But the Government begged him to reconsider his decision, 
and he agreed to do so. In informing the Court of Directors of 
this, the Government said that " Mr. Cockburn has, at our 
solicitation, founded on a conviction of the injury which the 
interests of the Company would have sustained by his imme- 
diate departure from India, relinquished that intention." 

In 1802 Mr. Cockburn was appointed a member of the Special 
Commission formed for the completion of the permanent settle- 
ment of the revenues. In the following September he requested 
leave to proceed to Bengal on private business. The Govern- 
ment in granting the request resolved to reimburse him the 
annuity of £400 per annum which he " had sacrificed to the 
public service until the operation of the Civil Fund should 
again extend that indulgence to him." The Government urged 
the Court of Directors to commute the annuity for at least 
10,000 pagodas, as it would be impossible " to recommend 
to the Court's liberality an instance of more conspicuous merit, 
of more zealous devotion to the interests, or of more success- 
ful application to the business of the Company than that which 
had been presented to their notice by the uniform tenor of 
Mr. Cockburn's long, faithful, and important service." The 
Court sanctioned the proposed payment of £400 per annum, as 
an " act of justice " to Mr. Cockburn ; but " conceiving that 
individuals from amongst their Civil Servants may at all times 
be found capable of occupying any situation that shall become 
vacant," they|decided that " no precedent should be made of 
the case hereafter." 

Mr. Cockburn did not return to Madras, but embarked at 
Calcutta, in December 1802, and arrived in England in the 
following April. He was then appointed one of the Commis- 
sioners for the final settlement of the creditors of the Nabob 
of Arcot. Altogether 4,562 claims were submitted to the Com- 
missioners, and reported to Parliament, for an aggregate 
amount of £30,404,919, and in the end the Commissioners 
allowed claims for the total sum of £2,686,148. In their last 
report on the subject Mr. Cockburn and his colleagues, Mr. B. 
Hobhouse and Mr. R. H. Inglis, expressed the belief that the 


investigation which they had concluded " has not deprived any 
one claimant of his least right under those terms of inquiry 
to which, by signing the deed of covenants, he had himself 
agreed ; whilst as to some of the cases rejected, it has defeated 
the most iniquitous combinations of fraud which were ever 
submitted to a legal tribunal." In 1812 Mr. Cockburn gave 
evidence before a Select Committee of the House of Commons 
on the affairs of the East India Company, with the proposed 
renewal of the charter of the Company. 

Before passing out of public notice Mr. Cockburn placed on 
record the opinions which his long residence in Madras had 
led him to form on the then vexed question of the conver- 
sion of India to Christianity. There were at the time some 
well intentioned but ill-informed enthusiasts in Parliament, 
and elsewhere, who considered that it was incumbent upon 
England to force her own religion on her subjects in India. 
As a preliminary to their plan of campaign, the representatives 
of this scheme introduced a resolution for the acceptance of the 
House of Commons, which set forth that " it is the peculiar and 
bounden duty of the Legislature to promote, by all justifiable 
and prudent means, the interest and happiness of the inhabi- 
tants of the British dominions in India, and that for these ends 
such measures ought to be adopted as may generally tend to 
their advancement in useful knowledge, and to their religious 
and moral improvement." This Resolution seemed at first 
sight to commit the House of Commons to nothing more than 
an endorsement of a truism. But it assumed a different aspect 
when it was announced in the newspapers, with the alleged 
sanction of certain Ministers of the Prince-Regent, that the real, 
however latent, object of the Resolution was to obtain the 
authority of Parliament for an attempt by the Government to 
convert the natives of India from the religions of their fathers, 
which were characterised as the " prototypes of faithlessness, 
perjury, and hypocrisy " ; and also to imply that the Supreme 
and Local Governments of India, had neglected their duty in 
not having declared that it was the sacred obligation of the 
English Government to convert those people to Christianity. 

Mr. Cockburn regarded with much apprehension the enter- 


tainment in any quarter oi such ideas as these. He had put in 
a long period of service in Madras ; he could claim to know 
far more about India and the Indians than was probably 
dreamt of by home-staying visionaries in and out of Parlia- 
ment. He found no scope, on his return home in 1804, 
for the utilisation of that great ability and wide experience 
which, as has been shown, were so cordially recognised by Lord 
Cornwallis, Lord Wellesley, and Lord Clive. No position was 
found for him by the. Court of Directors in the East India 
House, where, one might suppose, such a man should have 
been an acquisition ; nor was he admitted to the Board of 
Control at Westminster. He had had his day, and he retired 
into private life, with, perhaps, unimpaired powers, and every 
desire to make himself still useful in his day and generation. 
His was, in this respect, no unusual experience. But he was 
thought of — possibly on the suggestion of Lord Wellesley — when 
the affairs of India came up in 1813 for periodical scrutiny, 
in connection with the proposed renewal of the Company's 
charter. He gave his evidence, and then withdrew from the 
precincts of Parliament House. But it occurred to him, 
immediately afterwards, that he might do some good by ven- 
tilating his views about the intimate association which was 
proposed of the Government with Christian evangelising effort 
in India. Accordingly, he resorted to the expedient of sketching 
a speech that, if he had been a Member of Parliament, he 
would have liked to have delivered in the House on the subject 
of " Legislative Interference in the Conversion of the Indian 
Population to Christianity." This sketch was printed by 
Valpy, of Tooke's Court, Chancery Lane, and was published, 
priced at 3s., by Edmund Lloyd, of Harley Street, London. 

In a preface to the brochure, Mr. Cockburn expressed 
the hope that he would be pardoned for the presumption of 
supposing himself to be a Member of " that Honourable 
House for which I entertain the highest respect." But he 
had felt it obligatory on him as a friend to Christianity to 
submit to the " august guardians of the public weal " what 
appeared to him to be due to the honour and good faith of 
his countrymen, the security of British interests in India, 


and the peace and happiness of the people of that country. 
He entertained a strong conviction that great evil would 
inevitably result from " Legislative enactment or inter- 
ference, declaring either directly, or by implication, that it 
is the duty of the British Government to make a provision 
for the conversion of the natives of India." He then com- 
menced the proposed speech. In imagination, he invited 
the House to listen to him as he attempted to show that " the 
peace and happiness of a whole continent, containing up- 
wards of one hundred millions of the human race, and the very 
existence of his countrymen, and of British Empire in the East," 
depended upon the solution of the question before the House. 
The Marquis Cornwallis had published in 1793 a Regulation in 
which the British Government formally undertook to preserve 
to the natives of India " the laws of the Shaster and Koran, in 
matters in which they have been invariably applied," and " to 
protect them in the free exercise of their religion." And, in 
1797, an Act of Parliament was passed regulating the proceed- 
ings of the Supreme Courts of Judicature in India, in which it 
was provided that, " in order that due regard may be paid to 
the civil and religious usages of the natives, the rights and 
authorities of fathers of families, and masters of families, 
according as the same may be exercised by the Gentoo or 
Mahomedan law, shall be preserved to them." 

Mr. Cockburn yielded to no man in his belief in the 
benign influence of the Christian religion, and he scouted the 
idea that he would for a moment care to support Hindu 
mythology in preference to the doctrines of Christianity. For 
all that he contended that it would be inconsistent with the 
honour, the faith, and the humanity of his country to swerve 
from the pledge of absolute toleration which had been given 
to the people of India. He was no Hindu, but his residence for 
nearly a quarter of a century in Madras had led him to the 
conviction that the charity of Hindus is not exceeded by that 
of Christians ; and that the " moral lessons of the Hindus, 
to be found in the works in common use among them, breathe 
sentiments which would do honour to Christians." The Hindus 
had from time immemorial, as is shown by their sacred wri- 


tings, entertained exalted ideas regarding the worship of the 
Supreme Being ; charity to their fellow-creatures ; the duties 
of husbands and wives, of parents and children ; benefi- 
cence, hospitality, gratitude, and justice. Naturally, they 
were very sensitive about any interference with their religious 
opinions. The horrible events which took place at Vellore in 
1807, an d which were immediately attributable to tampering 
with the religious prejudices of the sepoys on and off parade, 
" ought to serve as a beacon." The Portuguese at Goa early 
in the seventeenth century, and Hyder and Tippoo in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, did incalculable mischief by 
their intolerance. Tippoo especially alienated the Hindus 
within his dominions, and thus played into the hands of the 
British, who in the end emancipated them from his bigoted 
and cruel oppression. 

Mr. Cockburn observed that the Christian Observer had urged 
that no one should be elected a Director of the East India Com- 
pany who would not pledge himself to promote Christianity in 
India. It seemed to him that no such pledge should be 
exacted. Those who ardently desired the diffusion of Chris- 
tianity should be shown that success could be brought 
about " only by the hand of power not appearing in it." The 
Court of Directors and the Indian Governments were bound to 
extend the same protection to Christian Missionaries as they 
extended to other Europeans whom they permitted to proceed 
to, and reside in India. But they should take no part in 
the propagation of Christianity in India. " Let the Gospel," 
he said, " stand or fall by its intrinsic merits." It might be 
that, as had been remarked by one writer, the perusal of 
the Bible, and the sanctity of the lives of teachers and con- 
verts, might produce little other visible effect than that of 
increased respect for Christianity ; but it should not be con- 
cluded that the labour employed in producing that result was 
in vain. Mr. Cockburn recalled that in the year 1719 certain 
Danish Missionaries published in their Indian transactions an 
account of a conversation that one of their number had with a 
Malabarian. The Missionary described the beauties and joys 
of Christianity ; and the Malabarian inquired if all Christians 


were really holy men, who did honour to so noble a creed. The 
Missionary had to admit that many professing Christians were 
a scandal to Christianity. Then the Malabarian remarked — 

All that you say is very right, but before we leave an old subject 
in order to embrace a new one, it is but reasonable that you show the 
old to be very bad, or the new one to be much better. . . . What 
makes you walk abroad among us, and upbraid us with our imperfec- 
tions, while your own disciples at home are not any better themselves ? 
Pray, Sir, would not you do better to exert your charity first at home, 
and convert the Christians from the wickedness of their ways, and 
then to come and convert us ? You would have us believe you to be 
a holy man ; but give me leave to tell you that it does not become 
an holy man to blaspheme our Gods, for true piety despises no man 
on account of religion, and it is therefore that we Malabarians do 
neither condemn nor despise the Christians on account of their reli- 
gion. Give me leave to tell you that we cannot see that you have 
sufficiently proved our laws to be false and erroneous ; nor so clearly 
and evidently proved the truth of your own that we should incon- 
siderately change the religion of our fathers for that of foreigners and 
sojourners in our land. For I would have you know that as Chris- 
tians and Mahomedans derive their faith from God, so do we ; for 
certainly you cannot imagine that we hammered and forged a religion 
for ourselves more than you. The Mahomedan will have his religion 
to be absolutely the best ; the Christians condemn all but themselves ; 
and we Malabarians think our religion to be the best for us. 

Mr. Cockburn concluded his proposed speech by imploring 
the House to calmly and dispassionately consider the whole 
bearings of this " most delicate subject, which ought to be left 
to the discretion and prudence of the Government in this coun- 
try and of the Governments in India." He reiterated his 
belief that an Act of the Legislature declaring, or imply- 
ing, that it was the sacred duty of the British Government 
to convert the population of India to Christianity would be 
" tantamount to signing the death warrant of British security 
and British power in the East." He, therefore, proposed that 
in lieu of the ambiguously worded Resolution, which has been 
quoted, it should be resolved by the House — 

That the principles of the British Government on which the natives 
of India have hitherto relied for the free exercise of their religion, as 
secured to them by the several Acts of the Legislature, shall be inviolably 


maintained ; and that the entire and perfect toleration in all matters 
of religion shall, as heretofore, be allowed and established throughout 
the territories of British India. 

It need hardly be said that Parliament was not persuaded 
into departing an iota from its attitude of toleration towards 
the religious beliefs of the people of India ; and that in 1858, 
forty-five years after the publication of Mr. Cockburn's speech, 
the permanency of that toleration was secured by the grand 
passage in the late Queen's proclamation to the people of India 
on the transfer of the Government from the Company to the 
Crown. Her Majesty declared that, " while firmly relying on 
the truth of Christianity, and acknowledging with gratitude 
the solace of religion," she disclaimed "alike the right and 
the desire to impose our convictions on any of our subjects.'' 
Consequently, she announced it to be her Royal will and 
pleasure that " none be in any wise favoured, none molested or 
disquieted by reason of their religious faith or observances," 
and that " all shall alike enjoy the equal and impartial protec- 
tion of the Law." Her Majesty, therefore, strictly charged 
and enjoined all in authority under her " that they abstain 
from all interference with the religious belief or worship of 
any of our subjects on pain of our highest displeasure." 

Painter Unknot 

Member of the Civil Service of Madras, 1777-1804. 



I was recently afforded the privilege of accompanying a 
large party of ladies and gentlemen on a cruise, in a well- 
found steamer, from London Bridge to Greenhithe and back, in 
order to visit the Warspite, the training-ship of the Marine 
Society. The vessel is an old two-decker, or a survival of 
those " wooden walls of old England " that have mostly 
departed in pieces ; and for upwards of a century the Society 
has been allowed by the Government the free use of it. The 
Warspite having been reached, she was boarded and inspected, 
after which the two hundred healthy and cheerful-looking lads 
who are being trained there for a nautical career, were put 
through a course of exercises. This was a gratifying object- 
lesson for the spectators, who had gleaned from the Report 
that, during the one hundred and forty-seven years of its 
existence, the Society has trained 64,303 lads for sea, of whom 
28,265 were supplied to the Royal, and 3,760 to the Indian 
Navy. The beneficent and patriotic aims of the Society 
appealed strongly to the sympathy of the three immediate 
predecessors on the throne of Queen Victoria ; and she 
marked her own sense of the Society's national importance 
by contributing 100 guineas a year to its funds during the 
whole of her reign. King Edward has followed her benevo- 
lent example in this, as in many other respects, and has 
succeeded her as the Society's Patron. 

Being much interested by what I had been afforded the 
opportunity of seeing at Greenhithe, I called, on the following 
day, at the Society's old office in Clark's Place, Bishops- 
gate Street Within, to make some inquiries, and I was courte- 
ously shown the curiosities of the place. The office is suitably 


fitted up for the work that is done there. It contains not only 
chairs and tables that are early Georgian, but some paintings 
that are of interest as memorials of persons who rendered good 
service in the management of the Society in former days. The 
place of honour is occupied by a full-length portrait of Mr. 
Jonas Han way, the founder of the Society, who was a mer- 
chant as well as a philanthropist ; and to the right of it is 
a full-length portrait of the second Earl of Romney, and to 
the left a corresponding portrait of the third Earl of Romney, 
father of the present Peer — three successive occupants of the 
chair of President. A prominent position on the walls of the 
hall is occupied by a large portrait in oils of a gentleman 
named Thomas Snodgrass, who, I was informed by my 
guide, was for a considerable period an active member of 
the Committee. I was at once reminded of the name of the 
bard in Pickwick ; but, at the same moment, it dawned on me 
that, if my memory was not at fault, a gentleman rejoicing 
in the same patronymic once belonged to the Civil Service of 
Madras. I was, however, assured that the Committee were not 
aware that the subject of the painting had been in India. Yet, 
the more I thought about it, the stronger was my impression 
that, if the truth were elicited, it would be found that he hailed 
from that interesting part of the world. The impression has 
proved correct. 

It is supposed by Mr. Alexander Baillie, the author of a 
history of the Oriental Club, that it was at Chatham, near 
Gad's Hill, the novelist's favourite place of residence, that 
Charles Dickens noticed the name of Snodgrass, and conferred 
it consequently upon the gentleman who, when introduced to 
the student of the chronicles of the Pickwick Club, is repre- 
sented as being " poetically enveloped in a mysterious blue 
coat, with a canine-skin collar," and who is prone, after sipping 
" cherry brandy with heart-felt satisfaction," to labour under a 
" poetical depression of spirits." Mr. Baillie also conjectures 
that the Thomas Snodgrass now referred to was a brother of 
a Rev. Dr. Snodgrass, who married a daughter of Robert 
Montgomery, a Scotch preacher and poet, by whom he had a $ 
son, Lieutenant-Colonel John Snodgrass, Military Secretary to, 


Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell, Bart., G.C.B., Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the expedition to Burma in 1824. Colonel 
Snodgrass wrote a narrative of that Burmese War, and his 
widow died at the age of ninety, in New South Wales. His 
son became a member of the Legislative Council of Victoria ; 
and his granddaughter, nee Snodgrass, is the widow of the late 
Sir William Clarke, Bart., of that Colony. It will be seen 
that no mention was made by Mr. Snodgrass in his will 
of any male relative. So, possibly, Mr. Baillie's impression 
that he was a brother of the Rev. Dr. Snodgrass is erroneous. 

I have now ascertained from the records in the India Office 
that Mr. Snodgrass was recommended for employment to the 
Court of Directors of the East India Company by his father, 
Mr. Gabriel Snodgrass, an old servant of theirs, 1 who was the 
author of "A Letter to Lord Dundas on the State of the 
British Navy." The Directors acted upon the recommenda- 
tion, and gave the lad a Writership at Fort St. George, in 
1777. In 1782 he was promoted to the grade of Factor ; 
in 1790 he became Senior Merchant and Assistant Resident 
at Ganjam ; and in 1791 he was appointed Resident. Those 
were the " good old times," when the pagoda tree flourished 

1 Mr. Gabriel Snodgrass died in July, 1799, at the age of eighty, 
after having been Surveyor to the East India Company for at least 
forty years. A portrait of him, " from an original picture by 
Stewart," was published in the European Magazine of that month, 
and was accompanied by a notice of his career. He is stated to have 
been " brought up in the King's yard at Chatham, and from thence 
went to India, where he was employed in the capacity of a builder of 
ships for the Company's service. At this time the vessels built there 
were chiefly for trade and defence, but on a smaller scale than the 
present nourishing state of the trade demands. This employment 
he continued many years ; and, on his return to England, with a very 
moderate fortune, he was engaged as Surveyor by the same Masters ; 
in which station he continued to superintend the Naval concerns of 
the Company with the most inflexible integrity, and the most disin- 
terested attention, until the day of his death, at a very moderate 
salary, by no means adequate to the task, and the heavy responsibility 
attached to his office. Sensible of this, the Company a few years 
since presented him with a few thousand pounds by way of gratuity, 
and about the same time allowed him an assistant." 


in India, and yielded golden fruit by strenuous shaking. So 
Mr. Snodgrass made diligent use of the opportunity afforded 
him as Resident to get a grip of that now extinct tree. 
During the two following years he showed considerable 
energy in battling with the horrors of famine, and in keeping 
refractory Zemindars in order. Among the buildings that he 
erected at this period, with the aid, it is supposed, of the labour 
of famine-stricken coolies paid by the State, was a large house 
at Rambha, ten miles from the town of Ganjam, and on the 
border of that Chilka Lake, which was described by the late Sir 
William Hunter, in the " Gazetteer of India," as "a majestic 
sheet of water, with very varied, and, in parts, exceedingly 
picturesque scenery." This house, which became his favourite 
place of residence, still stands to keep his memory green in the 
District. The Government of Sir Charles Oakeley, with their 
treasury ever at a low ebb, objected to the scale of Mr. Snod- 
grass's famine expenditure ; and partly, perhaps, on this 
account, but avowedly in order that he might take a Revenue 
oath which had been prescribed by Act of Parliament, they 
directed him to return to Madras. No sooner, however, had 
he left Ganjam than various Zemindars lodged complaints with 
the acting Resident that they had periodically paid sums of 
money to Gopaul Kishnamma, Mr. Snodgrass's dubash, for 
which they received no acknowledgment. The acting Resi- 
dent instituted inquiries, which resulted in the discovery that 
Mr. Snodgrass had shown much laxity in allowing the dubash 
an authority which the latter utilised for his own advan- 
tage. The dubash was brought to book, and ordered to refund 
the money which he had embezzled. At first he declined to do 
so ; but, after a short experience of the hardships incidental 
to confinement in jail, he yielded to necessity, disgorged the 
amount claimed, was released, and was heard of no more. As 
for Mr. Snodgrass, the Government considered it inexpedient 
to permit him to resume his appointment. In 1794 the 
appointment was abolished, and, the office of Collector 
having been substituted, Mr. Walter Balfour was appointed 
to it. It is possible that this gentleman was related to 
Mr. James Balfour, appointed Writer in Madras in 1793 — 


grandfather of the present Prime Minister of England — who 
amassed a huge fortune in four years in Madras, 1 but on this 
point I have no information. 

In 1797 the Madras Government so far overlooked Mr. 
Snodgrass's neglect as Resident that they appointed him 
successor to Mr. Balfour as Collector. But it soon appeared 
that, instead of having learnt a useful lesson during the four 
years that he was " unemployed " at the Presidency, Mr. 
Snodgrass had developed failings which resulted in his ad- 
ministration in Ganjam becoming — according to Mr. Maltby, 
M.C.S., in the " District Manual " — " notorious by the 
wholesale corruption which he allowed to prevail in every 
department of Government." Gopaul Kishnamma had dis- 
appeared, but Mr. Snodgrass found a bird of the same 
feather in Jagannatha Rao, whom he appointed dubash, and 
to whom he conceded arbitrary power. Thereupon " defal- 
cations of the revenue, coupled with fraud and wholesale 
oppression," became the order of the day. The dubash 
set up a small Court of his own at the town of Ganjam, to 

1 In his Memoirs, which are noticed in subsequent pages, Captain 
Elers, of the 12th Regiment of Foot, stated that in 1803 he 
made the acquaintance in Madras of a " civilian, named James 
Balfour," regarding whom he said : — " The Hon'ble Basil Cochrane 
had for many years held the contract for supplying the Navy with 
meat, provisions, etc., and made a very handsome fortune, but he 
kept open house for every officer in the Navy — from the poor middy 
to the Post-Captain. This must have reduced his means of saving a 
very large fortune, which he might otherwise have done. My friend 
James Balfour, soon after I left India, got Cochrane's situation. He 
only held it a very few years, and he had made ^300,000, and left 
a Scotchman by the name of MacCounachy to act for him, at an 
allowance of ^6,000 per annum. Balfour made his enormous fortune 
in about four years, as he told me. He bought a house in Grosvenor 
Square, became an M.P., and married a daughter of the Earl of 
Lauderdale. He did not, like Cochrane, keep open house, or, if he 
did, it was only the doors and windows." Mr. Balfour, it may be 
added, died in April, 1845, "immensely wealthy" — according to the 
Annual Register — " his personal estate within the province of Canter- 
bury being sworn under /8o,ooo, and that in Scotland as exceeding 


which Zemindars and others who felt the need of his favour 
had to resort, and not with empty hands. Mr. Snodgrass 
" cared for none of these things," and remained, as a rule, 
at Rambha, where he not only had a large number of sepoys, 
peons, and other attendants in his employ, but " as an indis- 
pensable addition to the character he supported, the captiva- 
ting allurements of a despotic dancing-woman to encourage 
and promote intrigue, dissipation and extravagance." So, 
what between the Collector's neglect of his duties, and the 
dubash's rascality, the District speedily lapsed into a melan- 
choly condition, which was . reflected in a serious decline in 
the revenue. Then the Government of Lord Clive called 
upon Mr. Snodgrass to give an account of his stewardship. 
Accordingly, he attributed the deficiency of the revenue to the 
failure of the monsoon, the consequent loss of the crops, the 
scarcity of specie, the disaffection of certain Zemindars > 
disturbances among the Khonds, and the want of a military 
force sufficient to maintain order. But the Madras Board 
of Revenue were not deceived. They expressed the opinion 
to the Government that " a more extraordinary statement 
in extenuation of a gross defalcation of revenue has, we 
believe, never before been submitted by a Collector." The 
Government being led to a similar conclusion, removed 
Mr. Snodgrass from the office of Collector, and conferred it 
upon Mr. Brown. But some time elapsed after Mr. Brown 
arrived at Ganjam before he succeeded in prevailing upon 
Mr. Snodgrass to " give over charge." 

Mr. Brown now commenced the Herculean task of cleansing 
the Augean stable that Mr. Snodgrass left behind him when he 
set sail for Madras. Ere long he reported to the Government 
that he found what was " once a most flourishing and delightful 
tract of country " reduced " to nearly the last ebb of a depopu- 
lated and frightful waste." He placed the dubash under 
arrest ; but he never succeeded in ascertaining the full extent 
of the man's embezzlements. He traced two of them, amount- 
ing in all to Rs. 168,000, to him, and had him prosecuted 
for that misappropriation of public money ; but the disturbed 
state of the country, and more especially a rebellion at Goom- 


sur, occupied too much of Mr. Brown's time to allow of his 
bringing the prosecution to a successful issue. Mr. Maltby 
states that the " general reports " of the Board of Revenue sup- 
ply no details of the administration of that District between 
1793 and 1801 ; while the District records of that period are 
said to have been either destroyed by Mr. Brown, or consumed 
by white ants. Mr. Spottiswoode, Collector, declared that 
the papers were burnt by Mr. Brown ; but Mr. Maltby is at a 
loss to understand the motive that prompted Mr. Brown to 
commit such an outrage. Mr. Maltby mentions that a story 
is current in the District that Mr. Snodgrass not only dropped 
his accounts into the Chilka Lake, in order that they might 
not be brought up in evidence against him, but that he threat- 
ened Mr. Brown's life if he ventured to go to Rambha. Be this 
as it may, Mr. Brown succeeded in obtaining a great deal of 
information of a nature that caused the Government to think 
of prosecuting Mr. Snodgrass for the malpractices alleged 
against him. But some question arose as to the power pos- 
sessed by the Supreme Court to deal with such a matter, and 
eventually Government thought it prudent to refrain from 
taking action in the matter. They permitted Mr. Snodgrass 
to remain " without employ " at the Presidency from the end 
of 1800 until 1804, when he was declared by the Government 
of Lord William Bentinck to be " out of the Service." There- 
upon he got together his goods and chattels, and embarked for 
England, after a residence in India of about twenty-seven 
years, during which, though he had drawn a very moderate 
official salary, he succeeded in accumulating a large fortune. 

As Mr. Snodgrass did not bring home with him an un- 
blemished reputation in addition to his fortune, it is not 
surprising to find that, soon after his arrival in London, he was 
informed that his late " honourable masters " at the East India 
House, in Leadenhall Street, had determined to refuse him 
the customary grant of a pension for long and laudable 
service. Thereupon it occurred to him to beard the lions at 
the door of their den. He had no need of pension, but he 
determined, as a matter of principle, not to speak of spite, to 
assert his right to that recognition of length, if not also of 


quality of service. He, however, deemed it respectful to the 
Chairman and Court of Directors to give them timely warning 
of his intention to take some action which would be distasteful 
to them if they remained of the same mind as to withholding 
what he maintained was his due. 

The Court did not deign to reply to this threat. So, after 
he had allowed a short space of time to elapse, he proceeded 
to carry it out. He purchased some tattered garments that 
had seen better days, and an old broom ; and having attired 
himself in the former, and armed himself with the latter, he 
proceeded to Leadenhall Street, and calmly set up in business 
as the sweeper of a crossing immediately opposite the East 
India House. He made no secret about his identity. He was 
no disguised mendicant ; he was, he informed all and sundry, 
with engaging candour, the former Collector, or chief admin- 
istrator, of a wealthy Province in India, which was possessed 
by the Company ; and that, although he had been their 
good and faithful servant, he had been refused an allow- 
ance for his declining years, and was left in the street to beg 
his bread. Then, as now, Leadenhall Street was one of the 
chief thoroughfares in the City of London, and it benefited in 
public estimation by the distinction reflected by the presence 
in it of the palatial India House, which was regarded by 
passers-by as the outward and visible symbol of the close 
connection between Great Britain and the " gorgeous East." 
The public mind had long been familiarised by fact, fiction and 
the drama with Indian Nabobs — gentlemen, who, by all ac- 
counts, literally rolled in riches, and were remarkable for their 
extravagant mode of living, elastic morality and irascible 
tempers. Yet, here was a former Indian Civil Servant, of 
mature years, filling the useful, if not dignified role of crossing- 
sweeper, in the street peculiarly identified with India. 
This was indeed a novelty that gave food for facetious talk to 
gossips in the City, and fashionable folk in the West End. 

Doubtless Mr. Snodgrass did his best to look the part he was 
playing ; and accepted, and pocketed, the pennies that were 
given him as a much-wronged public servant. But his presence 
in the road before their House, caused a severe shock to the 


susceptibilities of the Chairman and Directors ; especially as 
they could only obtain access to, and egress from the House by 
means of the large doors at the top of the flight of steps im- 
mediately before which he plied his broom. It is true that there 
was an outlet from the back of the House into a by-street 
leading into Leadenhall Market, but it was reserved for the use 
of porters and messengers, and the members of the Court would 
have sacrificed that dignity of which they were always such 
jealous guardians had they condescended to indulge in such a 
strategic movement to the rear in order to avoid the hateful 
sight of the amateur crossing-sweeper, and to escape the ridicule 
of the loiterers who were standing by. They might have had 
it in mind to call in what passed in those ante-Peel days for 
a policeman, but how could they frame a charge ? Mr. Snod- 
grass was committing no offence ; he was violating no 
Municipal regulation ; indeed, he was occupying the position 
of a public benefactor, especially on rainy and consequently 
muddy days. Lastly, he was the object of public sympathy. 
The Court had vast powers in Hindustan, which they were 
not slow to exercise with severity when occasion required 
the assertion of their despotic authority, yet now, at their 
very doors, they were laughed to scorn by a former servant 
of theirs. And they had no remedy. This was too much, 
especially as it threatened to establish what might prove an 
embarrassing precedent. So, after the Court had fumed 
awhile without discovering a method for relieving them- 
selves of the scandal in the street, they arrived at the con- 
clusion that their wisest course would be to negotiate with 
Mr. Snodgrass. The request was therefore conveyed to 
him to withdraw with his stagey apparatus from his point 
of vantage as a preliminary to their reconsideration of his 
case. But he, with all deference, informed their envoy that 
he would do no such thing, for he was resolved to remain at the 
crossing until he received the pension usually granted to 
a man of his official standing, and that, too, from the- date 
when his services were dispensed with. The Chairman and 
Directors did not stand long to their guns ; but they 
brought themselves to pass a Resolution which conceded 


him the whole of his demands. And the story goes — as 
related some years ago by the Pioneer, and subsequently 
repeated on that authority by Mr. Baillie — that " the next 
day Mr. Snodgrass, attired in frock coat and tall hat, drove 
up in a carriage and pair, or rather with four horses, as stated 
in earlier accounts, to thank the Court in person for his pen- 
sion, and, at the conclusion of his address, he is said to have 
added : — ' You have now made up my income to £5,000 a 
year.' " The feelings of his honourable hearers when he 
made this frank admission may be better imagined than 

Mr. Snodgrass was now free to indulge the taste for luxurious 
surroundings which he had cultivated so sedulously in the 
beautiful vicinity of the Chilka Lake. He took a large house 
in Chesterfield Street, Mayfair, then, as now, one of the 
fashionable parts of the town ; and he had it decorated and 
furnished in a "sumptuous manner"; but, according to the 
Gentleman' 's Magazine, he " never received company in it more 
than once." After a while his official shortcomings were for- 
gotten, or condoned, and he gravitated to the best set of "old 
Indians " of his period. Thus it came to pass that he was 
associated, in 1824, with the establishment of the Oriental 
Club, one of those institutions in London where, according 
to a witty Bishop quoted by Mr. Baillie, " women cease 
from troubling, and the wicked are at rest." The first meeting 
of the promoters of this Club was held under the auspices, 
as Chairman, of that eminent Officer of the Madras Army, 
General Sir John Malcolm, G.C.B., who subsequently became 
Governor of Bombay ; and a Committee of forty-four 
gentlemen was elected to carry out the scheme. Mr. Snod- 
grass was one of the number, and among his colleagues were 
Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K.G., who had spent 
some of the best years of his early life in Madras ; Lord 
William Bentinck, G.C.B., a former Governor of Madras, and 
who subsequently became Governor-General of India ; General 
Sir Alured Clark, G.C.B., a former Commander-in-Chief, first 
of Madras and then in India ; General Sir Thomas Hislop, 
Bart, G.C.B., a former Commander-in-Chief of Madras ; 


General Sir John Malcolm, and his brother, Admiral Sir 
Pulteney Malcolm, K.C.B., etc. 

This Committee resolved that it was " desirable to form a 
society on the plan set forth " in the prospectus that was 
adopted. Sir John Malcolm was honoured with the intimate 
friendship of the Duke of Wellington, under whom he had 
served in Madras, as also that of the Marquis Wellesley, whose 
Private Secretary he became (on the recommendation of the 
Duke,) while that nobleman was Governor General of India ; 
and the Duke readily accepted the office of first President of 
the Club, and held it for the ensuing twenty-eight years, or 
until his death in 1852. At the first meeting of the Committee 
Mr. Snodgrass was one of the five members of that body 
who were appointed a Sub-Committee to prepare a code of 
Rules and Regulations. The Club was opened in the fol- 
lowing June in Lower Grosvenor Street, and the first con- 
tribution to its now notable collection of portraits of Indian 
celebrities was made by Mr. Snodgrass, who presented a 
portrait of General Stringer Lawrence, a former Commander- 
in-Chief, first of Madras, and then for twenty years in India. 

It was in the year 1819 that Mr. Snodgrass was elected a 
member of the Committee of the Marine Society, and he not 
only retained that position for the following fifteen years, 
but he was very regular in his attendance at the Committee 
meetings, and he was careful in paying periodical visits of 
inspection to the Warspite. He was also a supporter of the 
Seamen's Hospital. On his death the Committee resolved 
to procure a portrait of him to preserve among the memorials 
of the same description of other benefactors of the Society ; 
and while they were making inquiries for one, Major John 
Smith, of the Madras Cavalry, one of his executors, wrote 
to say that he could place at their disposal a full-length, 
life-size portrait of him that was painted in India, and 
had been discovered in a very dilapidated condition (presum- 
ably in Mr. Snodgrass's house), and had been restored by 
Mr. Runagle, a Royal Academician. The Committee gladly 
accepted the offer, and the picture has now been hung seventy 
years in the office of the Society. The restoration could 


hardly have been a success, for the picture l is now in a 
deplorable condition owing to the fading of the colours. But 
it was this picture that prompted me, as I have explained in 
a former page, to glean some particulars about Mr. Snodgrass's 

Mr. Snodgrass died on August 29, 1834, at his house in 
Chesterfield Street, aged probably seventy-five, assuming that 
he was sixteen when he was appointed Writer in Madras. 
The Gentleman's Magazine of the following October stated 
that he " left the sum of £175,000 to the daughter of a widow 
lady named Russell, residing in Beaumont Street, Marylebone, 
entirely because her father was kind to him when he first 
went to India." This is incorrect as to the sum bequeathed 
to Miss Russell, and it is possible that the explanation of 
the bequest is unreliable. I have seen Mr. Snodgrass's will 
at Somerset House. It was executed three years before his 
death. It commences as follows : — " Lest I should fail to 
make a more formal testamentary disposition of my affairs 
before it should please the Almighty to summon me hence I 
will and desire being now in sound mind and memory that 
the following be considered as exhibiting my real intentions 
as to the disposal and distribution of my property in revoca- 
tion of any former Will." Having expressed " the desire to 
be interred in the vault in Charlton Churchyard in which the 
remains of my father and mother are deposited," and that 
" my funeral be unostentatious," he proceeded to say : — 

I give to my friend Gabriel Gillett of Upper Guildford Street 
Foundling Hospital all my property in India whether in land or house 
or funds or in money to be transferred to him at Madras. This property 
consists in a house and land at Rhumbah on the shores of the Chilka 
Lake untenanted for the last thirty years in a Company bond for two 
thousand five hundred rupees and in a running balance of account 
in the hands of my agents Messieurs Binny and Company. 

He appointed " Eliza Russell spinster of 52 Beaumont 
Street," Mr. Gillett, Mr. Hugh Edwards, and Major John 
Smith, late of the Madras Cavalry, to be his "executrix and 

1 The photograph of the faded picture that was taken for the pur- 
poses of this volume was so unsatisfactory that I ventured to subject 
it to a little touching up before its swantype reproduction. 

Before which Mr Snodgrass kept hie crossing 

The resting place of Mr. Sri 


executors," and he left each of the executors £1,000. He 
gave them £1,000 Bank stock upon trust to receive and 
pay the dividends thereof unto Elizabeth Gillett, widow 
of Jonathan Gillett, and Mrs. Coward, widow of Henry 
Coward of Chatham " in like proportion as I have paid 
to them some years through the agency of my friend 
Gabriel Gillett." He gave £1,000 "Bank stock unto my 
friend Anne Jeffrey spinster late of Poole and now of 
Taunton " ; £1,000 Bank stock to Charlotte Hempstead, 
spinster, his housekeeper ; £400 Bank stock to Thomas 
Fluck, his butler ; £200 sterling to Henry Basson, his footman ; 
£200 sterling to Rebecca Partridge, spinster, his upper house- 
maid ; £100 sterling to Anne Danes, spinster, his under house- 
maid ; and £100 sterling to Sarah Slenson, spinster, his cook. 
Then : — " I give to the Trustees of the Marine Society Bishops- 
gate Street for the benefit of that Charity £1,000 Bank stock." 
He made a similar bequest of £1,000 Bank stock to the Seamen's 
Hospital, Bishopsgate Street. He mentioned that, under 
his father's Will, his sister, Elizabeth Snodgrass, residing at 
Poole, received an annuity of £300, which, on her decease, 
would fall into his own estate by deed of Chancery, and he 
desired that this also should go to the residuary. He gave 
his Executrix and Executors £5,000 Bank stock, and directed 
them to devote the dividends thereon to his sister's use after a 
certain date, should she live so long, such sum, on her decease, 
to fall into the residuary. He then proceeded to say : — 

I have inscriptions in the great Book of Paris to the amount of a 
million of francs (£40,000) in the three per cents yielding thirty thousand 
francs (£1,200) annual interest I give this stock to the aforenamed 
Eliza Russell spinster of 52 Beaumont Street and desire it may be 
properly transferred to her name in the great Book at Paris I give 
also to the said Eliza Russell spinster my house No. 10 Chesterfield 
Street with everything it contains not otherwise specially allotted 
I also give to the said Eliza Russell spinster my stables No. 4 Hays 
Mews together with my carriage and all other my property therein. 

In conclusion, he appointed Miss Russell, Mr. Gillett, Mr. 
Edwards and Major Smith his residuary legatees, and recom- 
mended " my present servants to their kind protection." 
Mr. Snodgrass was buried beside his parents in the church- 


yard of the old parish church at Charlton, near Woolwich. 
The vault is marked by a tomb within railings. On one side of 
it there is an inscription, which states that it was erected " to 
the memory of Gabriel Snodgrass Esq., an old and faithful ser- 
vant of the East India Company," and " of his consort, Mary," 
by " their dutiful and affectionate son, Thomas." On the 
other, the weather side, is a brief inscription, 1 stating that Mr. 
Snodgrass was also interred there. A little distance off is the 
grave, marked by a cross, of his friend, General Sir Thomas 
Hislop, who died at Charlton in 1843, aged seventy-nine. 
There is a handsome white marble tablet in the chancel of the 
church, on which the General's military services are recorded, 
and it is stated that : — " In private life his generosity of 
heart, and kindness of feeling were unfailing, and she 2 who 
best knew the rare excellence of her beloved and lamented 
Husband's character erects this tablet in testimony of her 
affection and sorrow." Among other notable persons buried 
at Charlton may be mentioned Sir William Langhorne, 
Governor of Fort St. George 1670 to 1677 ; Mr. Spencer 
Perceval, Prime Minister, who was assassinated in the lobby 
of the House of Commons in 1812 ; Sir William Congreve, 
the inventor of the rockets that bear his name ; General Sir 
Augustus Frazer, K.C.B., who was present at several battles 
during the Peninsular War, and also at Waterloo ; Major- 
General Sir George Fisher, K.C.B. ; and several of the Maryon- 
Wilson Baronets, whose beautiful seat is at Charlton. 

1 As the inscription is almost illegible it throws no light upon the 
age of Mr. Snodgrass. 

2 Lady Hislop was daughter of the Right Hon'ble Hugh Elliot, 
Governor of Madras (18 14 to 1820), and niece of the first Earl of Minto, 
Governor General of India (1813 to 1823). Her daughter married 
the third Earl of Minto, her second cousin ; and the present Earl of 
Minto, late Governor General of Canada, is her son. Consequently, 
the late Governor General of Canada is a great-grandson of a former 
Governor General of India, a great-grand-nephew of a former 
Governor of Madras, and a grandson of a former Commander-in- 
Chief of Madras. The late Countess of Minto, his mother, {nee 
Hislop), died in 1882. She was the author of a very interesting and 
pathetic memoir of her husband's grandfather, and her own grand- 
uncle, the Governor General of India. 



It was on February 14, 1832, that the interment of the 
Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Ed., for some 
time a Chaplain of Fort St. George, took place at Westminster 
Abbey, in the presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Bishop of London, the Bishop of Lichfield, Lord Kenyon, 
several Naval and Military Officers, and other of his friends ; 
and shortly afterwards an inscription was placed on his 
tombstone in the nave, in which he is described as, 
" The Eminent Founder of the Madras System of Edu- 
cation." Before his death, at the age of seventy-nine 
years, he made over to trustees the sum of £120,000 for 
employment in educational and benevolent work ; and of 
this sum he assigned £50,000 for the erection and endow- 
ment of the Madras College at St. Andrews, which he 
founded. He was a native of St. Andrews — the Mecca of 
devotees of the Royal and Ancient game of golf long before, 
and ever since his time — for he was born there on March 27, 
1753. His father was a barber, who combined with the 
useful avocation of cutting hair, dressing wigs, and shaving, 
the practice of surgery, and prided himself on being the de- 
scendant of the first person in the city who not only introduced 
tea, but could boast the possession of a china tea service. The 
elder Bell was also somewhat of a mechanician ; and, in the 
intervals of his business as a barber, he addressed himself 
to the congenial task of repairing clocks and watches, and 
regulating public timepieces. He was at one time Bailie 
of the city ; and he was also the owner of a little landed 
property. His wife was distantly related to a Dean, who in 
1690 bequeathed money for the founding of a bursary at St. 


Andrews. The Bailie and his wife were blessed with eight 
children. Andrew was the second son. He thus became an 
illustration of the theory that second sons are often the 
most capable members of large families. 

In 1769 he matriculated in the College of St. Andrews, and 
applied himself to mathematics and natural philosophy. 
Having completed the usual course of study with much 
credit to himself, he looked about for an opening that 
might afford him a competency. But he lacked influence 
outside St. Andrews ; and in that ancient, but then unpro- 
gressive city, there was little chance of his finding congenial 
employment. He resolved, therefore, to emigrate to Virginia, 
in America ; and having been furnished with testimonials as 
to his high character and scholarly attainments by the 
authorities of the University, two ministers of the church, 
and the session-clerk of St. Andrews, he sailed from Glasgow 
early in 1774, and safely reached his destination. He was 
then twenty-one years of age, and he spent five years in 
Virginia engaged in general tuition. In 1779 he was retained 
as a tutor by a Mr. Braxton, a wealthy merchant of West 
Point, for the two sons of the latter, on the modest salary of 
£200 a year ; and a couple of years later he closed with that 
gentleman's proposition to take the two lads with him on his 
return home, and to superintend their education. He had 
lived frugally during the seven years that he spent in Virginia, 
for he saved between £800 and £900, the greater part of which 
he left on interest in Mr. Braxton's hands, and eventually lost 
when that gentleman was ruined a little later on. He was 
shipwrecked on the voyage to England, but at length reached 
Gravesend with his young charges. He made a brief stay in 
London, and then went to St. Andrews, accompanied by the 
lads, whose studies he personally superintended. He opened 
a mathematical class at St. Andrews, and otherwise made 
both ends meet ; but his prospects were none of the best, and 
after the young Braxtons had returned to Virginia, he pro- 
ceeded to London, and took orders in the English Church. 

He was now licensed to the curacy of Cookham, in Berk- 
shire, on £70 a year. But soon afterwards he accepted the 

Painted by William Owen R. A. 

Engraved by S, W. Reynolds 

Discoverer of the Madras System of Education. 


offer of Lord Conyngham to act as tutor to that peer's son, 
on a salary of £150 a year while so employed, and an 
annuity of £100 for life when the young man's education was 
completed. But Lord Dacre died, and Lord Conyngham, 
on second thoughts, declined to carry out his engagement. 
Mr. Bell claimed compensation for his disappointment, and 
on the matter being submitted to arbitration he was awarded 
a solatium of £110. It was suggested to him about this time 
that he should betake himself to India, as his chances of 
preferment in England and Scotland were slender ; and 
a free passage in the ship Rose having been offered to him by 
the brother of the Captain of that vessel, he solicited and 
obtained permission from the Directors of the East India 
Company to proceed to Bengal. He applied to the University 
of St. Andrews for a Doctor's degree, and, somewhat to his 
surprise, he received that of a Doctor of Medicine — though 
he had never studied medicine — instead . of that of Doctor of 
Laws. It was then explained to him that the University had 
always given this degree to " men eminent for their literary 
qualification without following any professional line," and it 
reserved the LL.D. degree " for persons of another descrip- 
tion, men in the highest rank, who have been eminently 
serviceable to their country, or to the University." The 
lesser honour met his requirements, and the Reverend 
Doctor of Medicine left Scotland for India on November 20 
1787, when he was in his thirty-fifth year. He was then 
possessed of the £110 paid by Lord Conyngham, £yo bor- 
rowed at interest from a Mr. MacTaggart, £20 borrowed from 
the Rev. Mr. Rudd of Edinburgh, and about £350 besides, 
or £550 in all ; but after he had fitted himself out, and 
purchased the apparatus for a course of lectures that he 
intended to deliver in India, he had a cash balance of only 

The Rose sailed from London on February 21, 1787, and 
reached Madras on June 2 following, or in 101 days — the 
shortest passage, he recorded in his notes, that had ever been 
made from England to that port. He was, as has been said, 
bound for Bengal, and he was furnished with cordial letters 


of introduction to Earl Cornwallis, the Governor General, and 
Sir John Macpherson ; but he was not provided with any 
letters to persons of influence in Madras, other than those 
which the Captain of the ship and fellow-passengers could 
give him. Yet he met with so kind a reception in Madras, 
that he determined to remain there to assist in the estab- 
lishment of the Male Orphan Asylum. The Government 
being approached granted him permission to remain instead 
of proceeding to Calcutta. Accordingly he commenced his 
career in Madras with his small capital of £128, and his appa- 
ratus. He lived for the first six months of his sojourn in the 
Presidency with Mr. Andrew Ross, who is described as having 
been a remarkable and influential man in the city at that 
period. He made other useful friends ; and in August, or only 
two months after his arrival, he was appointed by " the 
Board," Chaplain to the 4th European Regiment at Arcot, 
on the recommendation of the Governor, Sir Archibald Camp- 
bell. Nine days later he was nominated Deputy Chaplain 
of the 19th Regiment of European Cavalry ; in October he 
obtained the Deputy-Chaplainship of H.M. 36th Regiment, 
at Poonamallee ; and, on the day following, he was appointed 
Deputy Chaplain of the 52nd Regiment. The Deputy Chap- 
lainships needed no confirmation by the authorities of the 
India Office, but the Chaplainship was subject to their ap- 
proval, and they were habitually indisposed to sanction any 
infringement of their own jealously exercised patronage. 
Dr. Bell lost no time, therefore, in begging his friends in 
London to bring their influence to bear to secure the necessary 
confirmation. He continued to add to the number of his 
appointments before the Directors' decision was known, and 
among other things he became Junior Chaplain at Fort St. 
George. He thus obtained no less than eight different billets, 
and his biographer, Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate, 
remarked that " some of these offices may have been sine- 
cures, but there is good proof among Dr. Bell's papers that 
none of them were sine-salaries." The Court of Directors 
annulled his first appointment ; but a few days later, in 
compliance with the urgent requests of his friends, were 


pleased to cancel their original order, and to issue the de- 
sired confirmation. He made a little money by philosophical 
lectures, which were attended by the beauty and fashion of 
Madras ; he travelled about a good deal, retaining Madras as 
his head-quarters ; and, being easy in his mind as to his 
circumstances, and in the enjoyment of sound health, he 
formed a high opinion of Southern India as a place for a 
European to dwell in. In a letter to a friend in England he 
said : — " What a delightful climate is this ! The weather 
never changes for months. If we could number as many 
women as men, and could boast of such domestic society as 
happy families, like yours, present in Great Britain, I know 
not who would quit India. I know not who does but to 
repent of it. My heart tells me, I shall quit it if I can ; but 
my understanding whispers to me I may repent of it as 
others have done." 

He was associated, as has been said, with the establishment 
of the Male Orphan Asylum, of which, when it had been con- 
stituted, he became the first Superintendent. He was offered 
a salary in recognition of his indefatigable services in that 
capacity, but he declined to be in any way a burden on the 
struggling institution. The Asylum proved a great success 
from the outset, mainly owing to his sagacity and energy. 
Happening one morning to ride past a native school, he ob- 
served the children seated on the ground writing with their 
fingers in the sand, and this led him to employ sharp boys 
at the Asylum to teach their less clever comrades, or to make 
boys act as assistant teachers as well as monitors. " Every 
boy," he subsequently wrote, " is either a master or a scholar, 
and generally both. He teaches one boy, while another teaches 
him. The success has been rapid." This was the chief feature 
of what he designated as the " Madras system of education." 
While achieving his object of establishing, with the aid of an 
influential Committee, and under the sympathetic auspices of 
the Government, an institution that abundantly fulfilled the 
aims which were in view, he built up a pretty fortune. In 
January, 1796, he applied to the Government for leave, on 
the score of failing health, to return to Europe, " without 



prejudice to my rank, or loss of pay." The leave was granted 
by Lord Hobart. The Committee of the Asylum thereupon 
made an offer to defray the expenses of the voyage ; but he 
gratefully yet firmly declined to avail himself of it. He did 
not leave Madras until August, by which date he had been 
nine years in Madras. He took home with him, or re- 
mitted the fortune which he had made during that short 
period of no less than £25,935. His income from his various 
appointments is said to have averaged nearly 4,000 pagodas, 
or about £1,600 a year; his lectures yielded 3,329 pagodas, 
or about £1,330 ; and the rest of his accumulations were 
acquired by judicious investments in " the stocks." 

He reached Portsmouth on February 5, 1797, and soon 
afterwards resolved to resign the Indian service. He sub- 
mitted his resignation to the Directors of the East India 
Company, recounted his services, especially as the unpaid 
Superintendent of the Male Orphan Asylum, and was granted 
a pension of £200 a year, which he enjoyed for the succeeding 
five-and-thirty years. And he may be said to have devoted 
that large portion of his life to the task of introducing the 
" Madras system of education " into the United Kingdom. He 
had the honour of personally explaining it to Queen Charlotte, 
the consort of King George the Third. Her Majesty received 
him on June 8, 1817, at Princess Elizabeth's farm at Windsor. 
She was then advanced in life. Her reception of him was, he 
said, most gracious and condescending. " She talked much, 
and much to the purpose, and called me back. She was 
desirous of learning the A. B. C, for so Her Majesty often 
called it, as I had done on my arrival from India." Two 
days later she accorded him another reception at the farm. 
" Books and slates were prepared. Nobody but the Princesses 
Augusta and Elizabeth were with her. They were seated at 
a table. The Queen placed me by her side, and went through 
all our processes in lessons, monosyllables and polysyllables, 
and in reading and arithmetic. Her Majesty did all the sums 
by herself. On going she expressed the pleasure she had in 
making my acquaintance. She said many a tear arithmetic 
had cost her, so also said the Princesses, and Her Majesty wished 


she had to learn it again." Dr. Bell also explained his system 
to the Czar Alexander I, and other personages ; he enlisted 
the support of eminent representatives of the clergy and 
laity ; and, one way and another, he gave a new turn to edu- 
cation in his own country and abroad. Having succeeded 
in introducing his methods into many schools in London 
and the provinces he felt himself justified in saying to a 
correspondent, that " in every instance where the principle 
of the Male Asylum of Madras, of conducting a school by the 
scholars themselves has been partially attempted, it has par- 
tially succeeded, and wherever it has been adopted in full 
force, and carried to its just length, it has been accompanied 
with complete and wonderful success." And, in a letter to 
Lord Kenyon, regarding the difference between discovery 
and invention, he alluded to electricity, lightning, Franklinean 
rods, gravitation, steam, etc., and continued : — " To mention 
but one more on account of its ' transcendant excellency.' 
The principle of mutual instruction is a discovery ; the 
Madras system, or application of that principle to scholastic 
purposes is an invention." 

In the autumn of 1830 Dr. Bell, who was then seventy- 
seven years of age, began to experience difficulty in articula- 
tion, especially when preaching in Westminster Abbey ; and, 
leaving London, he took up his residence at a small house 
that he owned at Cheltenham, where he placed himself under 
medical treatment. Matters did not, however, mend with 
him ; and, in February, 1831, he was urged to go to London 
for change of air. But he replied that this was impracticable : 
" My loss of voice would render me insupportable to my friends, 
as well as distressing to myself. I have great difficulty in 
making myself intelligible to my present nurses — what should 
I be to others ? " The doctors at Cheltenham differed as to 
his malady, one of them inclining to the view that ossifica- 
tion of the upper part of the windpipe was in progress, while 
another considered that the nerves of the larynx and the 
organs of deglutition were, to some extent, paralysed. So 
the opinion was invited, by letter, of Sir Henry Halford ; 
and that eminent physician in London prescribed cupping on 


the nape of the neck. Then a similar reference was made to 
Sir Benjamin Brodie, another conspicuous physician in town, 
and he endorsed Sir Henry Halford's diagnosis and advice. 
Accordingly Dr. Bell was cupped ; but he derived no benefit 
from the operation. A " case " was then sent to Sir Astley 
Cooper, the great surgeon, who held that the " seat of the 
disease was in that part of the brain from which the eighth 
pair of nerves originate, and was confined to those branches 
which were distributed to the tongue, and the larynx, and 
neighbouring parts." He sent a prescription, which was 
tried, and failed to confer any benefit upon the patient. Then 
a Cheltenham doctor made an experiment with galvanism, 
but without effect. 

It was thus brought painfully home to Dr. Bell that his 
case defied medical science, and that it behoved him to put 
his affairs into order with the least possible delay. One of 
the first things, therefore, that he did was to order a holo- 
caust that must have caused him some pangs. The Rev. 
Charles Southey — who wrote the latter part of the biography 
that his father (who received a legacy of £1,000 from Dr. 
Bell) commenced, but did not live long enough to complete — 
said : — 

During Dr. Bell's illness he committed many of his papers to the 
flames, which, on the whole, was perhaps a fortunate circumstance 
for his biographer ; for having throughout his life till now preserved 
every letter and even note he received, had he not destroyed some 
of them, the composition of his Life would have been still more diffi- 
cult and laborious than it has been, while it is highly improbable that 
any new information of importance could have been derived from 

Dr. Bell was frequently induced to make, or to revoke 
new wills and codicils. In 1818 he bequeathed almost the 
whole of his accumulations to the town of St. Andrews, his 
birthplace ; in 1825 he cancelled his will to that effect, and 
by a fresh will devoted his fortune to the endowment of what 
was to be a Madras College, or School, in the vicinity of 
London, of which a Mr. Bamford was to be Master, with a 
handsome salary. He had previously dispensed with the 


professional services of a solicitor in drawing up his wills ; 
he was his own lawyer and client. But at last he thought 
it well to consult Southey on the subject ; and, in compliance 
with the poet's recommendation, he now employed a firm 
of attorneys at Cheltenham. The attorneys at his request 
drew up a new will, in which several trustees were named ; 
and the gentlemen referred to, when asked, signified their 
acceptance of the trust. Then, however, Dr. Bell refused 
to execute the will ; and, having placed himself in communi- 
cation with his bankers in London, he obtained from them 
two powers of attorney which he executed, wherein he made 
a transfer of £60,000 in the Three per Cent. Consolidated 
Bank Annuities, and £60,000 in the Three per Cent. Reduced, 
or £120,000 in all, in twelve shares of £10,000 each, to the 
Provost of St. Andrews, the Minister and Second Minister 
of the Parish Church of St. Andrews, and the Professor 
of Greek at the University of St. Andrews, or their suc- 
cessors in office, as his trustees. Five of the twelve 
shares, representing the sum of £50,000, were allotted by 
Dr. Bell for 

the establishment, or maintenance of the Madras College, or Seminary 
of education, upon the grounds which I lately purchased for this pur- 
pose, adjoining the Grammar School of St. Andrews, and including 
the ruin of the Blackfriars* Chapel, which it is my desire may be put 
into, and kept in repair, out of part of these five shares, and also that 
the endowment of the bursaries proposed by you, and agreed to by 
me, be defrayed out of the same shares — the College to be conducted 
on the Madras (or, as it is often called, the monitorial) system of edu- 
cation, conformably to the principles and practice laid down in my 
Elements of Tuition, parts 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, in my Manual of Mutual 
Instruction and Moral Discipline, in my Vindication of Children, and 
in my Letters to Sir John Sinclair — as to form a model of that 

As regards the remaining seven-twelfths of the £120,000, 
he directed the trustees to give one share each, or £10,000, 
to St. Andrews, Edinburgh, Leith, Glasgow, Aberdeen and 
Inverness respectively. There was yet one share, or £10,000, 
to be allocated ; and Dr. Bell waited until he happened to 
read an account in a newspaper of a meeting that was held 


in London, on the 16th June, 1831, for the establishment of 
a Royal Naval School at New Cross, near Greenwich. There- 
fore he exclaimed, " This is a godsend ! " and authorized the 
trustees to give the share to that nascent institution. 

To Miss Bell, his sister, who was living at the time with 
him, Dr. Bell wrote a note to say that he bestowed upon 
her " the cottage and grounds " at Cheltenham, 

and all the appurtenances and premises belonging to them, and all 
my furniture, goods, and chattels, books and letters, and MSS. here 
and at Sherburn house, the carpet and the covering of the Coronation 
Chair which fell to me * at the Coronation of King George the Fourth ; 
and elsewhere, my silver plate, gold coins, rings, chains, trinkets, 
money, and cash here, and at Messrs. Pitt and Co.'s, bankers, Chelten- 
ham. The tea service presented to me by the vestry of the Cowgate 
Episcopal Chapel at Edinburgh, and the sacramental plate presented 
to me by my Indian pupils, of which a duplicate was presented to the 
Chapel of the National School, Ely Place, London, you have to deliver 
to the minister and verger for the time being of the Episcopal Chapel 
of St. Andrews. 

Two days more having passed, he then slipped into Miss 
Bell's hand a piece of paper upon which he had written : — 
" Bequeath my gold chain and medal to the Madras College, 
St. Andrews." In face of his gift of so large a sum as 
£120,000 to public objects, she was led to the conclusion, 
which she expressed to her friends, that he " was not in his 
right mind." This came to his knowledge, and he then 
wrote a note to her, in which he said that it was neces- 
sary for his health and peace that she should immediately 
leave his house ; and he gave her the choice of St. Andrews, 
London, or Malvern. To Malvern, therefore, she at once 

Towards the end of 183 1 Dr. Bell was so paralysed that 
he could not speak, and had great difficulty in moving ; but 
he succeeded in making his wishes known by writing on a 
slate ; and he showed no failure of interest in what was re- 
lated to him about the adoption of the "Madras system of 

1 As Prebendary of Westminster Abbey. 


education " ; his memory also was unimpaired. His physical 
strength, however, steadily ebbed away, and at length, on 
the 27th January, 1832, he died, in the presence of his doctor, 
secretary, and two friends, but of no relative. His body was 
removed, on the 9th of February, from Cheltenham to 
Berkeley Square, London, where it remained until the 14th 
idem. Then the funeral procession was formed at the 
house, and went by way of Piccadilly, Regent Street 
and Charing Cross, to Westminster Abbey, where the 
body was met by the Bishop of Lichfield, as the Prebendary 
in residence, and the Dean of Westminster. The funeral 
service was read by the Dean. 

Dr. Bell expressed the wish that the inscription on his 
tombstone should be simply : — " The Author of the Madras 
System of Education." But his friends who subscribed for 
the memorial tablet in the Abbey had the following epitaph 
placed upon it : — 





MARCH 1753, 

It does not speak much for the care bestowed by the friends 
of Dr. Bell on the preparation of this epitaph, that the last 
date but one is erroneous. This was pointed out by Dean 
Stanley in his Historical Memorials of the Abbey, where he 


says, in a footnote, that the monument of " the Scottish 
Prebendary of Westminster, Andrew Bell, founder of the 
Madras system of education, mistakenly gives the date of his 
installation 1810, instead of 1819." 

The tablet occupies so high a position above the pavement, 
and the epitaph is presented in such small characters, as to 
defy perusal without the aid of a binocular, or of a ladder. 
The latter I was permitted to have in order to copy the tribute 
to Dr. Bell's memory. Beneath the tablet with the inscription 
is another tablet, on which an illustration is given in relief 
of a scene in a school, that is doubtless intended to depict 
him engaged in vicarious tuition. A minister in a gown is 
seen sitting in a chair to the right, with an open book across 
his knees. He is gazing intently at a lad to the left, who is 
standing on a stool, holding an open book in his left hand, 
while with his right hand he is suiting the action to the word 
for the edification of seven scholars standing in a row before 
him, with books in their hands, and their backs turned upon 
the reverend gentleman in the chair. 

It is a somewhat sad reflection that Dr. Bell resembled the 
individual described by Dr. Johnson, (according to Boswell,) 
and by Disraeli (in " Sybil "), as a " man who had only one 
idea, and that was wrong." He certainly discovered in Madras, 
as no other Chaplain has yet done, how to hold numerous 
well-paid appointments simultaneously, and also how, as a 
thrifty pluralist and judicious investor, to accumulate 
a fortune. But the "system of education" which he 
claimed to have discovered existed rather in his own imagin- 
ation than in Madras. It is customary in that city for 
enterprising individuals to eke out a livelihood by setting up 
what are called " pyal-schools " — or schools located in un- 
pretentious houses by the wayside, provided with " pyals," or 
platforms, raised two or three feet above the level of the ad- 
jacent road. These pyals are commonly used by sundry 
vendors for the exhibition of their wares by day ; and they 
are employed for the accommodation of male sleepers by 
night. They also meet the requirements of schoolmasters. 
Armed with light rattans as symbols of office, those individuals 






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lounge upon them, and bestow more or less attention from 
their commanding eminence upon the development of the 
intelligence of the lads squatting, or standing in a row on the 
road before them. In order to carry on their business 
with the least possible trouble they delegate authority to the 
sharper boys, and in Madras, as elsewhere, such boys gladly 
play the pedagogue over their juniors, or inferiors. Yet this 
rather primitive method of instruction seems to have been 
regarded by Dr. Bell as a revelation fraught with blessings 
untold to the world in general, and to his own country in par- 
ticular ; and, not only did he devote nearly half of his life 
to the dissemination of that idea, but he certainly impressed 
what he deemed to be its importance upon illustrious person- 
ages, peers, Church dignitaries and others. The idea did 
not, however, long survive him, for the simple reason that 
it had no substantial foundation. 

Dr. Bell devoted, as has been shown, no less a sum than 
£50,000 " to the establishment or maintenance of the Madras 
College " at St. Andrews, such " College to be conducted on 
the Madras (or, as it is often called, the monitorial) system of 
education, conformably to the principles and practice laid 
down " in various publications of his. The College still stands, 
but it has long ceased to illustrate the " Madras system of 
education." It struggled along for many years mainly on 
the strength of Dr. Bell's endowment ; but it did not hold 
its own against other schools in St. Andrews and elsewhere in 
Scotland. At length, in 1889, it was reorganised in accordance 
with the scheme of the Commissioners under the Educational 
Endowments (Scotland) Act of Parliament, 1882, as a school 
for both boys and girls, in which " the subjects to be taught 
shall include reading, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping and 
mensuration, geography and history, English grammar, com- 
position and literature, Greek and Latin, at least two modern 
languages, mathematics, and drawing, at least one subject of 
natural science, and such other subjects as the Governors 
may from time to time determine." It is controlled by nine 
Trustees, elected under the Act as follows : — two by the Senatus 
of the University of St. Andrews, two by the School Board of 


St. Andrews, two by the Landward School Board of St. An- 
drews, one by the Presbytery of St. Andrews, one by the 
Sheriff, and one by the Lord Lieutenant of the County of 
Fife. The application of customary ideas about educational 
requirements in place of the amiable fantasy regarding a 
" Madras system of education " has saved the situation. 
The endowment has been for the most part employed since 
the reorganisation in carrying on Higher Education, and the 
consequence is that the institution which commemorates Dr. 
Bell's temporary connexion with Madras, and his personal 
benevolence, can now show a long list of honours gained by 
its former pupils at Scotch and English Universities. 

The Rev. James Cordiner. 

It was on the recommendation of his Madras friend, General 
Dirom, that Dr. Bell selected James Cordiner, at the early 
age of twenty-two, to succeed him as Superintendent of 
the Military Male Orphan Asylum, Madras, on a salary of 
£200 a year. Cordiner was a son of the Episcopal Minister 
at Banff, where he was born, and where he received the early 
part of his education. He subsequently proceeded to King's 
College, Aberdeen, and made some mark there as a Greek 
scholar. " He came to me," Dr. Bell wrote to the President 
and Director of the Asylum, " recommended from the most 
respectable quarters, as well qualified in point of talent, 
literature and science for the task proposed to him, and, 
what is much more valuable, his character stands high as a 
man and a Christian, as well as a scholar and a divine. On 
these grounds I have made the appointment . . . Having 
now also proved, for almost two months, his excellent dis- 
position and temper of mind, his diligence and attention, I 
cannot but indulge the pleasing hope that he will approve 
himself highly useful to the institution, and worthy of that 
favour and protection which in India so generally await good 

Having fallen in with Dr. Bell's overtures, Mr. Cordiner left 
Banff, and went by way of Aberdeen, Perth, and Kinross to 
Edinburgh, where he spent a few days with Dr. Bell. Then 


he pushed on to Carlisle, and by the writing of a theme in 
Latin, the reading of thirteen verses in Greek, and the 
translation of a passage of Grotius, he satisfied the Bishop of 
Carlisle that he was a fit person for admission to the Ministry. 
He was thereupon ordained Deacon. Immediately afterwards 
he took the "heavy coach " for London, and arriving there, 
secured a lodging in Portland Street, and went without delay, 
not to Westminster Abbey, or to St. Paul's, but to Drury Lane 
Theatre, where he witnessed the performance of " The Heiress." 
From London he travelled in a post-chaise to Portsmouth, 
and there, on October 25, 1797 — or severity-seven days after 
leaving Banff — he embarked on board the Anna, East India- 
man, bound for Bombay. 

The way was long, and the vessel slow, so that Cordiner did 
not reach Bombay until May 19, 1798. He had brought with 
him several letters of introduction to persons of influence in 
Bombay and Madras ; and landing without delay, he made 
his way to the office in the Fort of Mr. Alexander Anderson, a 
" senior merchant in the Company's service," who begged 
him to " accept a cot " at his house. Cordiner availed 
himself of this hospitable invitation. He then called upon 
General James Stuart, to whom also he presented a letter 
of introduction. He remained twelve days in Bombay, 
during which period he found the General " unremitting in 
his attentions," and Governor Duncan likewise " hospitable 
and polite." Having been presented by his host " with an 
unsolicited credit on a house in Madras to the amount of 300 
pagodas," and having paid " 50 star pagodas, or £20," for his 
passage, Cordiner embarked, on May 30, in a country ship, 
nearly the size of a regular East Indiaman, and reached Madras 
on June 12. He landed in a masulah boat, and hiring a 
palanquin on the beach, was conveyed to the Male Orphan 
Asylum, at the " redoubt of Egmore — originally built as a 
place for manufacturing gunpowder." There he was welcomed 
by the Rev. R. H. Kerr, a local chaplain, who was officiating 
as Superintendent. He did not take over charge for six 
days, which he spent, for the most part, in presenting his 
letters of introduction, and making acquaintances. Then he 


entered upon his duties, as the sole adult teacher of the 280 
boys, aged from four to fourteen years of age, then in the 
Asylum. The greater number of them were the orphans of 
European Non-commissioned Officers and private soldiers by 
native women, who were maintained and educated gratis ; 
and the rest were the natural children of European Officers 
by native mothers, for each of whom the charge of three 
pagodas a month was made. The accommodation and the 
fare were of the simplest description, but the boys had known 
no better, and were docile and teachable. The monitor system 
of education was in full force, and Cordiner saw much to 
approve in it. 

In a book, entitled A Voyage to India, that was published 
on his behalf in 1820 by Brown, of Aberdeen, and Longmans, 
of London, and dedicated to the Earl of Guilford, Mr. 
Cordiner related his experiences at Madras, both in 1798-99 
and in 1804. At the earlier date he computed the popula- 
tion of the " Settlement exclusive of its dependencies " at 
10,000, of whom not more than 3,000 were Europeans. The 
Fort was occupied by a garrison of European troops ; merchants 
" in the service of the Company " ; and a few European shop- 
keepers. Every gentleman had a villa in the country at a little 
distance from the Fort. In these villas their wives and 
daughters lived without hardly ever approaching the Fort, 
or even attending service at the Fort Church. The gentlemen 
were conveyed either in palanquins, or in carriages to and 
from the Fort ; and no one cared to walk, as the heat of the 
exercise, and the dust on the roads forbade that kind of exer- 
cise. But in the early morning, and in the evening, ladies 
and gentlemen either rode on horses, or took the air in gigs, 
or chaises. 

Then, as now, Black Town was " more truly Indian " than 
the European quarters in the suburbs, for it " contained a 
mixture of Hindus, Mahomedans, Armenians, Portuguese and 
British," with various places of worship. It was defended 
towards the land by a high and broad wall, on which guns 
were mounted, capable of keeping Irregular Cavalry at a 
respectful distance. Some remains of that wall are still to 


be seen to the north of the town. However valuable from a 
military point of view the wall was, it hindered the circu- 
lation of air in the narrow streets near it, and was therefore 
objectionable from a sanitary point of view. But it gave a 
sense of security in a restless period to the inhabitants of the 
town. It is no wonder that Cordiner regarded Black Town as 
" a very uncomfortable place of residence for Europeans." 
Yet "the climate," he justly remarked, "is not gener- 
ally unhealthy ; it is excessively dry and hot, but the air is 
extremely pure." The month of May, he rightly said, is the 
" hottest in the whole year, for the land wind then blows like 
the flames of a furnace, and the climate altogether resembles 
the warmest corner of a glass-house." But the temperature 
inside the houses of Europeans was agreeably lowered by the 
use of well- watered kus-kus tatties ; and " some gentlemen 
have screens of the same nature attached to the sides of their 
palanquins, which being kept continually drenched, prevent 
them from feeling any inconvenience from the sultry nature of 
the climate." The streets of the Fort were diligently watered 
by " carts drawn by oxen, with boxes and casks full of holes, 
so that the water falls like a shower of rain as they move along." 
There was " a very large and excellent society at Madras " 
which was " divided into various parties " : — 

Many of the British inhabitants affect great splendour in their 
mode of living, and move in a very different sphere from what they 
have been accustomed to in their own country. The Civil Servants 
of the Company are looked upon as the nobility of India. They 
assume an air of much consequence, often treat the rest of their 
countrymen with supercilious arrogance, and behold, with particular 
disdain, the profession of the sword, to which they owe all their pomp 
and splendour. The private merchants are more modest in their de- 
portment, although fully sensible of their independence. The lawyers 
make money rapidly, as the litigation prevalent in the country affords 
them great employment ; and they, being in general the best edu- 
cated part of the community, form a very sociable and pleasant 
circle. The military body is much neglected, and must feel a 
reciprocal contempt for those who account themselves so much their 
superiors. The Settlement is not much famed for hospitality to 
strangers, and is particularly marked, as many other places are, for 
inattention to young Officers. I met, however, with much civility 
from several gentlemen to whom I had no foreign recommendations, 


and those to whom I brought letters of introduction treated me with 
every possible attention. 

The " pagoda tree " then flourished in the land, so that " all 
classes of Europeans here live sumptuously, and many in- 
dividuals expend from 2 to 10,000 pounds each annually in 
maintaining their households." It is difficult in these days of 
the depreciated rupee to believe that, once upon a time, there 
were many people in Madras who were in a position to 
live at the rate of £10,000 a year. 

Cordiner remained only ten months at the Male Orphan 
Asylum. He then went to Ceylon, as a Chaplain in His 
Majesty's service. The Honourable Frederick North (after- 
wards Earl of Guilford) was the Governor, and he was very 
kind to the young Chaplain. He was a fine classical scholar, 
very amiable, and an excellent linguist. " French, Italian, 
Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Persian, Latin, ancient and 
modern Greek he speaks with the same fluency as his native 
tongue." He was " a signal blessing to Ceylon, and were he 
to rule for ever, the inhabitants would have great cause to 
rejoice." Cordiner remained five years in Ceylon, and then 
resigned his chaplaincy, as it gave him "no more than a bare 
subsistence." The new Governor, Sir C. E. Carrington, Mr. 
Robert Arbuthnot, and others presented him with a farewell 
address, and an urn of the value of 200 guineas, in acknow- 
ledgment of the " zeal, attention, and humanity with which 
he performed the duties of his holy profession." He em- 
barked on the Glory, East Indiaman, bound for Madras, with 
a cargo of cinnamon that was to be landed at Fort St. George, 
and distributed among other vessels, preparatory to the 
Glory being laden afresh for England. She sailed from 
Colombo on May 2, and anchored in Madras roads on the 
evening of the 13th. Cordiner landed the following morning, 
and called on his Bombay acquaintance, General James 
Stuart, now Commander-in-Chief of Madras, at the latter's 
house in the Fort. Afterwards he looked into a room where 
a court-martial was sitting, and there met " another Ceylon 
friend, Mr. George Arbuthnot, now a merchant at Madras, 
who very kindly invited me to take up my quarters in his 


villa while I remained at this Settlement, and I became his 
guest for the long period of three months, during which 
the Glory was detained, waiting for a cargo." He paid his 
respects to the Governor, Lord William Bentinck, " a man of 
a most amiable character, and one of the most gentlemanlike 
men " he had ever seen. 

Mr. Arbuthnot introduced Cordiner into the " best circles " 
of Madras society, and he consequently " seldom dined two 
days running in the same house." He visited more than 
once, not only the Governor and the Commander-in-Chief, 
but also Sir Thomas Strange, Sir Benjamin Sullivan, Admiral 
Rainier, Dr. Anderson, Archdeacon Leslie, Messrs. John 
Chinnery, Keble, Sutherland, Roebuck, Hoseason, Fraser, 
Harrington, Anstruther, Yeldham, Dalrymple, Yates, Cock- 
burn, Petrie, Hon. B. Cochrane, Geslin, Parry, De Monte, 
Brodie, Binny, Dennison, Buchan, Chase, Abernethie, Grant, 
Halliburton, Orme, Gordon and Tottin ; Colonels Orr, Fan- 
court, Torrens and Fergusson ; Majors Crewe, Phillips, and 
Floyer ; Captains Cotgrave and Winchlow ; and Lieutenants 
Stock, De Lisle, and Ramon. At last, on August 15, he 
took leave of " all those to whose kindness " he was indebted 
for the agreeable three months that he had spent on this 
occasion in Madras, and embarked once again in the Glory. 
There were several other passengers, including " a friend 
of the late Captain T. R. Taylor, of the Glory, who was killed 
in a duel by one of his passengers immediately on their arrival 
at Madras from England." Captain Taylor was succeeded 
in the command of the vessel by Captain John Perry, .who 
died of dropsy, off St. Helena, on the homeward voyage. 
" Living," Cordiner remarked, " three months on shore in 
the sultry climate of Madras, without having any kind of 
employment, laid the foundation of his disorder." Dover 
was not reached until February 8, 1805 — or in 176 days from 
Madras. But Cordiner forgot the tediousness of the voyage 
when he beheld the white cliffs of Old England : — 

That sight alone amply repaid all the inconveniences of our pro- 
tracted voyage. I thought those cliffs, the green pasture ground, and 
the enchanting English houses, the most beautiful prospect I had 


beheld in the whole course of my travels ; and they filled me with 
those indescribable emotions of delight and gratitude which they 
only can feel who have been awhile absent from home, and from the 
happiest country which exists on the face of the terraqueous globe. 

He had been entrusted by the Ceylon Government with 
two large boxes of despatches, for the Colonial Office ; 
and this enabled him to charter a chaise-and-four, at the 
expense of the State, and to drive in comfort from Dover to 
London. He subsequently found employment in Scotland, 
for in 1807 he was appointed one of the two ministers of 
St. Paul's Chapel, Aberdeen, on a salary that commenced 
at only £70 a year. He retained that position twenty-four 
years, and then resigning, in consequence of ill-health, he 
was granted a subsistence allowance of £100 a year, with the 
free use of the Chapel-house. There he died of consumption, 
in January, 1836, in the sixty-first year of his age, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen. The 
congregation subsequently gave his widow a small annuity 
from the Chapel funds. 



During the war of 1767 with Hyder Ali, Colonel John 
Wood saw much active service. He was present at the 
battle of Trenomallee, where he was in command of the 
first line ; and he won the encomium of General Smith for 
his behaviour in the field. Shortly afterwards General Smith 
was summoned, much against his will, to Fort St. George to 
consult with the Government ; and the command at Treno- 
mallee thereupon devolved upon Colonel Wood, who was 
instructed by General Smith to attempt the reduction of 
Ahtur, and other of Hyder's forts. On February 12, 
1768, Colonel Wood succeeded in effecting the capture of 
Tingrecottah ; and, six days later, he carried Daramporay by 
storm. But hardly had he done so than the news reached 
him that Captain Marcell, when marching to join him, 
hampered by cannon and stores under his convoy, was being 
attacked by a large body of Hyder's troops. Colonel Wood 
at once made a forced march, effected a timely junction with 
Captain Marcell, defeated the enemy, and saved the convoy. 
On March 20 he succeeded in capturing the important town 
and fortress of Salem. Having given his troops a fort- 
night's rest, he laid siege to Ahtur, which soon surrendered 
to him at discretion. But advantage was taken of his de- 
parture from Salem, as 10,000 of Hyder's troops in the neigh- 
bourhood bore down upon it. Colonel Wood, however, 
rapidly retraced his steps from Ahtur, and the enemy retired 
without coming to blows. On the 20th he invested the fort 
of Shandemungulum, and the garrison speedily surrendered. 

On May 10 an escort from Trichinopoly was surrounded by 
the enemy's Cavalry at Mootanchetty, and Colonel Wood 
marched to the spot from Salem, with all the troops he could 



spare. On his appearance the enemy withdrew, and the 
escort was saved. Five days later he took the fort of Namcull 
by storm. The same success rewarded him at Erode, 
where he was attacked by Hyder's Light Cavalry. In the 
following week he besieged Sathamungalum, routed a large 
body of the enemy, captured their baggage and stores, and 
pursued them for ten miles. Yet four more days, and he 
captured the town and fort of Danianaickcottah, and acted 
so vigorously that the authorities at Fort St. George 
communicated to him their appreciation of his conduct. 
Another week passed, and he seized the important fort of 
Coimbatore. He then gave his troops three weeks' rest ; 
after which he again took the field, and, on July 19, 
attacked and captured the fort of Sunkeryporam. Thence, 
after a short halt, he marchedj south ; and, on August 3, took 
the pettah of Dindigul by escalade, and compelled the 
surrender of the fort at discretion. 

But Colonel Wood's health now began to suffer from his 
constant exposure to the high temperature during the hot 
season, and the wear and tear of an exceedingly active and 
anxious campaign ; so he .reported to the authorities at Fort 
St. George that he feared he would have to request them to 
relieve him temporarily of his command. They replied on 
August 20 : — 

It is with much concern we observe that you are apprehensive 
your ill state of health will prevent your proceeding with the detach- 
ment, as from the success that has already attended your spirited 
operations, we had entertained great hopes of reaping yet further 
advantage from your service in the field, particularly at a time when 
the enemy seems to have brought the war to a crisis, and when Officers 
of activity and resolution will be essentially required. 

The Military Committee in Madras, formed of General Smith, 
Colonel Call, and Mr. Mackay, wrote at the same time to 
Colonel Wood to express their surprise and concern at the 
intention of which he had apprised the General to ask for sick 
leave, " because we had laid it down for certain, in all our 
plans, that we should have your assistance in completing the 
overthrow of Hyder " : — 


This was certainly entertaining an high opinion of your abilities ; 
and we were particularly uneasy to find your state of health was like 
to be such as would oblige you to quit the field at a time when we 
regarded your services as most critically necessary. We well knew 
the great fatigue you have hitherto undergone ; we knew also the great 
expense the Company had been at ; we foresaw the evil consequences 
that must arise in case we do not finish our contest with Hyder before 
the end of the year ; and we were convinced that, what had hitherto 
been done by your part, or by this part of the Army, would be of little 
use unless we could strike an important stroke at the Capital, and 
Hyder's Army now assembled there. For this purpose we were taking 
our measures beforehand, and endeavouring to collect the assistance 
of every able Officer, and to unite our efforts in such a manner as should 
insure success. We had our eyes on you as a principal actor on this 
occasion. What then must be our surprise, while entertaining such 
sentiments of your conduct, to see ourselves, without previous notice, 
on the point of being deprived of that help which had hitherto been 
successfully exerted, and which we concluded would continue to be so ? 
We could not but impute your application to some other cause than 
sickness ; but we still flatter ourselves we shall have no occasion to 
change the favourable opinion we had entertained ; and that neither 
the increase of your indisposition, nor any other motive will induce 
you to quit the Army till we have been successful enough to defeat 
Hyder, or take Bangalore. We are sensible you have long laboured 
under an acute disorder, and we need not testimony of Surgeons to 
vouch it. We rely more on your own perseverance, and sense of 
duty to struggle with difficulties in behalf of the public weal at this 
critical juncture than any arguments or testimony." 

Being entreated, in so flattering a manner, by the Govern- 
ment and the Military Committee, Colonel Wood resolved to 
remain at his post. Thus it was that he was still in command 
of the force when, on October 4, it was attacked by the whole 
of Hyder's army at Mulwagli. The battle commenced at 
11 a.m. and was fought obstinately until sunset, when the 
enemy retired. The enemy fought very bravely, and were 
" in some instances desperately enterprising ; and nothing but 
the most steady and determined behaviour in our troops 
could have resisted such a numerous and powerful army, 
attacked upon ground that would not admit of their form- 
ing, but deprived them of the benefit of discipline." The 
enemy's artillery, which was excellently served, was superior 
to that possessed by Colonel Wood, who nearly expended all 
his own ammunition. Yet, in the end he remained master 


of the field. So the Madras Government wrote to thank him, 
and to say that " we cannot sufficiently admire the bravery 
and resolution Of our troops under the disadvantages which 
they laboured under, and pressed at the same time by 
Hyder's whole force." 

Yet, a little later, the Government " deemed the accounts 
received from Colonel Wood very imperfect." This they were 
prompted to do by the communication to them, by General 
Smith, of a letter which he had received from Major Thomas 
Fitzgerald, in camp, six miles from Colar, who had been 
in co-operation with Colonel Wood in the field, and had 
been led to form unfavourable opinions of the integrity and 
military qualifications of that Officer. The Major considered 
it might "be of the worst consequences " if the Government 
were kept in ingorance of the fact that their native troops had 
been " disheartened " by fatigues and inconsiderate treat- 
ment. He accused the Colonel of being slow to advance on one 
occasion against the enemy when a favourable opportunity 
offered ; of his wasting his ammunition ; and of his declining 
to follow the advice that he, Major Fitzgerald, had offered. 
In conclusion the Major remarked : — " For God's sake, Sir, 
consider what we have to expect ? In my opinion, nothing 
but the entire ruin of the Company. And let me intreat you 
to concert the proper means for the recovery (I must say) of our 
lost honour, and the interest of those we serve, for certainly 
no time is to be lost in the present exigency." 

So it was that, on November 29, Colonel Wood was 
ordered to return to the Presidency without delay, in order 
to give the Government such information respecting the 
late operations against Hyder Ali as " might enable them 
to regulate their future measures." General Smith seems 
at first to have concurred to some extent in Major 
Fitzgerald's opinion that Colonel Wood had not altogether 
answered the sanguine expectations formed of him by the 
Government. But he had fault to find with the Government, 
which he expressed in a letter to them, regarding their 
summoning of himself to Madras when the enemy was very 
active and in great force. " I must own, Gentlemen, that the 


Minutes of Consultation are expressed in as genteel language 
as the censure they imply will admit of ; however, after having 
undergone such a series of hard service, having been in the 
field ever since my arrival in India, engaged against the most 
formidable enemy the Company ever had, who never gained 
an advantage over me, but over whom I have gained many, 
and defeated them in several general actions ; I can't help 
feeling severely the treatment I have received, in being called 
down from the Army, my conduct discussed before you, and, 
if possible, made answerable for the failure of plans I foresaw 
could not answer." And more to the same effect, the imme- 
diate result of which was that the Governor and Council 
assured the offended General, that " they cannot believe it to 
be a work of his own ; that they find in it no traces of his 
genuine character, which they think superior to the object 
and matter ; but, as it bears the sanction of his name, it 
became necessary to proceed to an eclaircissement of the sub- 
ject." As to Colonel Wood, they were resolved to subject 
his actions to investigation. Being the third Officer in rank 
in the Presidency, he was " consequently near the supreme 
command " ; and they were, therefore, of opinion that his 
" military conduct should undergo a strict enquiry ; that if 
it be found such as became the character he was invested 
with, he may receive that honour, and be further entrusted 
with the command to which his rank entitles him ; if other- 
wise, that the safety of the public may not be exposed to the 
dangers consequent on such capacity." 

This was the prelude to nine charges being formulated 
against Colonel Wood, and to a Court-Martial being appointed 
to try the same. These charges alleged misappropriation of 
public stores and provisions ; misappropriation of public 
monies ; wilful neglect of duty in not laying up, or causing to 
be laid up, stores of grain and provisions in forts captured from 
the enemy ; " being interested in the grain and necessaries of 
life brought to the bazaar " ; " doing, causing, or permitting 
violence to persons who brought provisions to the camp " ; 
" permitting or licensing pernicious spirits, called Parriar 
Arrack, to be publicly distilled and sold in the camp, and 


receiving a large consideration for such permission, thereby 
encouraging, or conniving at drunkenness, contrary to good 
order and military discipline " ; neglecting " to act in con- 
formity to the advice and opinion of his Commanding Officer 
signified to him by repeated messages on a day named, thereby 
exposing his detachment, contrary to good order and military 
discipline, by which neglect the rear of the division sustained 
a considerable loss " ; for " unadvisedly, indiscreetly, and 
contrary to the custom of war, exposing the detachment, or 
part of the detachment under his command, to be overpowered 
by the enemy," on another occasion ; and, lastly, for "having 
in many instances, and at sundry times, whilst he had the 
charge and command of the Army, from the 4th November to the 
5th December, 1768, by his measures and conduct, unadvisedly, 
indiscreetly, unlike an Officer, against the maxims of war in 
India, and contrary to good order and military discipline, 
suffered the enemy to gain many and signal advantages, and 
neglecting himself to take those advantages of the enemy 
which the nature and circumstances of the two Armies enabled 
him to have done." The Court-Martial commenced their 
labours in April, 1769, five months after Colonel Wood had 
been recalled from the field to Madras, and did not pronounce 
sentence until eight more months had passed. 

The first charge in the indictment called for the examination 
of none but native witnesses, chiefly bullock-men and coni- 
copolies ; while the second rendered the examination of three 
European Officers, a Jemadar, a Sepoy and some other 
natives necessary. The witnesses who were examined in 
reference to the succeeding charges included Mr. Charles 
Bourchier, the Governor of Fort St. George ; Mr. Josias Du 
Pre, his immediate successor ; Mr. James Bourchier ; Messrs. 
H. Brooke ; J. Call ; A Mackay ; T. Parkinson ; A. Sinclair; 
R. Pringle ; T. Petrie ; and the following Military Officers : — 
General Smith ; Colonels Frischman, Lang and Campbell ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hart ; Majors Bonjour and Fitzgerald ; 
Captains Cook, Marcell, Farran, Hopkins, Stout, Kerker, 
Nelson, Murphy, Johnson, Calvert, Harper, Matthews, Orton, 
and Baillie ; Captain-Lieutenant Mackay ; and Lieutenants 


Rowse, Hughes, Chatress and Clark. General Smith gave his 
evidence with some reluctance. " As Commanding Officer of 
the Army," he represented, " it becomes necessary for me 
to obviate an appearance that must strike the whole Court. 
There is an impropriety in my now appearing as an evidence 
against Colonel Wood, when I could have brought him to an 
account myself if he had been guilty of disobedience while 
under my command" : — 

The great merit and success Colonel Wood has obtained in his 
southern expedition, entitled him to be treated with much deference, 
for which reason the messages I had occasion to send to him were not 
in so peremptory a manner as orders are usually conveyed, but rather 
given as my advice. And, as I was convinced that Colonel Wood's 
zeal and ardour for the Service were the only motives that hurried 
him on, I did not think proper to call him to account, as I might prob- 
ably have done, had his conduct been actuated by any other motives 
than those which so evidently appeared, I mean his ardour and zeal 
for the service he was then employed upon. 

The prisoner asked General Smith : — " Have you ever 
known me want spirit or resolution, or neglect doing my 
duty, in any respect or on any occasion ? " To which 
the witness replied : — " Not at any time while under my 
command." Thereupon the Judge Advocate rose, and in- 
formed the Court that it was not intended by the charge to 
accuse the prisoner of want of courage or resolution ; indeed, 
for his own part he believed that the prisoner never was 
suspected of a want of either. 

Major Fitzgerald, who had originated the imputations upon 
the character of Colonel Wood as an Officer and a man of 
honour, adhered, in his evidence before the Court, to his state- 
ment, that when he joined Colonel Wood the troops were dis- 
pirited ; yet he subsequently qualified his original allegations 
by admitting, that their appearance of being dispirited was 
probably attributable to the " fatigues and sufferings which 
they had undergone." He also said that he did not imagine 
it proceeded from fear. Captain Cook followed Major Fitz- 
gerald ; and when he was asked whether, at the time and place 
mentioned by the latter officer, the troops seemed dispirited, 


or " showed any signs of despondency and dismay," replied : — 
" I never saw troops behave better than the Guard with me 
during the whole night. When the troops arrived at the ground 
they were very much fatigued ; but I did not perceive the 
least despondency, or dismay among them that could be 
imputed to any fear of the enemy." 

Then Major Davidson stated that he had never seen the 
prisoner neglect to avail himself of the superior alacrity, 
courage, spirit, and discipline of the troops he commanded ; 
or passively sustain a distant cannonade instead of advancing 
upon, and engaging the enemy in close action, or show any 
signs of fear, or want of courage at any time. Captain Nelson, 
Captain Mackay, Captain Murphy, Captain Matthews and 
Mr. Sinclair severally bore witness that they had not seen the 
Army show any symptoms of being afraid of the enemy, or 
any actions of theirs that indicated they were flying before a 
victorious Army. Captain Matthews enforced his opinion 
by submitting that, " Fear and fatigue act very differently 
on the inclinations of' mankind, the former rendering them 
unable to act by affecting their minds, which might appear 
to the Court the consequence of the cannonade, or night's 
march, while the latter can only affect their bodies which rest 
will cure. I can say that, to have engaged the enemy in close 
action, the men would have marched a dozen miles, and be- 
haved as good soldiers." 

The members of the Court having " maturely weighed and 
considered the several evidences for and against the several 
articles of the charge exhibited against Colonel Wood," pro- 
ceeded to give judgment thereon, on December 8. They 
failed to find corroboration of the first article of the charge, 
namely, as to the sale, or disposal of stores by Colonel Wood, 
or by any one by his orders, for his advantage. They held 
that the second article had not been proved, so they ac- 
quitted him thereof. With respect to the third article, it did 
not appear to them that he could have acted otherwise than 
he did, so they acquitted him of it. Similarly with respect to 
the fourth article, since " he had only followed the constant 
practice with other Commanding Officers in the Service," and 


the " Service does not appear to have suffered " from the way 
in which he did act. Nor could the Court admit that he had, 
as was alleged in the fifth article, " caused or permitted vio- 
lence to be done to persons bringing provisions or necessaries." 
As to the permission that he gave to the selling of " parriar 
arrack in the Army," he had acted in a manner necessary for 
the good of the Service, and the Court could not therefore 
endorse the sixth article, that he had " encouraged or connived 
at drunkenness among the troops." Nor could the Court 
concur with the seventh article, as they considered that his 
conduct in the pursuit of the enemy on the day mentioned 
"did not merit the least censure." Furthermore, the Court 
exonerated him from the imputation in the eighth article, that 
he had failed in his duty at Mulwagli. As to the ninth article, 
in which he was held responsible for the loss of guns and 
baggage at Bangalore, the Court entirely acquitted him. In 
conclusion, the Court said that, having given their opinion 
on the several charges, and having thought that his conduct 
in not " attempting to bring the enemy to close action on the 
22nd November was improper," yet, bearing in mind his " long 
and faithful service, and the zeal he has constantly shown, 
the Court do acquit him." This judgment was signed by 
Colonel Donald Campbell, as President, and countersigned 
by Colonel Stone, as Judge Advocate. 

The Madras Government refused to accept this finding of 
the Court, and sent it back for reconsideration. But the 
Court declined to reconsider it. Thereupon the Government 
declared that " the whole Corps of Officers seemed to have felt 
that the emoluments, advantages, and honours of them all had 
been attacked in the person of Colonel Wood." They con- 
sidered that his defence " did not deserve a single remark," 
as he had made it when possessed of the privilege of " saying 
anything right or wrong that he thought could avail his cause." 
In their opinion, his conduct had been such as to render him 
unworthy of being allowed to remain in the Service ; and 
" although the consideration of his long service might, under 
different circumstances, have induced them only to suspend 
him, and to have represented the case to their honourable 


masters," they "were unanimously of opinion that the extreme 
levity of the Court-Martial, to say no more of it, rendered 
it necessary for the support of good order, that they should 
convince the Company's servants in general of their resolution 
to exert the authority vested in them for that purpose." 
Accordingly, the Government resolved " that Colonel Wood 
be dismissed from the Honourable Company's Service " ; 
and that " the sentence of the Court-Martial, with the Gov- 
ernment's disapprobation thereof, should be given out in 
Public Orders." 

The proceedings of the Government, with a copy of the 
voluminous evidence taken before the Court-Martial, and of 
the Court's finding, were forwarded to the Court of Directors ; 
and, on March 22, 1771, the Directors wrote to the Madras 
Government (now presided over by Mr. Josias Du Pre), to say 
that they had taken them into consideration. They com- 
menced by stating that they were of opinion that there were 
sufficient grounds for an inquiry into the conduct of Colonel 
Wood. Then, however, they proceeded to state : — 

We have attentively considered the Minutes of the Court-Martial 
held thereupon ; and, upon a matured deliberation, we must declare 
it does not appear that the members of the Court-Martial have been 
actuated by any improper motives ; or that their proceedings have 
been partial to Colonel Wood ; or that they could have decided 
in his case otherwise than they did, according to the evidence before 
them. We, therefore, cannot but be of opinion that the Court- 
Martial acted right in confirming their sentence ; and indeed we are 
not certain that they had power to reverse it, after it had been 
recorded by the Judge Advocate. 

The Directors alluded to the refusal of Mr. Mackay, a member 
of the Council of Madras, to appear before the Court-Martial 
until constrained to do so. This had caused the Directors 
both " surprise and concern," especially as "we trusted that 
our superior servants would by their example teach and 
enforce obedience to legal authority ; and not, by an avowed 
contempt thereof, excite or encourage others to disregard it 
also. With ill grace, therefore, could the Council complain of 
the want of proper subordination in our Military servants, 
and suffer, uncensured, one of their own Board to trifle with a 


Court established by Law, and assembled in His Majesty's 
name, to find an issue, where the life and honour of a subject 
were evidently interested." 

The Directors censured the Government for the attitude they 
had adopted towards General Smith, in command of the 
forces, in not admitting him to their consultation when they 
were passing sentence on Colonel Wood. The insinuation 
of the Government that General Smith could not be trusted 
ran counter to their own confidence in that Officer's " in- 
flexible integrity," and " we reflect with the greatest satis- 
faction that his actions have entitled him to the confidence we 
repose in the fidelity of that gallant Officer and valuable 
Servant." The Directors felt it necessary to add, that " the 
supposition of an act of oppression " being done by the 
Government, " could not be deemed a sufficient plea for 
individuals to arraign the conduct of the Government, and 
reflect on their characters and administration " ; so they called 
upon Colonel Wood to " make a proper acknowledgment to 
our President and Council for having offended in this respect." 
They then declared that, so soon as he had satisfied certain 
claims that might be decreed against him by the Mayor's Court 
in Madras, and made the required " concessions to our 
President and Council as before required, he be forthwith 
restored to our Service, without prejudice to his rank " : — 

However unwilling we are to return to the subject which has 
occasioned such altercation amongst our Servants, we cannot avoid 
taking notice of the plea of our Governor and Council that the contest 
relative to Colonel Wood was virtually between the Civil and Military 
power ; and we must observe that there appears no proof of such an 
assertion, nor are we referred to one fact in support thereof. We do 
not even find a suggestion of this kind, until the Consultation by 
which Colonel Wood was dismissed our Service. Had there been only 
positive assertions on one hand, and denials on the other, and both 
unsupported by proper evidence, we should have remained in uncer- 
tainty ; but when proof of facts upon oath is considered as " not 
meriting a single remark " we cannot concur with the opinion of our 
late Governor and Council, or deem the denial of such facts as a full 
refutation of them. 

In conclusion, the Directors said that they " expected and 
required " all classes of their servants, civil and military, to 


cultivate harmony. " We hope the only contest in future 
will be, who shall by judicious conduct contribute most to 
make us forget the evils of the late war, so rashly undertaken, 
and terminated by you with so much dishonour." 

In compliance with the Directors' orders, Colonel Wood 
offered an apology to the Governor and Council, but they 
refused to receive it. Moreover, they did not act upon the 
Directors' instructions, but wrote home to say that they 
still deemed Colonel Wood " most unfit " to be retained in 
the service of the Company. The Directors, however, replied 
on April 7, 1773, that as that Officer had made the acknowledg- 
ment to the Board which they had required of him as a 
condition to his restoration to the Company's service, " it is 
our positive order that you do reinstate him in his rank and 
station, and pay him the arrears of his salary and allowances 
as ordered in our letter of 25th April, 1771." This command 
reached Madras shortly after Mr. Alexander Wynch had 
succeeded Mr. Du Pre as Governor, and it was then acted 
upon without further hesitation. 



The Gentleman's Magazine of 1732 recorded that Captain 
Alexander Hamilton died on October 7 of that first year 
of the Magazine's existence. Nothing is known of his 
family or birthplace ; but he regarded himself as a 
Hamilton of " that ilk." It was probably for this reason 
that, in 1727, he dedicated to the fifth Duke of Hamilton, 
then living, the " Account " which he published in that 
year, of his travels in the East Indies. He was a sailor 
as to the manner born, and he did not set out for the far 
East until he had visited " most of the maritime kingdoms 
of Europe," and made a voyage to Jamaica. After that 
he appears to have passed thirty-five years in cruising 
about the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, and 
the China Sea, sometimes in the capacity of supercargo, but 
more often in that of commander of his vessel. He engaged 
most of the time in trade ; and the wonder is that he did 
not realize enough to enable him to return home rather 
early in life, and settle down comfortably for the remainder 
of his days. But Fortune was slow to smile upon him. 
This is how he explains the matter : — " Now, one would 
think that in so long a time in India, I might have made a 
great deal of money, but Fortunatus will not lodge in every 
house with honest and industrious men there, more than in 
Europe ; yet after many strugglings with adverse failure, 
and heavy oppressions, I have brought back a charm that 
can keep out the meagre devil (poverty) from entering into my 
house, and so I have got holy Agur's wish in Prov. xxx. 8, 1 

1 Prov. xxx. 8 : — " Remove far from me vanity and lies : give me 
neither poverty nor riches ; feed me with food convenient for me." 


and I have learned a pretty good lesson from St. Paul in 
his epistle to the Philippians chap. iv. verse II, 1 which I 
am resolved to follow as long as I live." 

Thus it was that he continued to roam in foreign parts, and 
to study, in an unscientific fashion, the manners and customs 
of Eastern peoples. He took no notes, since it never 
occurred to him while he was still active, to publish a narra- 
tive of his experiences. But at last, when age compelled 
him to cast anchor in his native land, and to live rather in 
retrospect than in anticipation, something induced him to 
indent on his memory for particulars as to what he had seen 
and heard in his best days. He was too honest to pretend 
that in making the demand he did, at an advanced time of life,. 
upon that memory, he could rely upon not making mistakes ; 
but, while conscious of his limitations, he did what he could 
to admit the reading world to his confidence. The result was 
the production of two bulky volumes, containing, as he said 
in his dedication to the Duke, his " cursory observations." 
If the Duke would accept them " I shall not much mind," 
he said, " the censure of criticks or satyrists." He regretted 
that his work did not better deserve the honour of his 
Grace's patronage. " If I had thought, while I was in India, 
of making my observations or remarks public, and to have 
had the honour of presenting them to so noble a patron, I 
had certainly been more careful and curious in my collections, 
and of keeping memorandums to have made this work more 
complete ; but it must now appear to some disadvantage, for 
want of those ornaments, in its native simple dress, as it 
came posting through a weak and treacherous memory with 
little elegancy." 

In a long preface which followed his concise and not too 
obsequious dedication, he alluded somewhat sarcastically to 
his having known in 1690 a " reverend gentleman, who came 
to Bombay as chaplain of the ship Benjamin " ; and who, after 
having been engaged a while on ministerial duties in Bombay 
and Surat, returned home, and published a book of travels, 

1 Philipp. iv. 11 : — "Not that I speak in respect of want: for I 
have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content." 


which won for him a " great deal of applause, and many 
encomiums from some of his reverend brethren." For all that, 
Hamilton proceeded to state, " the Chaplain's greatest travels 
were in maps, and the observations and remarks which he gave 
in his book were not original, but were obtained second hand, 
or by hearsay." Yet " the taste of those times relished all 
he presented with a very good gusto, and the reverend traveller 
received almost as ample rewards and praises for his personal 
travels to Surat by sea, and over the rest of India by maps, 
as Sir Francis Drake had for his tour round the world." For 
his own part Hamilton claimed to have actually visited the 
places that he attempted to describe ; and knowing, as he 
observed, that " the proof of the pudding is in eating of it," 
he left the readers of his lucubrations, which had given him 
employment during the " nights of two long winters," to 
" condemn or commend " them " according to their taste or 

It was in the year 1702 that Hamilton arrived off Madras in 
the ship Albemarle, which he had chartered for a cruise round 
the coast from Malabar to Ceylon, Coromandel and Bengal. 
Leaving Ceylon he reached Negapatam, then a Dutch Colony, 
with a fort which was built by the Portuguese. Thence " I 
must visit," he said, " the Maldive islands, which lie off this 
coast, about 60 miles distant from the nearest part of them." 
I need not follow him there, except to note that he was 
struck by the use that the islanders made — and still make — 
of the cocoanut tree. " Of that tree," he mentioned, " they 
build vessels of twenty or thirty tons. Their hulls, masts, 
sails, rigging, anchors, cables, provisions, and firing are all 
from this useful tree. It also affords them oil for their kitchen 
and lamps, sugar and candied sweetmeats, and pretty strong 
cloth." This reminds me of the old couplet, the authorship 
of which I do not know, which states that the cocos nucifera 

yields : — 

" Clothing, meat, trencher, drink, can, 
Boat, sail, oar, mast, needle — all in one." 

Having jotted down his observations about the Maldives, 
Hamilton returned in his narrative to Negapatam, " from 


whence I took my departure, and stretch along the coast of 
Coromandel." He touched at Trincumbar — now Tranquebar 
— then a fortified colony of the Danes, where he found "a set 
of clergy lately come as missioners from Denmark." Fort St. 
David was now reached. This was " a colony and fortress 
belonging to the English," which was acquired in 1686 by Mr. 
Elihu Yale (the American gentleman who was then Governor 
of Madras) for 90,000 pagodas, from a " Moratta " — or, as we 
would now say, a Mahratta — prince. Mr. Yale was more 'cute 
than scrupulous, for it was stipulated by the sale contract that 
the land all round the fort, as far as any gun on the walls could 
" fling a shot," should pass into the possession of the English. 
" But," Hamilton says, " whether the buyer or gunners were 
conjurors or not, I cannot tell, but I am sure the English 
bounds reach above eight miles along the sea-shore, and four 
miles within land." The country seemed to him to be 
pleasant, healthy, fruitful, and well watered. There was a 
Governor, subordinate to the Governor of Fort St. George ; 
and the Colony produced woven cloths, in large quantities, 
" either brown, white, or blue dyed, also Sallampores, Morees, 
Ginghamas, and Succatoons." " Cuddelore " was about a 
mile to the south ; and Punticherry (Pondicherry) some five 
leagues to the north of St. David. Then, as now, the forti- 
fications were " fine, regular, and strong " ; but the trade was 
small. Proceeding yet northwards, Hamilton passed Conny- 
mere, near the Seven Pagodas ; Saderass or Saderass Patam 
(Sadras), and arrived at St. Thomas (St. Thome), a town, 
he said, about three miles south of Fort St. George, that 
was built by the Portuguese, who " made the Apostle St. 
Thomas its godfather, but before that it was called Mallapore." 
He visited St. Thomas's Mount, and saw its church and relics. 
" At the foot of the great Mount the Company has a garden, 
and so have the gentlemen of figure at Fort St. George, with 
some summer houses, where ladies and gentlemen retire to 
in the summer to recreate themselves, when the business 
of the town is over, and to be out of the noise of spungers 
and impertinent visitors which this city is often molested 


It struck Hamilton immediately he arrived at Fort St. 
George that it was " situated in one of the most incommodious 
places " he had ever seen,, and he could not imagine how the 
site was chosen for the purpose. He was inclined to give cred- 
ence to the story that Sir William Langhorne, 1 the Governor, 
" had a mistress at St. Thomas he was so enamoured of that 
made him build there, that their interviews might be more 
frequent and uninterrupted, but whatever his reasons were it is 
very ill situated." For " the Fort fronts the sea, which con- 
tinually rolls impetuously on its shore, more here than in any 
other place on the coast of Choromondel." Its foundation 
was sand ; there was no drinkable water within a mile of it ; 
the sun from April to September was " scorching hot ; and, if 
the sea breezes did not moisten and cool the air when they 
blow, the place could not possibly be inhabited." Then the 
' ' soil about the city is so dry and sandy that it bears no 
corn ; and what fruits, roots, and herbage they have are 
brought to maturity by great pains and much trouble." 
Hamilton marvelled, therefore, why Cabelon, or, better still, 
Pulicat was not chosen for the settlement, instead of 
" Maderass, or as the natives call it, China Patam." But 
he had to accept the accomplished fact, and to see what 
" Maderass " was like. 

He found that it was much resorted to by " peaceable Indian 
merchants because it lay far from encumberers of trade, and 
near the diamond mines of Golcondah, where there are, many 
times, good bargains to be made, and money got by our gover- 
nors." Thus the town was made populous and rich. The 
Europeans dwelt in White Town, where there were two 

1 Sir William Langhorne, son of a London merchant trading with 
India, was born in London in 1692, called to the Bar at the Inner 
Temple, but did not practise, became a wealthy merchant, was created 
a Baronet by King Charles II in 1668, appointed Governor of Fort 
St. George in 1670, resigned in 1677, married in 1700 a daughter of 
the Earl of Rutland, died in 1715, aged 86, and was buried in the 
church at Charlton, Kent, near the estate which he acquired, and 
where he long resided. Sir John Fryer, F.R.S., who visited Fort 
St. George while Langhorne was Governor, stated that he was "a 
Gentleman of Indefatigable Industry and Worth." 



churches, one for the Protestant, the other for the Roman 
Catholic service, and both under the superintendence of the 
Governor, who, in filling up vacancies in the latter, was "the 
Pope's legate a latere in spiritualities." The Protestant church 
was well endowed, and maintained " poor gentlewomen in 
good housewifery, good clothes, and palankines." There 
was a good hospital ; there were " neat horse-stables " ; but 
the Old College " where a great many gentlemen factors are 
obliged to lodge, is ill kept in repair." Then there was a mint, 
in which the Company coined, with bullion imported from 
Europe, silver rupees stamped with Persian characters, and 
bearing the name and superscription of the Great Mogul, 
and also gold pagodas of several denominations and values. 
There were schools, where English, Portuguese, Mahomedan, 
Gentoo and Armenian children were taught Latin as well 
as their mother tongue. There was a Town Hall, with cells 
beneath it for debtors : — 

They are, or were a Corporation, and had a Mayor and Alderman 
to be chosen by the free burghers of the town ; but that scurvy way 
is grown obsolete, and the Governor and his Council, or party, fix the 
choice. The city had laws and ordinances for its own preservation, 
and a Court kept in form, the Mayor and Alderman in their gowns, 
with maces on the table, a clerk to keep a register of transactions and 
cases, attornies and solicitors to plead in form, before the Mayor and 
Aldermen. But, after all, it is but a farce, for by experience I found 
that a few pagodas rightly placed, could turn the scales of justice to 
which side the Governor pleased, without respect to equity or reputa- 
tion. In smaller matters, where the case on both sides is but weakly 
supported by money, then the Court acts judiciously, according to 
consciences and knowledge, but often against law and reason, for the 
Courtis but a Court of conscience, and its decisions are very irregular, 
and the Governor's dispensing power of nulling all that the Court 
transacts puzzles the most celebrated lawyers there to find rules in 
the statute laws. 

Hamilton may have been influenced in forming this poor 
opinion of what did duty for law and justice in Madras two 
centuries ago by an unpleasant personal experience. Capital 
punishment could only be awarded then in cases of piracy, and 
" the power of executing pirates is so strangely stretched that 
if any private trader is injured by the tricks of a Governor, 


and can find no redress, if the injured person is so bold 
as to talk of Lex talionis, he is infallibly declared a pirate." 
Hamilton chanced to have some dealings with a rogue 
named Powney, who, little as he suspected it, was the 
agent of a person named Collet, a person of some authority ; 
and when he wrote to Collet, complaining of Powney 's 
rascality, and hinted that he would have the law of the man, 
Collet was so " vexed that he formally went to the Town 
Hall, and declared me a rank pirate, though I and my friends 
came off with above £3,000 loss." Several years afterwards 
Hamilton saw some papers in London, in which the " piety, 
charity, and justice" of Mr. Collet were extolled. This 
"must have been done by some mercenary scribbler that 
did not know him, but now he is dead, I will say no more of 
him." It must have been some comfort to Hamilton to find 
a contrast to Mr. Collet in a good-hearted gentleman, Captain 
Hart, " a very merry man." The trade of Madras was, 
Hamilton found, not satisfactory, since the place produced 
very little of its own growth or manufacture. Rice was 
imported from Ganjam and Orissa ; wheat from Surat and 
Bengal ; and firewood from the islands of Diu, near Masulipa- 
tam, " so that any enemy that is superior to them in sea forces 
may easily distress them." The Madras trader consequently 
often met with " disappointments and sometimes oppression." 
" I have seen," he observed, " when the Governor's servants 
have bid for goods at a public sale, some who had a mind to 
bid more, durst not ; others who had more courage and durst 
bid, were browbeaten and threatened." The place was only 
an " emporium," and struck Hamilton as being "an emblem 
of Holland in supplying foreign markets with foreign goods " 
rather than with commodities of its own production. 

Captain Donald Campbell 
Once upon a time the figure of Captain Donald Campbell, 
of Barbreck, Commandant of a Regiment of Cavalry in the 
service of His Highness the Nabob of the Carnatic, was familiar 
to the residents of Fort St. George, the occupants of Govern- 
ment House, and the good people of Black Town. He came 


of a branch of the clan that recognises the Duke of Argyll as 
its chief ; and he was not only well educated, but he acquired 
the art of recording his experiences in an attractive manner. 
He was also, as became a Caledonian, possessed of a taste for 
adventure, allied with an ambition to improve his fortune in 
foreign parts. But it was chiefly owing to what he charac- 
terised as a " variety of unpropitious circumstances " and 
" domestic calamity " that, while as yet he was a young 
married man of thirty years of age, he bent his steps a second 
time to the East Indies. 

In May, 1781, Campbell commenced his journey " with a 
heart overwhelmed with woe, and too surely predictive of mis- 
fortunes." But, despite his depression, he had the spirit to 
resolve to find his way to India overland, by a route part of 
which had never before been attempted by a European. It 
may savour, at first glance, rather of the ridiculous than the 
sublime, that he decided to go out, not via Southampton, nor 
yet via Marseilles, nor yet via Brindisi, as crowds of his com- 
patriots have done since his day, but — via Margate ! In his 
day Margate was little more than a fishing village, where 
toothsome shrimps were to be had almost for the asking, 
and where gleeful Harries and tuneful Harriets from happy 
Hampstead were as yet unknown. An indentation of its 
fore shore gave it a harbour that was used as an anchorage 
during spring, summer, and autumn by vessels of light bur- 
den ; and when Campbell arrived he found, as he had been led 
to expect, that the " Packet " bound for Ostend was about to 
set sail. In her he embarked ; and he might have felt discon- 
solate, if not also a trifle seasick; but, as "at the moment when 
man thinks himself most miserable a benignant Providence is 
preparing relief, in some form or other, for him, so it " — as he 
wrote to his son * — " happened with me, for I was fortunate 

1 A Journey Overland to India, partly by a route never gone before 
by any European, by Donald Campbell, of Barbreck, Esq. — in a Series 
of Letters to his Son — comprehending his shipwreck and imprison- 
ment with Hyder Ali, and his subsequent negotiations and trans- 
actions in the East. London : Printed for Cullen and Company, 54, 
Pall Mall, 1795. 


enough to find in the Packet a fellow-passenger, whose valu- 
able conversation and agreeable manners beguiled me insen- 
sibly of the gloomy contemplations in which I was absorbed, 
and afforded my tortured mind a temporary suspension of 
pain." Judging from that gentleman's name he too must have 
hailed from north of the Tweed, for he was General Lockhart, 
who was bound for Brussels, " to pay his court to the Emperor 
Joseph II." The General was both "pleasing in his manners, 
and respectable in his character," and he readily agreed to 
Campbell accompanying him as far as that city. 

The two travellers went by easy stages from Ostend to 
Bruges, and Ghent to Brussels, then the capital of what was 
called Austrian Flanders. The country had long been regarded 
as the Cockpit Royal of Europe ; and it was destined to be 
the scene, twenty-seven years after Campbell's visit, of one of 
the most decisive battles in history. Having seen much of 
Brussels, and received favourable accounts of the demeanour 
and policy of the young Emperor, Campbell, with much regret, 
took leave of General Lockhart, and experienced some return 
of the " bitter sensations " with which he had left London. 
Alone he travelled to Liege, and thence to Aix-la-Chapelle, 
being cheered by the fine weather, and the beautiful scenery 
of the country through which he passed. He pushed on to 
Juliers, through a Duchy teeming with corn, wood, pasture, 
woad, coal, cattle and horses ; and at length reached Cologne. 
He went the round of the sights of that " fine city." Then 
he proceeded to Bonn, where Julius Caesar threw a bridge 
across the Rhine ; and from there he reached Mayence, and 
at last arrived at " the great, free, and Imperial city " of 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine. He could not fail to be pleased with 
that famous place where, as he was told, " the Roman Catho- 
lics possess the churches, the Lutherans the dignities, and the 
Calvinists the riches " ; and where life seemed agreeable, partly 
because " the merchants are extremely convivial and sociable, 
and form Clubs where they meet to drink tea and coffee, and 
play at cards," or go to the play-house, or resort to the " ex- 
cellent inns," or pay visits to "very pleasant circumjacent 
villages " in the " country around that is covered with woods 


and vineyards." Leaving Frankfort he passed through a 
" number of towns " until he arrived at Augsburg, the capital 
of a Bishopric, — a " handsome city, the public buildings in 
general magnificent, and adorned with fountains, water- 
engines of a curious construction, and statues," and "a 
most agreeable place to live in." Then he travelled through 
Bavaria, and reached the Tyrol, entering the most delightful 
valley he had ever beheld, " diversified with the alternate 
beauties of nature and cultivation." 

He passed on in due course to Innsbruck, and Bolfano, to 
Trent, Bassano, and so on to Venice, which delighted him, as 
he approached it, with " its stately steeples and noble buildings 
that seem as if just emerging from the sea, and floating on 
the surface." From Venice he proceeded by ship to Trieste, 
and thence to Zante, Alexandria, Cyprus, and Aleppo. He 
was detained some time at Aleppo, but he was the guest the 
while of an English resident, whose manner of asking him to 
his house was so " engaging, interesting and impressive," that 
Campbell " found it impossible to refuse him," though he had 
intended to reside at the British Consul's. He soon found that 
the beautiful appearance of Aleppo, as viewed from the sea, 
was belied by the narrow streets, gloomy houses, and stone 
walls ; but the suburbs proved agreeable as compared with 
the " gloomy city." He was led by what he saw and heard 
to the conclusion that the Turkish Government were grossly 
misrepresented by their Western critics. He could not admit 
that the people were well governed in every respect, or that 
property was always secure ; but it seemed to him that the 
common people were more free, and that life and property 
were more safe in the Turkish dominions than was the case 
in some European countries. At any rate, in and around 
Aleppo highway robbery, house-breaking, or pilfering were 
little known, and "at all times the roads are as secure as the 
houses." Mahomedans at Aleppo, as elsewhere, had their 
defects, but he concluded that this was not the fault of 
their religion, or their laws. As became a loyal Scotsman 
he maintained, that "our Church affairs in Scotland are 
arranged upon a better system than any other I know of." 


Hence the Scotch clergy " are in general examples worthy of 
imitation for learning, piety, and moral conduct." But he 
had an open mind ; and he did not disguise from himself that 
Mahomedans are not the only people in the world who, 
" under all the external forms of sanctity and religion," are 
capable of crime, and may be proof against charity. 

A considerable time passed without affording Campbell 
the opportunity of continuing his journey, until at last, under 
the advice of the consul, he agreed to adopt the expedient 
of going on to Bagdad in the guise of a slave to a Tartar, 
who was engaged in carrying despatches from the Turkish 
Government to Viceroys and Pashas. It was agreed that 
Campbell should pay the Tartar £100 for the care of himself 
and his servant, and that on his arrival at Bagdad a douceur 
of £20 would be added if the Tartar behaved well. He soon 
realised that the Tartar was a curious compound of arrogance 
and obsequiousness, of ferocity and sympathy, and that he 
needed an unconscionable amount of humouring. The man 
having heard the Captain's name, supposed that it was only a 
slight corruption of the word camel, the Turkish word for which 
is " jimmel," so throughout the journey he called Campbell 
" Jimmel." When in the hearing of people of the country 
he treated " Jimmel " with no courtesy, and was very free 
in his remarks about the manners and customs of "Franks," 
or Europeans ; and as these remarks were interpreted for 
Campbell's benefit by his servant, they at times caused 
him much annoyance. But he perceived that the Tartar 
swaggered in order to secure good horses and accommodation 
for the party ; and that he bullied all who were brought into 
contact with them, and complained about every article of 
food, in view to inspiring the people with a profound sense 
of his being an official of great consequence with whom it 
might be dangerous to interfere. And the man thus got 
what both he and " Jimmel " required. 

The route followed for the first six days after leaving 
Aleppo,was through a country producing grain and fruit in great 
variety and abundance, and rich in pastures covered with 
flocks and herds. Then the province of Diarbeker was entered, 


and its capital of the same name was reached. It is supposed 
that this locality, called Padan Aram — the " fruitful Syria " — 
by Moses, is the site of Eden, and that it was here that 
Noah settled after the flood. And here, according to wide- 
spread belief, Abraham once dwelt ; and here his second 
son, Jacob, put in his memorable fourteen years of servitude 
in order that he might win Rachel from the crafty Lab an. 
Campbell found the city situated in a delightful plain, near 
the banks of the river Tigris. " It is one of the richest, most 
trading, strong, and populous cities in Asiatic Turkey, and 
is adorned with many piazzas and market places, and a 
magnificent mosque, formerly a Christian Church, for Chris- 
tianity flourished over this country so late as the sixth 
century." It is well supplied with water, drawn by a canal 
from the river. As for the immediately surrounding country 
it is remarkable for its natural richness and beauty ; indeed 
the whole locality would seem from Campbell's glowing 
description to still have some of the makings in, around, 
and about it of a terrestrial Paradise. 

Mosul, within sight of Nineveh, was reached in safety. Dis- 
tance lent enchantment to the view as it was approached, 
but the interior was detestable. After a short stay there to 
recruit, the party resumed the journey towards Bagdad, 
which was reached in seven days from Mosul, and eighteen 
days from Aleppo, during which period the party had ridden 
fourteen hundred miles. Campbell remained in the house 
of an Armenian while he was at Bagdad. He now paid the 
Tartar the well-earned douceur of £20, over and above the 
original payment of £100, for conducting him from Aleppo 
to Bagdad in accordance with the original compact ; and the 
Tartar not only refrained from asking for more, but when he 
took leave of " Jimmel," " betrayed the strongest marks of 
sensibility." Campbell made a close survey of Bagdad ; and 
having seen what there was to see he arrived at the emphatic 
conclusion, that it is " among the most disagreeable cities of 
the world, and has no one circumstance to recommend it." 
This was a sore disappointment to him, for his hopes had 
been raised by what he had read about it in the Arabian 


Nights Entertainments. His host admitted that at one time 
Bagdad was not only a great, but also a nourishing town. 
Unfortunately Sultan Amurath IV, having captured it, put 
the leading citizens to the sword, and the place has declined 
ever since. 

Campbell had half a mind to take two days' journey to 
the ruins of the city of Babylon, with the sites not only of 
the walls, 350 feet in height, and 8y feet in thickness, but also 
of that of the Tower of Babel. But, on second thoughts, he 
gave up the idea ; gladly left Bagdad ; and rode to a place 
on the Tigris, where he embarked in an open boat, and set 
out for Bussora. For nine days he was exposed to the heat by 
day and the cold by night, and he found little distraction in 
the country on each side of the river, as it was " uniformly 
dull and uninteresting." The boat was frequently attacked 
by robbers ; so Campbell was glad enough to find himself a 
welcome guest in the house of Mr. Latouche, the Company's 
Resident at Bussora. Then he sailed in a date-boat from 
Bussora to Bushire, where he was received by Mr. Galley, 
the Company's Resident. He remained at Bushire a few 
days, after which he embarked in a Company's frigate, and 
proceeded in her to Bombay. He did not accord Bombay 
one line of description in his narrative, as he was only too 
glad to leave as soon as possible in a vessel bound for Goa. 
At Goa he " was received with great politeness, and treated 
with the most friendly attention, by Mr. Henshaw, the 
English Resident." But he was " impatient to get away 
from Goa," though he looked forward to his departure with 
secret uneasiness ; made his will, which he left with that 
gentleman ; and at last, " full of dreadful forebodings of 
shipwreck, went on board a Portuguese vessel bound to 

This was on May 18, 1782 ; or about the time when it is 
customary for the South-West Monsoon to set in on the West 
Coast. The sky was overcast when he embarked, and the 
vessel was overladen and ill-found. The following day the 
Monsoon was inaugurated with sheets of rain, vivid light- 
ning, peals of thunder, hurricanes, and the sea running moun- 


tains high. The Captain and the crew lost their heads, and 
gave themselves up for lost when heavy seas were shipped, and 
the vessel seemed incapable of righting herself. Happily 
there was an amiable young English passenger on board, 
named Hall, who seconded Campbell's efforts to urge the 
Captain to do his duty, and to lighten the vessel by throwing 
the guns and much of her lading (which included Goa 
mangoes in baskets) overboard. But the vessel became 
water-logged, and in the confusion that ensued Hall had a 
miraculous escape. Campbell said : — 

By the merest accident I grasped something that lay in my way, 
made a vigorous spring, and gained the lee shrouds. Mr. Hall, who 
followed me, in seizing the shrouds, came thump against me with such 
violence that I could scarcely retain my hold of the rigging. Com- 
pelled by the perilous situation in which I stood I called out to him 
for God's sake to keep off, for that I was rendered quite breathless 
and worn out ; he generously endeavoured to make way for me, and, 
in doing so, unfortunately lost his hold, and went down under the 
ship's side. Never, never, shall I forget my sensation at this melan- 
choly incident. I would have given millions of worlds that I could 
have recalled the words which made him move ; my mind was wound 
up to the last pitch of anguish. I may truly say that this was the most 
bitter of all the bitter moments of my life, compared with which the 
other circumstances of the shipwreck seemed lessened. For I had 
insensibly acquired an unusual esteem and warm attachment for him, 
and was doubtful whether, after being even the innocent occasion of 
his falling, I ought to take further pains to preserve my own life. All 
these sensations were passing with the rapidity of lightning through 
my thoughts, when, as much to my astonishment as to my joy, I saw 
him borne by a returning wave, and thrown among the very packages 
from which I had but just before, with such labour and difficulty, 
extricated myself. In the end he proved equally fortunate, but 
after a much longer and harder struggle, and after sustaining much 
more injury. 

Immediately after this thrilling experience it occurred to 
Campbell, who was a good swimmer, that as the vessel could 
not hold long together he had best try to make his way ashore. 
He had previously thrown off other articles of clothing, and 
he now tore off his shirt, waved his hand to Mr. Hall, and 
jumped into the sea after a log of wood that was floating near 
the vessel. He reached the log, but it was soon forced away 
from him by the sea, and then, throwing himself on his back, 


he allowed the waves to wash him to the shore. At last he 
found his feet, made a dash up the beach beyond reach of 
the waves, and then fainted away from exhaustion. 

When he recovered his senses he found himself surrounded 
by armed men, whom he perceived were soldiers of Hyder 
Ali, the despot of Mysore. He was in a state of nature, and a 
Lascar taking pity upon him took off his own waist-cloth, 
tore it into two pieces, and gave one piece to Campbell to 
gird himself withal. " Of all the acts of beneficence that I 
ever met with," said Campbell, " this struck me most 
forcibly ; it had kindness, disinterestedness, and delicacy for 
its basis ; and I have never since thought of it without 
wishing that I could meet the man to reward him for his 
beneficence with a subsistence for life." He was removed 
to a small hut, and a guard was set over him. The following 
morning, to his great astonishment, he was joined there by 
Hall, who reported that when the tide ebbed, the vessel 
had been left almost dry, but that out of eleven Europeans 
and fifty-six Lascars who were on board, he and Campbell 
and only fourteen Lascars had been saved. Hall was as 
unclad as was Eve-angelical before she, like Adam, took to 
vestments, so Campbell divided with him the half of the 
Lascars' cloth. Thus " a rag of linen, not worth sixpence, 
was a very material accommodation " to the companions 
in misfortune. 

The weather continued so monsoonish that the captors 
remained some days in the place, but did little the while 
to ameliorate the position of the two captive Europeans, or 
of the fourteen Lascars who were with them. They allowed 
them no straw to lie upon ; and they entrusted to an old 
woman the duty of serving them with a little rice twice a day. 
Then the Lascars were driven off, and Campbell and Hall 
saw them no more ; after which they themselves were com- 
pelled to commence the journey into the interior, and to 
trudge through slush, while torrents of rain were falling, or 
at times, during a break in the weather, to march on regard- 
less of the scorching rays of the sun. " Now blistered with 
the heat, now drenched with the rain, and now chilled 


with the night damps, destitute of any place but the bare 
earth to rest or lay our heads on, with only a scanty 
pittance of boiled rice for our support, often without water 
to quench our thirst, and constantly goaded by the guards 
who pricked us with their bayonets, at once to evince their 
power, entertain the spectators, and mortify us," their forti- 
tude was, according to Campbell, sorely tried. 

They at length reached Hydernagur, the capital of Bidda- 
nore ; and were taken before Hyat Sahib, the Jemadar, who 
questioned them about their venturing to approach Hyder 
Ali's country. He then vaunted that Sovereign's amiable 
qualities, great endowments, and irresistible power ; and 
spoke very contemptuously of the British Government. He 
mentioned that he was aware who Campbell was ; and it was 
because of this that he showed him some courtesy, gave him 
betel-nut, sprinkled him with rose water, and said that he 
would soon obtain for him a command in Hyder's service. " I 
was determined," Campbell wrote, " to die a thousand deaths 
sooner than serve any State hostile to Great Britain, but still 
more a tyrant." Yet the two Europeans were still kept close 
prisoners, though to some extent their wants were supplied. 
Three days later the Jemadar not only entertained Campbell 
at tea, but furnished him with some shirts, an old coat, and 
two pairs of breeches that had been stripped from the bodies 
of his fellow-passengers when washed ashore. Eventually 
Hyat Sahib offered Campbell the command of 5,000 men, 
which the latter respectively but firmly declined ; whereupon 
he and Hall were sent back to their prison, and remained 
there several months awaiting the turn of events. 

They were greatly neglected and half-starved, but not 
otherwise ill-treated, until Campbell endeavoured to prevail 
upon some Arcot Sepoys to connive at his escape with Hall. 
The design was frustrated, and the prisoners were then loaded 
with irons, and " fastened together, leg by leg, with one bolt." 
Hall was at the time suffering from dysentery, and losing all 
hope, soon succumbed. Exclaiming " Campbell ! oh Camp- 
bell ! the lamp is going out ! " he expired without a groan, 
leaving Campbell in a state of poignant grief on his account. 


The death of Hall was reported to the Commandant, and 
Campbell begged the guards to apply for permission to have 
the dead body removed. But the Commandant refused to 
issue any orders, and for " several days and nights " Campbell 
remained bound to the putrefying corpse of his friend. " I 
never look back," he wrote afterwards, " at this crisis without 
confusion, horror, and even astonishment." The wonder is 
that he survived the horrible ordeal. 

At length the Commandant allowed the removal of the 
body. This was when the whole of the troops in the citadel 
were under orders to march, and the Commandant pro- 
ceeded to the prison, and directed a man to release Campbell 
from his irons. This was due to the approach of British 
troops, guided by Rogonaut Rou, a Mahratta Chief, who had 
entered into negotiations with the British authorities at Bom- 
bay. The British force was under the command of General 
Mathews, who had been despatched from Madras in order to 
make a diversion, and relieve the Carnatic from the danger 
threatened by Hyder. The Jemadar, Hyat Sahib, sent for 
Campbell, and, to make a long story short, he, in his 
own interest, eventually employed Campbell to proceed on 
horseback to meet General Mathews, in order to arrange for 
the surrender of Hydernagur. The negotiations were success- 
ful, and the fort was occupied without a blow being struck. 
But Campbell was disappointed of the acknowledgment that 
he expected both from General Mathews and Hyat Sahib. 
As soon as Hydernagur was taken, Hyat Singh issued orders 
for the surrender of the forts at Mangalore, Deokull, Anar- 
pore, and elsewhere ; but General Mathews had eventually to 
reduce those forts. Later on, as Campbell briefly puts it, 
" Tippoo retook Hydernagur, and, in direct breach of the 
capitulation, made the garrison prisoners, treated them 
with a degree of inhumanity which chills the blood even to 
think of; and forced General Mathews to take poison in 

Meanwhile, Campbell had been sent with despatches for 
the Governments of Bombay and Madras. He set off with 
a small guard, reached Cundapore, on the Malabar Coast, and 


proceeded in a boat to Mangalore, where he was detained 
by severe illness. He then continued his journey in a small 
ship to Tellicherry, where he remained a few days as the 
guest of Mr. Freeman, the Chief of that place. Then he went 
on to Anjengo, and there commenced his journey of nearly 
eight hundred miles across country to Madras. He passed 
through Travancore, Tinnevelly, Madura, Trichinopoly, Tan- 
jore (where he witnessed a suttee), and so reached Negapatam, 
intending to make the short run up the coast to Madras by 
sea. But, just as the vessel approached Madras she was 
chased and captured by a French frigate, whose Captain 
ordered her to steer with the frigate northward. Night fell, 
and then, as Campbell says, " a fresh and favourable breeze 
fortunately aiding the attempt, we put about, ran for Madras, 
and luckily dropt anchor safely in the Roads." 

Lord Macartney was at that time Governor of Fort St. 
George ; and with his permission Campbell set sail for Bengal, 
as he had been charged with a mission from Hyat Sahib to 
the Governor-General and Supreme Council. He reached 
Calcutta in safety ; was received as a guest by Sir John 
Macpherson, a member of the Council, who presented him to 
Warren Hastings, with whom he entered into a negotiation 
on behalf of Hyat Sahib, who was conspiring against Tippoo. 
Hastings seemed to Campbell to be "a man of sound, acute, 
and brilliant talents, of a vast and comprehensive mind, of 
manners sociable, amiable, meek, and unaffected, and of a dis- 
position truly benevolent." Hastings accepted the overtures 
of Hyat Sahib in the manner desired by Campbell ; and " as 
the season was very unfavourable for a voyage by sea," the 
latter resolved to return to Madras by land, partly in order to 
see en route " that curious and grotesque monument of super- 
stitious folly called the Jagarnaut Pagoda." He remained at 
Vizagapatam with Mr. Russel, the Chief of that place. " His 
style of living was so similar to that of an elegant family 
residing at their country house in England," that Campbell 
felt himself " more happy and comfortable than I had been 
since my arrival in India." 

From Vizagapatam he proceeded to Masulipatam, where 


he learnt of the unfortunate fate of General Mathews ; he then 
pushed on to Madras. From Madras he marched to Palam- 
cottah, where he fell ill, and had to keep his bed five or 
six weeks. Then he " crawled on " to Anjengo ; and, after 
remaining a while there with Mr. Hutchinson, the Resident, 
embarked on board a vessel that took him to Bombay, where 
he found Hyat Sahib. Having indulged in a run to Surat, he 
returned to Madras once more, and his health being impaired, 
he resolved to go home, but not until he had gratified 
his curiosity by seeing a little of China. So Lord Macartney 
gave him a letter of introduction to the Company's chief 
super-cargo at Canton, in which he described Campbell as 
" a gentleman who has signalised himself on many occasions, 
but more particularly by his ability and address in accom- 
plishing the surrender of the Fort of Bedanore, at which place 
he had long been a prisoner." 

At Canton, on December 29, 1784, Campbell embarked 
in the Ponsborne East Indiaman (in which he had sailed from 
Madras to China), and after a voyage of five months, reached 
Falmouth, having been four years away from England. He 
did not return to India. He died in 1808, at Hutton in 
Essex. His son, for whose benefit, in the first instance, the 
letters containing the narrative were written, entered the 
Guards, and, after Campbell's death, sold the family estate 
in Argyllshire, settled in Suffolk, where he became a Deputy 
Lieutenant, and died in 1846, aged sixty-four. The narrative 
passed through six editions, the last of which appeared in 



Lord Monson and Mr. George Leveson Gower have 
edited the Memoirs * of Captain George Elers, which were 
found lately in the library at Burton Hall. Elers — to whom 
Lord Monson is related through his great-grandmother, nee 
Anna Debonnaire, born at Madras in 1768 — was of German 
as well as English origin. He obtained his Commission 
as Ensign, without purchase, in the 90th Infantry, and 
then, a month later, as Lieutenant by purchase in the 12th, 
he embarked with the latter Regiment for India. He 
reached the Cape, and there first met Colonel the Hon'ble 
Arthur Wellesley — the future Duke of Wellington — who was 
in command of the 33rd, also on its way to the East. The 
Colonel had just turned twenty-seven years of age, and was 
" all life and spirits," remarkably clean in his person, and 
in the habit of shaving sometimes twice a day. He was in 
height about 5 feet 7 inches, had " a pale long face, a re- 
markably aquiline nose, a clear blue eye, and the blackest 
beard I ever saw." He spoke quickly, with a slight lisp, and 
he had a habit of pursing up his mouth in a curious manner 
when he was pleased. He was so much in debt, and so em- 
barrassed when he left England, that he had to borrow from 
a Dublin tradesman £400 to £500 before he embarked. He 
repaid the loan, and eventually exerted his influence to obtain 
for the tradesman's son a place of £400 per annum. 

Elers spent two months very pleasantly at the Cape, and 
then sailed with his Regiment for Madras. The voyage took 

1 Memoirs of George Elers, Captain in the 12th Regiment of Foot 
(1777-1842). Edited from the Original MSS. by Lord Monson and 
George Leveson Gower. London : William Heinemann, 1903. 



two months, and Madras was reached on January 9, 1797. 
The Regiment was landed on the following morning, and 
marched to the barracks in the Fort, which were being vacated 
by the 74th Regiment, the Officers of which Corps entertained 
the newcomers at a handsome dinner, featured by large quan- 
tities of madeira and claret. The Officers of the 12th soon 
formed an excellent Mess. They contracted with a couple of 
natives to find them an excellent dinner, a dessert, and a pint 
of madeira, including on Thursdays and Sundays, guest 
nights, a better dinner than usual, with Europe hams, tongues, 
cheese, etc., for 10 pagodas a head monthly. The Mess usually 
consisted of forty to fifty Officers, and on guest nights there 
were sometimes three times that number at table. Elers 
had some letters of introduction to residents in Madras, which 
he presented. " I got," he said, " some dinners, and that 
was all." Among others he called on the old Admiral, and 
presented a letter that he had received in England from Lady 
Burnaby. The Admiral said frankly : — " Young gentleman r 
you are in the Army, and I can be of no use to you. Had you 
been in the Navy, from the regard I have to Lady Burnaby, 
I would have taken care of your promotion." 

In 1797 Elers embarked at Madras with the expedition that 
was being sent against Manila, and he duly reached Penang j 
but, owing to the hostile demonstrations of Tippoo Sultan in 
Mysore, the part of the force with which he was connected 
was ordered back to Madras. The Regiment then commenced 
to march towards the south ; and reached in due course Con- 
jeveram, Pondicherry, and Tanjore, where the flank Com- 
panies were encamped at Vallum — then, as now, " a wild and 
cheerless place," situated on a large sandy plain, with rocks 
infested with cobras. Here Elers witnessed the suttee of a 
very young widow by the side of her very old deceased hus- 
band. She was calm and collected, and when the flames 
reached her she only uttered the words " Narina ! Narina ! " 
The old Rajah was deposed while Elers was at Tanjore, and 
Suffrajeh, educated by Schwartz, the German Missionary, 
was placed on the musnad to reign in his stead. The revolution 
was effected without bloodshed or confusion. The young 



Rajah, then about twenty-four years of age, entertained the 
Military and Civil Officers at a grand banquet, when he 
appeared so splendidly attired that Elers was reminded of 
the Sultans, Caliphs, and Princes described in the Arabian 
Nights Entertainments. His Highness made presents to all 
his guests, and Elers received a cloth of gold sufficient for 
a dress. 

From Tan j ore the Regiment was marched to Arcot and 
Arnee. Colonel Aston, who commanded it, then proceeded 
on leave to Madras ; and Major Picton, a brother of Sir 
Thomas Picton, the Waterloo hero, assumed the acting 
command. Shortly afterwards a Lieutenant Hartley read to 
his brother Officers a letter that he had received from the 
Colonel in reply to an inquiry which he had made about some 
difference that he had had with Major Allen, the Paymaster- 
The Colonel wrote : — "If Major Allen has used you as you 
say, I think he has not treated you liberally," or words to 
that effect. Major Picton thereupon ordered a Regimental 
investigation, which showed that Major Allen was in the right. 
The minutes of the Court of Enquiry were forwarded to Colonel 
Aston in Madras, and he rejoined the Regiment, and issued 
an order reprimanding Major Picton in severe terms for 
presuming, in his — the Colonel's — absence, to call a meeting of 
the Officers without his sanction. Then Major Picton called 
him out ; but at the duel the Major's pistol missed fire, and 
the Colonel fired in the air. " Honour " was thus " satisfied " 
in those bad old days. But the following day Major Allen 
called the Colonel out, and wounded him fatally. The Colonel 
lingered a few days, and was seen by Colonel Wellesley who 
had arrived from Madras, to whom the dying man said : — 
" Ah, my dear Arthur, is it you ? I shall now die happy." 
In him Elers felt he had lost the best and kindest friend he 
had ever had. The Colonel left a favourite Arab horse to 
Colonel Wellesley ; directed the destruction of Elers' note of 
hand to him for a considerable sum of money ; and disposed 
of wine, plate, and furniture that he had in India. The two 
Majors were placed under arrest, sent down to Madras, tried 
by Court-martial and admonished. Then Major Allen was 


arraigned before a Supreme Court, tried and acquitted. Both 
Majors returned to their duty with the Regiment. " But 
poor Allen never held up his head afterwards. He died in less 
than three months of a raging fever." 

Elers missed the siege of Seringapatam, for he was ill at 
Vellore at the time, and he rejoined the Regiment after the 
fortress had been captured. Soon afterwards he went with 
another Officer to Madras — and lived awhile with two brother 
Officers of his Regiment at San Thome. He then rejoined his 
Regiment at Wallajahbad, which he found was a good quarter, 
with a good Mess, a good billiard table, a good Regimental 
Library, and excellent shooting and hunting. Eventually 
the Regiment was moved to Poonamallee ; and Elers being 
left with a Detachment at Wallajahbad found life very dull, 
" though it was," he says, " a source of great profit to me, 
as I made a considerable sum from the bazaar from my 
situation as Commanding Officer over 70 or 80 men." At 
length he rejoined the Regiment at Poonamallee. Then three 
Companies were sent back to Mysore ; and Elers saw some 
active service at Cotiote against the local Rajah, who had 
surprised and massacred nearly the whole of a Battalion 
of Native Infantry. It is not stated what became of the 
Rajah after his followers had been dispersed. Elers after- 
wards found his way across to Talalcheri — Tellicherry — and 
Cannanore. He there met Colonel Wellesley again : — 

When we left Cannanore we had only a guard of six troopers ; 
between us and our friend the Coorga Rajah's country lay part of our 
enemy's, the Cotiote country. Colonel Wellesley and I dashed on 
together first, unaccompanied by his Staff or the troopers, when he 
observed to me : " Now, Elers, if we are taken prisoners, I shall be 
hanged as being brother to the Governor-General, and you will be 
hanged for being found in bad company." We had not to go above 
30 miles, when we safely reached the territory of the Coorga Rajah. 
I felt my mind much relieved, for, notwithstanding the joking way 
in which the Colonel treated it, we should most assuredly have 
been put to death, and in that case he would never have fought the 
Battle of Waterloo, or I recounted my adventures. 

Elers accompanied Colonel Wellesley to Coorg, where the 
Rajah was very courteous, and prevailed upon the Colonel to 


promise to intercede with his brother, the Marquis Wellesley, 
the Governor-General, for the remission of His Highness 's 
kist of 5,000 pagodas per annum. The Colonel then pushed 
on, still accompanied by Elers, to Seringapatam, where he 
took Elers into his house, and kept him there for three months. 
There were usually eight to a dozen Officers and guests every 
day at the plain but good table that the Colonel kept. One 
day the Colonel received a despatch from England, in which 
it was mentioned that his brother had received a pension 
of £5,000 a year for the Mysore war, and that the Brevet 
step of Major-General had been given to the old Colonels. 
He asked Elers if he had an Army List. The latter fetched 
one for him, and said that unfortunately the promotion 
would not apply to Colonel Wellesley as he was within five 
or six of it. The Colonel replied sorrowfully, " My highest 
ambition is to be a Major-General in His Majesty's service." 
This was in May, 1801. And Elers remarks : — " Fourteen 
years afterwards he had fought the Battle of Waterloo, 
conquered Bonaparte, was a Prince, a Duke, a Knight of 
the Garter, Grand Cross of the Bath, a Grandee of Spain, 
and a Grand Cross of, I believe, every order of Knighthood 
in Europe." 

In September, 1801, Elers was ordered to Trichinopoly, and 
took up his quarters in cantonments at Warriore. Here he 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Charles Darke, of Madras, a 
very rich man, to whom the Nabob of Arcot owed many lakhs 
of rupees. Mr. Darke's daughter married General Floyd, 
who was long stationed at Trichinopoly ; and their daughter, 
Julia, married Sir Robert Peel, the statesman, grandfather of 
the present Baronet. There was then very good society in 
Trichinopoly ; and there were occasional Subscription Balls 
and Subscription Races. At one Race Meeting " I won," 
says Elers, " more rupees than I could well carry home, but 
which I contrived to do, walking in the heat of the sun, as I 
had no conveyance. This was the happiest week I ever passed 
in India ; everything seemed to prosper with me." In May, 
1803, he obtained leave of absence to re-visit Madras, and 
performed the tedious journey of 200 miles with only one set 


of bearers, by palanquin. He was therefore many days on 
the way. On his arrival at Madras he waited upon Lord 
William Bentinck, the new Governor, and met with a kind 
reception. The next day he dined with the Governor. " I 
remember," he says, " we had some of the finest Hermitage 
I ever drank." From Madras he proceeded on leave by sea 
to Cuttack to stay with Colonel Harcourt, who was living 
in great style there, in a large house, with many servants, 
all wearing scarlet and gold coats, with scarlet turbans, and 
bearing large silver sticks. Elers spent two months with the 
Colonel, and then proceeded, via Juggernaut, to Calcutta. 
He was well received by the Governor General. At the first 
dinner Lord Wellesley placed him on his right hand, and 
after dinner said : — " Captain Elers, I shall never give you 
any more formal invitation ; from this day a knife and fork 
will constantly be placed for your stay in Calcutta at my 

From Calcutta Elers returned by sea to Madras, and then 
applied for leave to proceed on private affairs to England. 
Pending the receipt of the leave he was ordered to attend, as 
a member, a General Court-martial upon Major Yeaman and 
Lieutenant Sands, the latter of whom had killed Captain 
Bull of the 34th Regiment in a duel, at which the former 
acted as second. 

Captain Bull was a remarkably fine young man, and of very quiet 
and gentlemanlike manners ; but it was his misfortune to be sent 
on a Detachment with the above Officers, together with others, who 
made themselves so disagreeable to him that he withdrew his name 
from the Detachment Mess. They took offence at this, and desired 
him to state his reasons for so doing. He gave as a reason that he 
was every day expecting a young lady from England to whom he was 
to be married, and he wished to live more economically in order to 
meet the expense that he should necessarily incur. They would not 
receive this as an excuse ; they said it was an affront to the whole 
Mess ; and they took up dice to throw who should call this poor young 
man out, and who should be the second. The lot fell upon Lieutenant 
Sands, and Major Yeaman as the second. A Lieutenant Johnson 
of the 34th was second to poor Captain Bull, who was killed at 
the first fire. It excited universal indignation throughout the 


Sands and Yeaman were first tried at the Supreme Court 
of Madras, before Sir Henry Gwillam, for murder. According 
to Elers they were saved by the perseverance of " a person 
named Hope, a very rich merchant, who kept a European 
shop " :— 

He had once been a private soldier in India, but had made a fortune 
of ^100,000. The whole Jury wanted to bring in the prisoners guilty, 
but Hope saved them, and brought the Jury over to his side, and when 
they came into Court, Hope, who was the foreman, pronounced " Not 
guilty." A dead silence prevailed. It was really awful. I never shall 
forget Sir Henry Gwillam saying : " Not guilty ! A most merciful 
Jury ! Prisoners," he said, " had you been found guilty, you never 
would have seen the sun rise again. You have had a most narrow 
escape of your lives. Let it be a warning to you." 

The finding of the Court-martial resulted in both Officers 
being " broke." 

Elers having sold off everything, embarked in the Hawkes- 
bury, in which he had secured a passage for £200, and arrived 
in England after nearly ten years' absence, at the age of 
twenty-nine. He died in Jersey in 1841, aged sixty-four, 
after having compiled his Memoirs for the information of a 
nephew. They are not, perhaps, of historic importance, 
but they are studded with good stories, and they present, as 
the editors say, " a faithful and interesting picture of life 
in society and in the Army at the end of the 18th, and the 
beginning of the 19th centuries." 

Mrs. Graham (Lady Callcott) 

Maria, Lady Callcott, a daughter of Rear Admiral George 
Dundas, and a niece of Admiral Sir David Dundas, was 
born at Papcastle, near Cockermouth, in 1788 ; and married, 
at the age of twenty, Captain Thomas Graham, also of the 
Royal Navy. She accompanied her husband to India to- 
wards the close of 1808, and arrived in Bombay on May 26, 
1809, after a voyage of twenty weeks. There was then but 
one "tavern," or inn, in Bombay; and as it was unfit for 
the reception of ladies, she and her husband became the 
guests of Sir James and Lady Mackintosh, who lived at 


Tarola, about three miles from the Fort, in a house noted 
for containing " the best library that ever doubled the Cape.'' 
Early in February, 18 10, she took a short voyage to Ceylon 
for the benefit of her health, which was somewhat impaired 
by fever. She remained a few days at Point de Galle, and 
made excursions in its beautiful neighbourhood. Then she 
proceeded to Colombo by that beautiful, well shaded road 
beside the sea which is a source of delight to all travellers. 
She was so much charmed with Colombo, and with the 
society there, that she said that if she could choose her place 
of residence for the rest of the time of her absence from 
England it should be at that town. She went to see Mount 
Lavinia, then the Governor's country house, and now chiefly 
known as a spot where honeymoons are often spent. In 
her " Journal of a Residence in India " she stated that " it 
is a charming residence ; it literally overhangs the sea, and 
has all the beauty that hill and valley, wood and rocks, 
with a beautiful beach, and a fine open sea can give." 

Early in March she embarked on board the Company's 
cruiser Prince of Wales for Bombay. She had a distant view 
of Cape Comorin. At Calicut she endeavoured " to trace the 
scenes of the first landing of Europeans in India, the meeting 
of the Zamorin and Vasco da Gama, the treachery of the 
Prince, and the bravery and presence of mind of the Admiral " : 
but, like other visitors since her time, she found that the 
place " has passed so often through the hands of conquerors 
that every trace of former grandeur and importance is swept 
away." She was shown some heaps of stones and old walls 
that were said to mark the site of old Calicut, and she saw 
the large bazaar which had recently been desolated by a 
bad fire. The following morning she " walked a few miles 
into the country " in order to see, in " the bosom of the 
ghauts," the house of an English gentleman. On the way 
thither, " through palmy shades and aromatic woods," she 
called at the Zamorin's house, but he was absent at Pancanny 
— or Ponany. Then, returning to the cruiser, she had a 
glimpse of Tellicherry and the harbour of Goa. At length 
she reached Salsette, where she remained some days with a 


friend who owned a considerable estate there. Having paid 
a visit to other friends at Bhandoop, she sailed, on June I, 
from Bombay in H.M.S. Illustrious, commanded by Cap- 
tain Broughton, who had accompanied Vancouver in his 
voyage round the world. On the 20th Trincomallee was 
reached ; and she found that the scenery there was the most 
beautiful she had ever seen ; she could compare it to nothing 
but Loch Katrine, in Scotland, on a gigantic scale. 

She left Trincomallee in H.M.S. Hecate, and arrived off 
Madras three days later, after a very favourable passage. 
" I do not," she wrote, "know anything more striking than 
the first approach to Madras " : — 

The low flat sandy shore extending for miles to the north and south, 
for the few hills there are appear far inland, seems to promise nothing 
but barren nakedness, when, on arriving in the Roads, the town and 
Fort are like a vision of enchantment. The beach is crowded with 
people of all colours, whose busy motions at that distance make the 
earth itself seem alive. The public offices and store-houses which line 
the beach are fine buildings, with colonnades to the upper storeys, 
supported by rustic bases arched, all of the fine Madras chunam, 
smooth, hard and polished as marble. At the short distance Fort 
George, with its lines and bastions, the Government House and gardens, 
backed by St. Thomas' Mount, form an interesting part of the picture, 
while here and there in the distance minarets and pagodas are seen 
rising from among the gardens. 

She went ashore in the " accommodation boat " and was 
much interested by the " wild and plaintive " cry, and the 
dexterity of the boatmen, attired in a turban and " a half- 
handkerchief fastened to the waist by a packthread." On 
landing she was surrounded by "above a hundred dubashes," 
who clamoured for employment. She found her way to a 
friend's garden-house, " for at Madras everybody lives in the 
country, though all offices and counting-houses, public and 
private, are in the Fort, or town." She visited the Naval 
Hospital, a large, handsome, well-appointed building, with an 
excellent garden. " On the top is a large platform, where 
the convalescents take exercise, and enjoy fresh air, with the 
view over all Madras, its pettah, or Black Town, and garden- 
houses, to the shipping in the Roads. There is a rops-walk 


attached to the Hospital, but it wants air, and is rather short ; 
it, however, furnishes employment for the invalids." 

From the Hospital she went to " the garden which the late 
Dr. Anderson had planted as a botanical garden, at a vast 
expense, but it is now in a sad state of ruin." There she was 
shown the " Saguerus rhumphii, a kind of palm from which 
an excellent sago is made," and black fibre suitable for cordage 
is obtained ; and the nopaul, "a kind of prickly pear, on a 
species of which the cochineal insect lives, and which is now 
cultivated in Madras as an esculent vegetable. It was dis- 
covered by Dr. Anderson to be a valuable antiscorbutic, and 
has since been used on all men-of-war on the Indian Station, 
which are now almost free from that dreadful malady, the 
scurvy." She witnessed the clever sleight of hand of Madras 
jugglers, and was especially struck by the circumstance that 
the sword-swallower was the healthiest, best proportioned 
native she had ever seen. She passed the last week in July 
at Ennore, eight miles north of Madras, " where a small salt- 
water lake, with abundance of fine fish and excellent oysters 
were attractions which had induced a party of gentlemen to 
build a house by subscription on the edge of the lake." At 
this house " there is a meeting every week to eat fish, play 
cards, and sail about on the lake in two little pleasure-boats." 
Besides the subscription house — known as the Club House 
later on — there were only two other European houses. She 
walked to the beach to see the catamarans and the cata- 
maran men. " Medals," she said, " are given to such of the 
boatmen as have saved drowning persons, or have dis- 
tinguished themselves in conveying papers or passengers 
through the surf in dangerous weather." 

As regards the English at Madras, it seemed to her that 
they had "a great deal more of external elegance than at 
Bombay, but, the same influences operating on the society, I 
.find it neither better nor worse " : — 

I am told that it was once more agreeable. I do not wonder that 
it should have altered, for, during the late unhappy disputes between 
the Government and the Army, everybody sided with one party or the 
other, which of course begot a jealousy still rankling in the minds of 


all. I am happy that we were not here at the crisis ; for though every 
good citizen must wish, where the Civil and Military powers come to 
an open rupture, that the former should prevail, I cannot help feeling 
that, in this instance, the Army was in the outset the injured party, 
and as some of my friends were of the same way of thinking, I am 
glad I was not here to countenance, by participating in, feelings of 
which it was so necessary to get the better. 

She attended a public Ball at the Pantheon, and noticed 
that it was very well conducted. She described the Pantheon 
as being a handsome building. It contained a ball-room ; a 
"very pretty" theatre, card-room, and verandahs ; and it was 
used as a Lodge of " modern Masons, among whom almost 
every man in the Army and Navy who visits Madras enrols 
himself." Balls were held there occasionally all the year. 
The only other place for the meeting of European residents at 
that time was the Mount Road. It was " smooth as a bowling- 
green, and planted on each side with banyan and yellow tulip 
trees." It was then the fashion for all the gentlemen and 
ladies of Madras " to repair in their gayest equipages to the 
Mount Road, and after, driving furiously along, they loiter 
round and round the Cenotaph " — to the memory of Lord 
Cornwallis — " for an hour, partly for exercise, and partly for 
the opportunity of flirting and displaying their fine clothes, 
after which they go home, to meet again every day in the 
year." Then she touched upon other habits of local beauty 
and fashion in 1810 : — 

But the greatest lounge at Madras is during the visiting hours, 
from 9 o'clock till 1 1, when the young men go from house to house to 
retail the news, ask commissions to town for the ladies, bring a bauble 
that has been newly set, or one which the lady has obliquely hinted, 
at a shopping party the day before, she would willingly purchase 
but that her husband does not like her to spend so much, and which she 
thus obtains from some young man, a quarter of whose monthly salary 
is probably sacrificed to his gallantry. When all the visitors who have 
any business are gone to their offices, another troop of idlers appears, 
still more frivolous than the former, and remains till tiffin, at 2 o'clock, 
when the real dinner is eaten, and wines and strong beer from England 
are freely drunk. The ladies then retire, and for the most part undress 
and lay down with a novel in their hands, over which they generally 
sleep. About 5 o'clock the master of the family returns from his 
office ; the lady dresses herself for the Mount Road, returns, dresses, 


dines, and goes from table to bed, unless there be a Ball, when she 
dresses again, and dances all night ; and this, I assure you, is a fair, 
very fair, account of the usual life of a Madras lady. 

She left Madras, on August 26, in H.M.S. Illustrious for 
Calcutta, and after a stay in Bengal of four months, which 
she employed travelling, sketching, and taking notes, she 
embarked for Madras on December 23, and arrived on the 
30th sufficiently near to see the ships in the Roads. " But 
it came on to blow so hard that we found it impossible to 
approach the Roads, and accordingly stood out to sea, with 
a considerable leak in our ship, and her foremast so frail 
that we were afraid to set much sail on it." It was not 
until she had undergone the discomfort of a week of pitching 
and tossing that she was able to land again at Madras. 
She found a summons awaiting her to return to England 
by the first opportunity ; and she employed part of the 
interval before she could re-embark in a visit to the Seven 
Pagodas, thirty-six miles south of Madras. She was con- 
ducted over the relics of the ancient town by a Brahmin 
servant of Colonel Colin Mackenzie ; and she remained there 
three days, braving the heat of the sun, and making a 
thorough survey of the place and the neighbourhood, which 
she minutely and graphically described in her Journal. On 
January 15, early in the morning, she left the tents to walk 
to a rock which she had been told was only two miles off, 
but she found it nearer four : — 

The way is dreary and desolate ; not a shrub, nor a tree, nor even 
a large stone to rest the eye upon ; nothing but deep sand, with 
here and there a few patches of thick-leaved plants, and the surf 
beating with violence on the shore. ... I was really fatigued with 
the length and heat of my walk, having neglected to carry even an 
umbrella ; but some of the party at the tents sent a tongon, or open 
chair, carried like a palankeen, to meet me, and I got into it, about 
a mile and a half from the rock, and slept most comfortably till 
breakfast, after which I again set out to see the temple of Varaha. 

She left the Seven Pagodas with some regret, as " there are 
many curious things I have not yet seen, and figures lying 
in every field." She remained in Madras four more weeks, 


and then, on February 19, at noon, went to take leave of 
Admiral Drury, who had interested himself to procure a passage 
home for her in H.M.S. Barbadoes. She had a flattering 
"send off" :— 

I found assembled in his house the friends with whom I had 
been living, and all the Naval Captains on the Station, whom he had 
invited to a collation at my farewell visit. He had often said that no 
woman left alone, where he had the command, should have reason 
to think that he had forgotten that he was a husband and a father ; 
and he acted up to his professions ; for besides the attention he 
showed me in collecting my friends around me to take leave, and 
accompanying me himself to the beach, I found on board stores of 
every kind, sheep, milch goats, wine, preserves, pickles, fruit, vege- 
tables : in short, everything that could possibly add to the comfort 
and convenience of a long voyage, and many of the things packed 
and directed by his own hand. I hardly thought I could have felt so 
much at leaving India as I did when I embarked at Madras ; but 
there is something in leaving even a disagreeable place for ever that 
makes one sad without being able to account for it — much more 
when that place contains friends with whom one has been in daily 
intercourse, and from whom one has received kindness. 

The fair traveller might have spared her friends in Madras 
the rather ambiguous remark about their place of domicile, 
especially as she appears to have been treated very well 
there. But she was young — only twenty-three — when she 
wrote, and later on she may have realized that the world 
contains many worse places than Madras. She reached 
England safely on June 27, and at once closed her Journal, 
" well satisfied," she said, " that this moment is one of the 
happiest of my life, and unwilling to write more lest I should 
have to record a less agreeable termination of my travels." 
The Journal was published in 181 2 by Constable, in Edin- 
burgh, and Longmans in London, illustrated by good steel 
engravings from her excellent sketches. In 1814 she published 
Letters on India that dealt exclusively with Northern 
India. She also wrote Three Months in the Environs of 
Rome ; the Memoirs of Poussin ; a History of Spain ; an 
account of her travels in Chili and Brazil, Little Arthur's 
History of England, and other works. 

Captain Graham, who had remained on foreign service 

Painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. (unfinished) 

Wife of Sir Augustus Calcott, R.A 


when his wife returned home, joined her in England about 
the year 1818, and they travelled together in Italy in 1819, 
and set out in 1821 in the Doris, the ship that he commanded, 
for South America. He died off Cape Horn in April, 1822, 
and his widow returned home, and spent the five following 
years in active literary work. In 1827 she married Augustus 
Callcott, R.A., landscape painter, " son of a bricklayer, and 
brother of a musician," who, ten years later, was Knighted 
by Queen Victoria on Her Majesty's accession to the Throne. 
But previous to this Lady Callcott had become a confirmed 
invalid ; and in 1842 she died at her husband's house and 
birthplace, the Gravel Pits, Kensington. 1 The (London) 
AthcncBum when writing of her, shortly after her death, 
said : — 

Few women had seen so much of the world, or travelled so much, 
and none, perhaps, have turned the results of their activity to more 
benevolent account. . . . Noble, direct, generous, forgiving, quick, 
sensitive, kind, sympathetic, and religious, all that knew her will hold 
her memory in affectionate remembrance. She was an artist both in 
feeling and in practice, an excellent linguist, and her memory was 
extremely accurate and tenacious. 

Mr. James Wathen 

Six months after the departure from Madras of Mrs. 
Graham, Mr. James Wathen, of Hereford, arrived there in 
the course of a voyage in the E. I. Co's. ship Hope from 
Gravesend to China and back. He published 2 his "Jour- 
nal " on his return home. In the course of it he said : — " Mrs. 
Graham, in her entertaining Journal, seems to condemn the 
mode of living among the ladies of Madras, on account of its 
insipidity, monotony and indolence. She had undoubtedly," 
he proceeded to say, " more opportunities and greater facility 

1 There is an unfinished portrait of Lady Callcott in the National 
Portrait Gallery which, it is stated by the Director, was ** painted at 
Rome in two hours by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.," and was 
bequeathed to the nation by Lady Eastlake. A swantype repro- 
duction of it is given on the opposite page. 

2 Journal of a Voyage in 181 1 and 1812 to Madras and China. By 
James Wathen. London: Nichols, 18 14. 


of observing and mixing with female society than myself ; 
yet I had the honour of being introduced to many parties 
of mixed company, but I never witnessed that languor and 
insipidity of which she complains." 

One day he dined at the " superb garden-house " of General 
Trepaud, where he met a " very elegant company of ladies 
and gentlemen." The weather was extremely warm ; the 
insects were very troublesome ; " several frogs, and one small 
poisonous serpent made their way into the saloon in which we 
were assembled." Yet the evening passed away in the most 
lively and agreeable manner. " One lady, who possessed a 
most melodious voice, sang and played several airs ; and two 
other ladies entertained the company with some beautiful 
lessons on the pianoforte. The intervals were filled up 
with the sprightly conversation of the ladies, or the more 
scientific remarks of the General and his friends." Mr. 
Wathen attended a Ball at Government House, " where all 
the beauty and fashion of Madras were concentrated " ; 
and he was " much gratified by the appearance of a 
great number of my lovely country-women, who displayed 
their charms to great advantage in the mazes of the 
sprightly dance." He was entertained at Brodie Castle by 
Sir John Newbolt (one of the Judges of the Supreme Court) 
and Lady Newbolt ; and was charmed with that " very 
noble house," which had been built at great expense by Mr. 
Brodie, a local merchant, who having been impoverished by 
misadventures was living — at the time of Mr. Wathen's visit — 
" at Madras in a comparatively humble station." He waited 
upon Sir George Hilaro Barlow, the Bengal Civil servant, who 
was Governor of Madras, and was " much surprised and pleased 
at the unostentatious, yet sufficiently dignified appearance 
and conduct " of that personage. " He favours and encour- 
ages the arts ; but where money, and the acquisition of fortune 
by the most expeditious means, are the principal, nay the only 
objects among the Europeans, the arts must languish and be 
neglected." He was received by Lady Barlow " in the most 
polite and condescending manner," so that he left Govern- 
ment House " with the most grateful sense of her kindness." 


He attended the service at the Fort Church one Sunday 
morning, and found many carriages and palanquins near 
the doors, and he noticed that the ladies formed a large 
part of the congregation that rilled the sacred edifice. Soon 
after he was seated a military Band was heard announcing 
the approach of the Governor, escorted by his guards, and 
accompanied by his Aides-de-Camp. " On their entry into 
the church the Band ceased playing, and a voluntary was 
performed on the organ, while the Governor took his seat on a 
chair of state under a canopy." The ladies occupied the centre 
of the church ; on one side the Company's Naval Officers were 
ranged, and on the other the Military Officers, all in full 
uniform. The heat was oppressive ; and though the punkahs 
were kept in continual motion, and produced a current of air, 
yet the temperature and the crowded state of the church 
rendered his situation "almost intolerable." The service over 
he was carried in his palanquin to the residence, near San 
Thome, of Captain Bisse, also a native of Hereford, Assistant 
Quartermaster-General, who showed him much hospitality 
during the three months — July to September — that he re- 
mained in Madras. This house is the one now known as 
the Capper House Hotel, for Mr. Wathen mentioned that, 
" it was built by Colonel Capper, the geographer " ; and 
as it seemed to him " to afford a fair specimen of such 
buildings in this country, though it is much superior to what 
are generally called garden-houses," he gave a minute de- 
scription of it. Elsewhere he stated that the houses in 
Madras, as well as the garden-houses in the country, were all 
flat-roofed, and " people often gave their entertainments on 
those roofs, where the guests sit covered with an awning." 
The bungalows, he added, " are inferior residences, with a 
thatched roof of cocoa or palm-tree leaves, having invariably 
a verandah, and these dwellings are very frequently con- 
structed with great taste and elegance." 

He was introduced to Mr. Corselus, a " miniature portrait- 
painter, who resided in Persewachum." ' This gentleman 
was formerly a Military Officer in the Company's Service ; 
but his passion for the arts induced him to lay down his sword, 


and assume the pencil. He had been successful beyond his 
expectations. His price for miniatures was forty guineas, 
and he had as much employment as he desired. His collection 
of pictures, drawings, miniatures, etc., was considerable." 
Then the traveller made the acquaintance of Hommagee 
Hadje Panda, an eminent diamond-merchant, then on the eve 
of leaving Madras, who gave a farewell entertainment to his 
European friends. Previous to dinner being served on the 
roof of the house at 8 o'clock, there was a performance by 
dancing-girls, one of whom struck Mr. Wathen as being 
" eminently beautiful ; her olive complexion was forgot, even 
by us, the cold natives of the North, when we contemplated 
the lovely contour of her person, which she continually 
changed into the most graceful and classical attitudes, re- 
minding the spectator of the Nymphs and Bacchantes of the 
Greeks." He was also entertained in a hospitable manner 
by Mr. Griffiths, " a very opulent merchant, the only surviving 
partner of the House of Hope and Company," the founder 
of which, Mr. Hope, his wife, and family were lost in the 
Lady Jane Douglas off Mauritius, on the voyage from Madras 
to London, in 1810. 

Mr. Wathen left Madras with no small regret, and carried 
away with him impressions that were more appreciative 
than those which, under similar circumstances, Mrs. 
Graham placed on record. He said : — 

I own that I never parted from a place which pleased me but I 
felt a melancholy sensation in the reflection that I might never see it 
again. This sensation was most acute on my leaving Madras, where I 
had met with the kindest hospitality from considerable persons, of 
religions and countries widely separated ; from Hindus and Mahom- 
edans, from Persians, and in particular from my own countrymen, 
when I reflected that I should never more revisit them, or the land 
which they inhabited. Full of these melancholy reflections, and at 
the same time of gratitude for the kindness I had experienced, I went 
on board. . . . The moon shone with all her lustre, and by her 
light I could faintly see the extensive Fort and Custom House of 
Madras, the Black Town, and some of the adjacent villages, where I 
had spent many very pleasant days. I retired at length into my 
cabin, after bidding my friends at Madras an affectionate farewell. 


1^ f^H 

'• ■ . ! -'■*'' ■ '-'.>,•'" 

?F : v 

JJHl-. ■■ ijgJ»flfc; tfKf 4M 

From an old painting 

Artist unknown. 

Founder of Arbuthnot & Co. Madras. 



It is stated in a previous page that in 1804 Mr. Robert 
Arbuthnot, Chief Secretary of the Government of Ceylon, was 
associated with the presentation to the Rev. James Cordiner, 
at Colombo, of a farewell address and a piece of plate pre- 
vious to that gentleman's departure ; and also that, on Mr. 
Cordiner's return to Madras, after an absence of five years, 
he met Mr. George Arbuthnot, who hospitably entertained 
him during the three months that passed before he left for 
England. These Arbuthnots were brothers, Robert being the 
eldest, and George the youngest of the four sons of Robert 
Arbuthnot, a merchant of Peterhead, who died in 1803. 
Their grandfather was another Robert Arbuthnot, also a 
merchant of Peterhead, who purchased the lands of Haddow, 
in the parish of St. Fergus ; and who was a son of John 
Arbuthnot, also of Peterhead ; who was a son of Robert 
Arbuthnot, of St. Fergus ; who was a son of Robert Arbuthnot 
of Scotts Mill, Banffshire ; who was a son of John Arbuthnot, 
of Rora, near Peterhead, a Notary Public in 1598, and factor 
of the Lord Marischal ; who was a son of Robert Arbuthnot, 
also of Rora, about three and a half centuries ago. 

Mr. Cordiner's friend, Mr. Robert Arbuthnot, was Secretary 
to Sir Robert Keith when the latter was Ambassador at Vienna, 
and he held the appointment of Chief Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of Ceylon from 1800 to 1807, during the Governorship 
of the Hon'ble Frederick North, afterwards Lord Guilford, 
who, like himself, was a bachelor. After returning home Mr. 
Arbuthnot was honoured with the friendship of the Duke of 
Sussex, (the favourite uncle of Queen Victoria, when a girl), 
and accompanied His Royal Highness in some of his tours in 


Europe. Ultimately he was lost in H.M.S. Cadiz, under cir- 
cumstances with which I am not acquainted. Mr. George 
Arbuthnot, Mr. Cordiner's kind host in Madras, was the founder 
there of a firm that has now been very prominently identi- 
fied for upwards of a century with the commercial develop- 
ment of Southern India. 

Born in 1772, Mr. George Arbuthnot accompanied his brother 
Robert, in 1800, on his voyage with Lord Guilford to Ceylon. 
He had already acquired considerable mercantile experience, 
and made numerous friends, including Sir Coutts Trotter, a 
leading figure in the world of commerce, at whose sugges- 
tion it was that he resolved to spend a portion of his life in the 
East. It was his lifelong habit to keep a journal in a neat 
and conscientious manner, and this record shows that he had 
a pleasant voyage, and was charmed with his fellow-passengers. 
Having spent a little time with his brother at Colombo, and 
learned something of the opportunities which offered at the 
historic capital of the Presidency of Madras, he proceeded 
thither, and became associated in business with a Mr. Lautour, 
the founder of an old firm bearing that gentleman's name. 
On Mr. Lautour's retirement from business, the firm was re- 
constituted under the name of Arbuthnot & Co. Its success, 
which was due to Mr. Arbuthnot's genius for business, led 
eventually to the starting of numerous offshoots, including 
Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co., of Calcutta ; Messrs. 
Ewart, Latham & Co., of Bombay ; Messrs. Arbuthnot, Latham 
& Co., of London (of which the late Mr. Alfred Latham, 
Governor of the Bank of England, was the second partner) ; 
Messrs. Ogilvy, Gillanders & Co., and Messrs. Arbuthnot, 
Ewart & Co., of Liverpool (in which several members of the 
Gladstone family have been partners) ; and Messrs. Gladstone, 
Latham and Co., of Manchester. 

At length, in 1823, impelled thereto by his increasing domes- 
tic responsibilities, Mr. Arbuthnot, although still in the prime 
of life, resolved to return home " for good and all," and spend 
there, among kith and kin, such further years as might be 
vouchsafed to him. Being British born and British bred he 
naturally preferred the " old country " to the " land of Ind " ; 


but he ever cherished a lively interest in the commercial and 
moral welfare of the place where he had spent the most active, 
and not the least happy period, extending to twenty-two years, 
of his life. The duties connected with his association with the 
Madras firm compelled him to settle down within easy reach 
of the head-centre of British commerce, rather than in Scotland, 
as might have been more congenial to the feelings of one born 
north of the Tweed. He acquired, therefore, a small property 
named Elderslie, in a charming part of Surrey, being at the 
foot of Leith Hill, where he spent his summers, migrating to 
his house in Upper Wimpole Street, London, for the winter 

In this comparative retirement, with the diversion of occa- 
sional visits among friends in the North, and some Continental 
journeyings in France, Spain, Portugal and Italy, accompanied 
by members of his family, Mr. Arbuthnot passed the remaining 
two decades of his life. It was not in his nature to wish " the 
applause of list'ning senates to command," and he therefore 
declined invitations to stand for Parliament. He took, how- 
ever, a keen interest in political matters, and was a good, but 
by no means a narrow-minded Conservative. He held the 
Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel, as statesmen, in 
special regard. One way and another he afforded an admirable 
example of the best type of British merchants of his day. He 
possessed the " pen of the ready writer " ; he wrote an excellent 
" hand " ; and he did not mind trouble when conducting a 
large correspondence with business or private friends at home 
or abroad. He was an early riser, and a great economiser of 
time, while his habits were well calculated to maintain the 
vigour of his mind and body. He was a Justice of the Peace 
of a conscientious type ; and, among other things, he was a 
Director of the Palladium Life and Fire Insurance Company 
(now absorbed in the North British and Mercantile Insurance 
Company) ; and an original member of the Oriental Club. 
At the time of the inauguration of Joint Stock Banks in London, 
other than the Bank of England, he was closely associated 
with the establishment of one of the new institutions ; but 
he withdrew his name upon a suggestion that its appearance 



might not be agreeable to some of his old friends who were 
partners in private banks. 

In common with the founder of the firm of Rothschilds 
(whose eldest son succeeded him as head of the firm at Frank- 
fort, and his four other sons were placed in charge of the off- 
shoots of it in London, Paris, Vienna, and Naples, respectively) 
Mr. Arbuthnot believed in the hereditary principle in the 
constitution of mercantile and banking associations, and thus 
it has come to pass that sixteen of his relatives, or descendants, 
have joined the firm in Madras of which he was the greatly 
esteemed progenitor, namely : — 

Colonel Patrick Vans Agnew 

John Fraser 




and nephew. 

George Arbuthnot (jun.) . 

William Reierson Arbuthnot 

Robert Hunter .... 

John Alves Arbuthnot 

Archibald Francis Arbuthnot 

William Urquhart Arbuthnot 

John Vans Agnew . 

William Arbuthnot . 

James Woodgate Arbuthnot 

William Reierson Arbuthnot 

Malcolm Alexander Arbuthnot 

Sir William Wedderburn Arbuthnot,Bart. great- nephew. 

Sir George Gough Arbuthnot . . . great-nephew. 

Reginald James Arbuthnot . . . great- nephew. 

Moreover George Clerk Arbuthnot, nephew, joined the firm 
of Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co., Calcutta, and was also head 
of the firms of Ewart, Latham & Co., Bombay, and Ogilvy, 
Gillanders & Co., and Arbuthnot, Ewart & Co., both of 
Liverpool. The above-mentioned John Alves Arbuthnot, 
and Archibald Francis Arbuthnot, nephews, and William Reier- 
son Arbuthnot (jun.), grandson, after leaving the Madras firm, 
joined the firm of Arbuthnot, Latham & Co., London. The 
latter firm was also joined by John De Monte Arbuthnot, son, 
Charles George Arbuthnot, Hugh Littleton Arbuthnot and 
Herbert Robinson Arbuthnot, grandsons, and High Gougl 
Arbuthnot and Lionel Gough Arbuthnot, great-nephews 01 
Mr. Arbuthnot. 

One of Mr. Arbuthnot's daughters married the second 


Viscount Gough, and was the mother of the present Viscount : 
and one of his nephews, Mr. Archibald Arbuthnot, married a 
daughter of Field-Marshal Viscount Gough, K.P., and became 
the father of Sir George Gough Arbuthnot, the present head 
of the firm. Mr. William Urquhart Arbuthnot, another 
nephew, was for several years a member of the Civil Ser- 
vice of Madras ; then joined the firm ; eventually retired ; 
returned to England ; was appointed, in 1858, an original 
Member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India, 
on the transfer of the Government of India from the East 
India Company to the Crown, which appointment he 
held until his death in 1874. William Arbuthnot, a 
brother of the founder of the firm, was Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh in 1822, on the occasion of the memor- 
able visit of King George IV. The " First Gentleman in 
Europe," as His Majesty loved to be described, was right 
loyally entertained at a civic banquet in " Modern Athens " ; 
and, after his health had been toasted with all honours, and 
he had acknowledged the compliment, he rose once more, 
and, without having intimated his intention to bestow the 
honour, said : " I take this opportunity, my Lords and 
Gentlemen, of proposing the health of the Lord Provost. 
Sir William Arbuthnot, Baronet, and the Corporation of 
Edinburgh." Sir William Wedderburn Arbuthnot, son of 
the second Baronet by a daughter of Field-Marshal Sir John 
Fitzgerald, G.C.B., retired from 18th Hussars, in which he 
was a Major, in order to join the firm. His son, Captain 
Sir Robert Keith Arbuthnot, R.N., is at present in command 
of H.M.S. Victory at Plymouth. 

The Arbuthnots have corpuscles of Royal blood in their 
veins. The ramifications of Royal Families become so nume- 
rous as centuries glide away that many a humble-minded 
individual, who has not a ghost of an idea of such being the 
case, may be entitled to be included in the large category of 
persons descended from the famous Norman who carried out a 
raid with a success that may make Dr. Leander Jameson, 
C.B., of Transvaal fame, green with envy when he thinks 
about it. We are all of Tennyson's way of thinking : — 


Howe'er it be, it seems to me 

'Tis only noble to be good ; 
Kind hearts are more than coronets, 

And simple faith than Norman blood. 

So the majority of people take no pains to trace their ancestry. 
Like Topsy, in Uncle Tom's Cabin, they do not fash their 
minds about their origin. " I 'specs I growed," said that 
young person. They are content to be judged, not by their 
descent, but by their deeds. Possibly they would not pro- 
test loudly if they were shown to be related to " persons of 
quality " in days gone by. But they hold with Burns that, 
after all said and done, " rank is but the guinea's stamp, a 
man's a man for a' that," since : — 

A King can make a belted Knight 

A Marquis, Duke, and a* that, 
But an honest man's above his might, 

Guid faith, he mauna fa' that. 

" For a' that " it is interesting to learn of unassuming 
acquaintances being off-shoots of historic Royalty. 

It will be remembered that William the Conqueror was the 
father of King Henry I. ; who was the grandfather of Henry 
II. ; who was the father of John ; who was the father of Henry 
III. ; who was the father of Edward I., rudely called " Long- 
shanks." King Edward married, firstly, Eleanor, daughter 
of King Ferdinand III. of Castile, by whom he had three 
sons (including King Edward II.), and five daughters ; and, 
secondly, Margaret, daughter of King Philip III. of France, 
by whom he had two sons, Thomas (whom he created Earl of 
York) and Edmund. Having been born at that place in 1301, 
the latter is known in history as " Edmund of Woodstock." 
The King intended to confer upon him the rich Earldom of 
Cornwall, but he was prevented by death from carrying out 
this project, and his son and successor, Edward II., bestowed 
it upon his own favourite, Piers Gaveston, instead of upon his 
half-brother, then six years of age. But the new King event- 
ually made Edmund successively Lord of the Castle and Manor 
of Knaresborough, Constable of Dover Castle, Warden of the 
Cinque Ports, Sheriff of Rutland, Lieutenant of the Northern 


Marches, Chief Commissioner of Array, in Cumberland, as 
well as Earl of Kent. He also employed him on various 
embassies. The Earl married a daughter of Lord Wake of 
Liddell, by whom he had two sons and one daughter. He 
was present at the Coronation of his young nephew, King 
Edward III., in Westminster Abbey in 1327. Soon after- 
wards he became involved in a conspiracy against the Queen 
Mother, Isabella, and her paramour, Roger Mortimer, Earl 
of March ; and being inveigled into a trap which furnished a 
plausible excuse for bringing him to trial before Parliament 
then sitting at Winchester, he was found guilty of high 
treason, and sentenced to death. The sentence was con- 
firmed by the Queen Mother as Regent, and he was led to 
a spot outside the walls for execution. But, as no one dared 
to accept the odious office of executioner of a Royal Prince, 
he was kept there, in terrible suspense, from morning until 
evening. Then a condemned criminal, on the promise of 
pardon for himself, cut off his head. He was only twenty- 
eight years of age. He was not a wise or popular per- 
sonage, but his cruel fate increased public aversion to the 
Queen and Mortimer ; and a year later, when the revolt 
against their tyranny succeeded, the latter was decapitated, 
notwithstanding the Queen's entreaty to the young King : — 
" Sweet son, have pity on gentle Mortimer." 

The elder son of the Earl of Kent succeeded to his title and 
estates ; but, dying aged six, he was succeeded by his brother, 
who died aged twelve ; whereupon they devolved upon the 
sister, Joanna, who thus became Countess of Kent and Lady 
Wake of Liddell in her own right. She was endowed, not only 
with wealth, but also with great beauty, and she is known in 
history as the " Fair Maid of Kent." She had many suitors. 
For a time she halted between two opinions, as represented 
by Montacute, second Earl of Salisbury, and Sir Thomas 
Holland, the Steward of Lord Salisbury's household. Event- 
ually she gave the preference to the latter, who was a son of 
Sir Robert Holland of Holland, in Lancashire, and who, on his 
marriage with the Fair Maid, assumed, as her husband, the title 
of Earl of Kent. He was successful in love and fortunate 


in war, for he saw much active service as a soldier, especially 
at the battle of Crecy, where he commanded a division under 
Edward the Black Prince. Eventually he was appointed 
Governor of Creyk, in Normandy, and there it was that he 
died in 1360. His widow, who was with him at his death, 
returned home, and eventually married the Black Prince, by 
whom she had no children. 

By her first marriage she had three sons, the eldest of whom, 
Thomas, eventually succeeded, at her death, to the title of 
Earl of Kent. He married, and one daughter was born to him, 
Margaret Holland, who married John Beaufort, Marquis of 
Dorset, by whom she had a daughter, named Joane. Joane 
married, firstly, King James I. of Scotland (thus becoming 
Queen of Scotland), by whom she had a daughter, Princess 
Arabella ; and, secondly, Sir James Stewart, the Black Knight 
of Lorn, by whom she had a son, Sir James Stewart, Earl 
of Athole. Princess Arabella had a son, Alexander, third 
Earl of Huntly ; while to her half-brother, Sir James 
Stewart, Earl of Athole, a daughter, named Janet, was born. 
The half-cousins, Alexander and Janet, made a match of it, 
and had a son, John, Lord Gordon, who wedded Princess 
Margaret, daughter of King James IV. of Scotland. George, 
son of Lord Gordon and the Princess, became fourth Earl 
of Huntly, as well as High Chancellor of Scotland. He 
married a daughter of Lord Keith, by whom he had a son, 
who succeeded him as Marquis and High Chancellor, and 
married a daughter of the Duke of Chatelherault. His son 
became the first Marquis of Huntly, and married a daughter 
of the Duke of Lennox. He was succeeded in turn by his 
son George, the second Marquis, who married a daughter of 
the seventh Earl of Argyll, and was executed in 1649, shortly 
after the execution of King Charles I. 

The ill-fated Marquis left a son, who eventually became 
Duke of Gordon ; and a daughter, Mary, who married Adam 
Urquhart, of Meldrum, by whom she had a son, John 
Urquhart of Meldrum. This John Urquhart was the father 
of William Urquhart : who was the father of Jane Urquhart : 
who, marrying John Urquhart of Craigston and Cromarty, 


became the mother of Mary Urquhart, who married the above- 
mentioned Robert Arbuthnot of Peterhead, the father of the 
founder of the firm bearing his name. So, when the present 
head of that firm attends the King's Levees, he has the 
honour of making obeisance to his very distant kinsman, the 
illustrious occupant of the Throne. Moreover, he is married 
to a lady who, besides being granddaughter of the eighth Earl 
of Cork, is daughter of the Hon'ble Eleanor Vere Boyle — 
the " E.V.B." who has from time to time presented the world 
with fascinating descriptions of rural life in Buckingham- 
shire and Scotland in the vein of Gilbert White, of Selbome. 
Lady Arbuthnot has this advantage over her husband, that 
whereas, as has been shown, he is descended from King 
Edward I., by that monarch's second wife, Queen Margaret, 
she, as a granddaughter of Alexander Gordon, of Ellon 
Castle, Aberdeenshire, is descended from that monarch by 
his first wife, Queen Eleanor. Consequently, their daughter, 
who recently married Captain the Hon'ble Robert Lygon, 
brother of Earl Beauchamp, is descended from both 

The Arbuthnot family owes its reputation not only to the 
premier mercantile firm of South India, but also to many 
members of it who have in various public capacities deserved 
well of, and received well from the State. This has been 
especially noticeable in the Presidency of Madras, where 
several Arbuthnots have from time to time served in the 
local Army, and where one representative of the family achieved 
a distinction in the local Civil Service which may not be soon 
surpassed. Robert Arbuthnot, of Scotts Mills, who died in 
1682, aged seventy-two, had by his wife, Beatrix Gordon, four 
sons, of whom the eldest was Alexander Arbuthnot, who took 
holy orders, and became in 1663 the Minister of Holywood, 
which benefice he retained two years. He was then appointed 
Minister of Aburbothenoth, or Arbuthnot, an ancient parish 
in Kincardineshire. He continued to discharge his minis- 
terial duties until 1689, but being a Jacobite, he came under 
the displeasure of King William III., after that monarch had 
hustled his father-in-law, King James II., off the Throne : 


and he was consequently deprived of his living by the Privy 
Council. Thereupon he made the best of mundane things 
by retiring to the Castle of Hall Green, near Bervie, and 
purchasing the small estate of Kinghornie, where he 
lived the quiet life of a country gentleman until 1691, when 
he died, leaving four sons and five daughters. 

The eldest son, John Arbuthnot, having studied medicine at 
Aberdeen and graduated at St. Andrew's, went to London to 
try his fortune, and for a time eked out a livelihood by teaching 
mathematics, and by the production of essays. He showed 
such literary ability and scientific knowledge that in 1704 he 
had the honour conferred upon him of being elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, at the early age of thirty-seven. He 
then took to the serious pursuit of medicine, instead of mathe- 
matics, and rose in his profession. By what men call good 
luck he was at Epsom one day when Prince George of Den- 
mark, the Consort of Queen Anne — who had succeeded to the 
Throne in 1702, but who did not follow her sister's example 
of allowing her husband to share it with her — was suddenly 
taken ill, and he prescribed for him so dexterously that Her 
Majesty's heart was touched, and in 1705 she appointed him 
her Physician Extraordinary, and, in 1709, one of her four 
Physicians in Ordinary. He gained the friendship of Swift, 
Pope, Gay, and other geniuses of that brilliant literary period, 
and he is supposed to have been associated with the production 
of Tristram Shandy. His professional skill did not avail to 
save the Queen from the misery of giving birth to sixteen 
children, all of whom died at birth, or in infancy, or in child- 
hood ; but he retained his high place in her regard ; and he 
was present at her last illness in Kensington Palace with the 
other Royal Physicians, Sir Richard Blackmore, Dr. Shadwell, 
and Dr. Mead, as well as the Bishop of London, the Duke of 
Argyll, the Duke of Somerset, the Duke of Shrewsbury and 
Lord Bolingbroke. The Queen was tired of life, and Dr. 
Arbuthnot in a letter to Dean Swift said : — " I believe sleep 
was never more welcome to a weary traveller than death was to 
her." He now lost his place at Court, and thought it prudent 
to retire to Paris, while King George I., who never succeeded 


in mastering English, settled down as King of England. 
But returning to London he recovered his good practice 
among people of wealth and fashion, and made most of 
them agree with Swift that " he has more wit than we all 
have, and his humanity is equal to his wit." At last he was 
taken seriously ill ; and he had occasion to say that, " a 
recovery in my case, and at my age is impossible, the kindest 
wish of my friends is euthanasia." Then, at the age of sixty- 
eight, he died, at Hampstead, in February, 1734. His elder 
son, George Arbuthnot — who is said to have been as 
melancholy in manner as his father was cheerful — one 
of the executors of Pope's Will, became Secondary in the 
Remembrancer's Office, and died, unmarried,, in 1779, aged 

Robert Arbuthnot, the second son of the Rev. Alexander 
Arbuthnot, was born at Arbuthnot in 1669, and married in 
1726. He took, like his grandfather, to commerce ; and 
having, owing probably to his Jacobite proclivities, left Eng- 
land, and settled at Rouen, he there established himself as a 
banker. He died, leaving a son, John Arbuthnot, a Knight 
of the Order of St. Louis of France. His next brother, 
Alexander, born at Arbuthnot, died in infancy, as also did 
another brother, similarly named Alexander. Then came the 
youngest brother, George Arbuthnot. Owing doubtless to the 
influence of his eldest brother, the Royal Physician, he 
entered Queen Anne's bodyguard, but on her death he retired, 
probably with that brother, to France, to await the turn of 
events. Eventually he entered the service of the East India 
Company, and went to India, where he did so well that on 
his return home he established himself as a merchant in 
London. He left one son, also named John, who not only 
became an Inspector of the Irish Linen Board, but emulated 
King Henry VIII. by marrying five wives, by the last of whom 
— daughter of an Under Secretary of State (who was a banker), 
and niece of the Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland — 
he had five sons and as many daughters. The eldest son, 
George Arbuthnot, born in 1764, went to India ; and 
while in that country married a daughter of General Brisco 


of the Coldstream Guards, and had a daughter, who married 
Sir John Lister Kaye, and died in 1867. 

The second son of John Arbuthnot, the Inspector under the 
Linen Board (described as being of Ravensbury, Mitcham, 
Surrey, and of Rockfleet Castle, County Mayo), was named 
Charles. He was born in 1767, educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, and commenced his public career as a precis writer 
in the Foreign Office. Two years later, or in 1795, he entered 
Parliament as Member for East Looe, and gradually worked 
his way up to the Under-Secretaryship of State for Foreign 
Affairs, and then to the Ambassadorship at Constantinople, 
where he was sworn of the Privy Council. He returned to 
England, after only three years' service as Ambassador ; but 
he had done such good work during the time that the Govern- 
ment granted him a pension of £2,000 a year. He re-entered 
Parliament as Member for Eye. He was Joint Secretary of 
the Treasury from 1809 until 1817, Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster from 1828 to 1830, and a member of the Privy 
Council. He and his wife were great friends of the Duke 
of Wellington. The Marchioness of Salisbury (mother of 
the late Prime Minister) mentions in one of her letters (Salis- 
bury MSS.) from Hatfield House, dated August 2, 1834, 
that the Duke of Wellington — who was then sixty-five years 
of age, and had been a widower three years — 

came down to dinner in high spirits. He told us Mrs. Arbuthnot had 
been ill at Woodford, with an attack of the nature of cholera, but was- 
better. I had just gone to bed, with the other ladies, when an express 
arrived to the Duke with the intelligence of Mrs. Arbuthnot's death. 
He threw himself in the greatest agitation on the sofa, as Lord Salis- 
bury told me, and the letter on the floor ; and then rose and walked 
a few minutes about the room, almost sobbing, after which he retired. 
In the morning Lord Salisbury got a note from him saying he must 
go to Mr. Arbuthnot, and he left for Woodford about half-past eight 
on Sunday morning. It is a dreadful loss to him ; for whether there 
is any foundation or not for the stories usually believed about the 
early part of their liaison, she was certainly now become to him no 
more than a tried and valued friend, to whom he was sincerely 
attached. Her house was his home ; and, with all his glory and great- 
ness, he never had a home. His nature is domestic, and, as he advances 
in years, some female society and some fireside to which he can always, 
resort become necessary to him. 

Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 1822. 

Ag; Governor of Madras. 1872. 

Commander-in-Chief, Madras, 1886-91 

Now of Messrs Arbuthnot & Co. 


After his wife's death, Mr. Charles Arbuthnot was pre- 
vailed upon by the Duke to make Apsley House his per- 
manent place of residence in London, and it was there that 
he died in 1850, aged eighty-three. There is at Apsley House 
a miniature of Mrs. Arbuthnot, which, it is said, the Duke 
constantly wore round his neck, suspended by a chain of 
her dark brown hair. 

There is yet another son of John Arbuthnot, of Ravens- 
bury, Mitcham, about whom something should be said, as he 
was the father or grandfather of several men who did good 
work in Madras. This was Alexander Arbuthnot, M.A., 
of Trinity College, Dublin, first Vicar of Annaghdown and 
Killascobe, then Rector of Crossboyne and Kilcoleman, 
then Archdeacon of Aghadive, then Dean of Croyne, and 
lastly Bishop and Doctor of Divinity. He was born in 1768, 
and died in 1828. He married, in succession, two first 
cousins of the name of Bingham, and by each wife he had 
two sons and two daughters. His second son, George 
Bingham Arbuthnot, entered the Madras Army, became 
Colonel of the 8th Madras Cavalry, and died a full 
General in 1867, leaving a son, Colonel George Arbuthnot, 
Madras Cavalry, at one time Assistant Adjutant-General 
of the Madras Army. The Bishop's second wife died 
in 1877, aged ninety-two, leaving two sons, Sir Alexander 
John Arbuthnot, K.C.S.I., of the Madras Civil Service, 
retired ; x and the late General Sir Charles George Arbuthnot, 

1 He was educated at Rugby and Haileybury College, and was 
appointed to the Madras Civil Service in 1842. He arrived at Madras 
in September of that year, and during the following thirteen years 
he served as Assistant Collector and Magistrate, Malayalam Trans- 
lator to the Government, Secretary to the College and University 
Boards, and Acting Registrar to the Sadar Court. In 1855 he became 
Director of Public Instruction, Madras, and held that position with 
signal distinction for seven years, when he was appointed Chief 
Secretary to the Madras Government, and a member of the Legis- 
lative Council. In 1867 he was appointed a Member of the Madras 
Council, and retained that position for the customary five years. 
From February until May, 1872, he was Provisional Governor of 
Madras during the absence of Lord Napier, the Governor, who acted 


G.C.B., Commander-in-Chief of Madras 1879 to 1884, who 
served with much distinction in the Crimea and Afghanistan. 
Both of the Bishop's younger brothers, Robert and 
Thomas, served in the Peninsular War, were awarded the 
Knight Commandership of the Bath, and appointed Colonels 
of Royal Regiments. Sir Robert Arbuthnot was present, as 
Aide-de-Camp to General (afterwards Lord) Beresford, at the 
capture of the Cape of Good Hope in 1806, and served in 
South America, where he was taken prisoner, and so remained 
eighteen months. On his release he returned home, and 
served on General Beresford's Staff, first as Aide-de-Camp, 
and then as Military Secretary during the Peninsular War. 
He was present at the battles of Corunna, Busaco, Torres- 
Vedras, Albuera, Neville, Neve, Orthes, and Toulouse, and at 
the sieges of Olivenza, Badajoz, and Cuidad Rodrigo. He 
received the gold cross, the war medal, Portuguese and 
Spanish Orders and other honours. He is said to have been 
an " officer of conspicuous gallantry," who " was remarkable 
for his quickness of eye and readiness of resource." As for 
Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, he served in the Peninsula under 
General Picton, who held him in high esteem, and the Duke 
of Wellington gave practical proof of the good opinion that 
he entertained of him. He died a bachelor in 1849, aged 
seventy-three ; but Sir Robert Arbuthnot married, and left 
at his death, in 1853, aged eighty, a son, George Arbuthnot, 
a permanent Officer in the Treasury from 1820 until his death, 
aged sixty-three, in 1865. 

as Viceroy after the assassination of Lord Mayo. He vacated his 
seat in the Madras Council in October, 1872, and retired from the 
Civil Service of Madras in October, 1874. In the following June he 
became a member of the Council of the Governor-General. In 1877 
he was appointed a Councillor of the Empress of India at the Imperial 
Assemblage at Delhi. He vacated his seat in the Viceregal Council 
in April, 1880. Seven years later he was appointed a Member of the 
Council of the Secretary of State for India, and held that position 
for the usual ten years, or until October, 1897. He was appointed 
C.S.I, in 1872; K.C.S.I. in 1872; and CLE. in 1878. He is now, at 
the age of eighty-four, the senior of the Madras Civil Service 


The Globe then published a notice of the career of Mr. 
George Arbuthnot that the Times reproduced, in which it 
was said that he was distinguished for great tact, judgment 
and firmness, and that by these qualities, as well as by his 
remarkable aptitude for business, he had exerted a valuable 
influence — especially as Auditor, since 1850, of the Civil List 
— in checking and controlling public expenditure. " His 
talents, added to his great official knowledge and honesty of 
purpose, were of very material assistance in enabling his 
Department to sustain its position in conflicts " with spend- 
ing Departments of the State, " especially in questions re- 
lating to currency and banking subjects, to which he had 
for many years paid attention, and in which he took a 
peculiar interest." He " had possessed unusual opportunities 
of becoming acquainted with every detail of public business, 
and the experience which he had thus acquired rendered 
him peculiarly fitted to advise the members of Government, 
under whom he served, and to receive their confidence." He 
was an occasional contributor to the Economist. His " style 
was singularly vigorous and clear, and the rapidity with which 
he wrote constituted not the least remarkable of his many 
merits as public servant." He was twice offered the appoint- 
ment of Finance Minister of India, which would have been 
held with peculiar appropriateness by a man of his name, 
attainments and connections ; but he did not consider that 
his age and the delicate state of his health allowed of his 
going to India. " Ripe with the experiences of his long 
official life, but to the last full of vigour and energy, he died 
literally in harness." The Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury placed on record their high sense of his " singular 
and eminent service." This was a few days after society 
had been shocked by news of the instantaneous death at 
Interlaken, from a stroke of lightning, while on her wedding 
tour, of the bride of his kinsman, Captain William Arbuthnot, 
14th Hussars (subsequently Major-General and C.B.), eldest 
son of Mr. Archibald Arbuthnot. The second of Mr. George 
Arbuthnot's three sons is a Colonel of the Royal Artillery. 
The third, now Vicar of Roscommon, was formerly in the 


4th European Light Cavalry, from which he retired with 
the rank of Captain. He also, therefore, is entitled to use 
the family motto of : — " Innocent and True." 

The motto crystallises a romance. The story goes that, 
once upon a time there was a beautiful Queen in Scotland, 
who excited the passion of a villain named Rodingham ; and 
that when she repelled his advances, he introduced a drunken 
leper into her chamber, and then accused her to the King of 
infidelity. The King, being convinced by circumstantial 
evidence of her guilt, condemned her to be " burned at a stake." 
Yet he tempered what he took to be justice with mercy, 
and added : — 

Perhaps I'll take my word again 

And may repent the same, 
If that you'll get a Christian man 

To fight this Rodingham. 

The Queen declared that she had done no wrong, yet she 
feared : — 

There's not a man in all Scotland 
Will fight with him for me. 

But Sir Hugo le Blond (so-called from his flaxen hair) at 
once came forward, and challenged Rodingham to mortal 
combat : — 

They then advanced to fight the duel 

With swords of tempered steel, 
'Til down the blood of Rodingham 

Came running to his heel. 

Before he died he confessed his treachery, and exonerated 
the Queen. So the King's wrath was appeased : — 

The Queen then said imto the King, 

" Arbattle's near the sea ; 
Give it unto the northern knight 

That this day fought for me." 

Then said the King, " Come here, Sir Knight, 

And drink a glass of wine, 
And if Arbattle's not enough 

To it we'll Fordoun join." 


Thus did the Queen's heroic champion become possessed 
of Arbattle, or Aerbothenoth, and took his name therefrom, 
as well as the motto of " Innocent and True," which the 'King 
granted him to commemorate his gallantry. 

Sir Walter Scott gave the ballad in his Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border ; and, though he regarded the story as apoc- 
ryphal, he considered that its antiquity was indubitable. 
" Whether true or false," he said, " the incident narrated is in 
the genuine style of chivalry." This certainly is true, that 
the lands of Aerbothenoth were bestowed by the Crown upon 
a crusader named Olifard, or Oliphant, from whom they even- 
tually passed to his relative, Hugo le Blond, or de Aerbothe- 
noth, an ancestor of the present (the eleventh) Viscount 
Arbuthnott. The muniments of the family, which are in a 
wonderful state of preservation at Arbuthnott House, near 
the village of Arbuthnott, or Arbuthnot in Kincardineshire, 
extend back to the year 1206, or for nearly three and a 
half centuries before the founding of Fort St. George. 




It is upwards of eighty years since Bundla Ramasawmy Naidu 
wrote a memoir on the revenue system of Madras, which, fifty years 
later, was reproduced in the Selections from the Records of the South 
Arcot District, published under the authority of Government. Accord- 
ing to him the representatives of the East India Company, either at 
Masulipatam or at Armagon, enlisted the assistance of his ancestor, 
Berry Timmapa of Palacole, near Maddipollam, in their approach 
to the Native Princes farther down the Coast. Then, Berry Tim- 
mapa " procured them permission from one Damerla Vencatapa 
Naick to build a factory at Madras," and obtained " a Shasanam, 
or grant from Streerunga Royaloo, who then reigned at Chandra- 
gerry, for three villages, namely Egmore, Tondavadoo and Poodu- 
pauk," subject to the condition that the new factory should bear the 
name of Chennama Naick, the father of Damerla Vencatapa Naick. 
Furthermore, this Berry Timmapa, according to his descendant, 
assisted in the building of the town called Chennapatnam, on the north 
side of the factory ; and exerted himself to induce people from 
different parts of the outlying country to settle in, and carry on their 
various trades or occupations there. He also caused two pagodas 
to be built, the one, sacred to Vishnoo, being called Chenna Casawa 
Permal, and the other, sacred to Shiva, being called Chinna Malleswara. 
Then the author proceeded to say, that " the gentleman who was 
Agent at that time, Mr. Day, undertook to build a factory on the spot 
where there was a fisherman's coopam, the head man of which was a 
Christian, named Madrasen, who having thrown some obstacle in 
allowing the piece of ground he was in possession of, which was his 
plantain garden, Berry Timmapa had by his influence obtained that 
spot, promising him that he would cause the factory which was about 
to be erected to be called after his name, as Madaresenpatam, or 
commonly Madraspatam." 

In his monograph on the founding of Fort St. George, which is 
noticed in a previous page, Mr. William Foster gives the above account 
of the genesis of Madras, but expresses his disbelief in the main parts 
of it. The grant of the villages of Egmore, Tondavadoo, and Poodu- 
pauk, was not made over to the English until long after the time of 
Berry Timmapa. But Mr. Foster thinks it probable that Berry 
Timmapa was the native go-between in Day's negotiations with 
the Naik, and that he may have usefully employed himself in inviting 



his countrymen to take up their abode in the town that sprang up in 
the vicinity of the Fort. The original of the firman granted by the 
Naik to Day as well as that of Day's letter dated from Armagon, 
on July 27, 1639, narrating his proceedings for the information of the 
authorities at Masulipatam, prior to his arrival at that settlement, are 
not known to be in existence ; though three duplicates of both docu- 
ments, contained in the India Office Records, leave no room for doubt 
that reference was made in the grant to " our port of Madraspatam." 
But subsequently, by the donor's desire, the new settlement was called 
Chennapapatnam, after his father Chennapa, which name was eventu- 
ally modified into Chennapatnam. Twenty years after the grant- 
ing to Day of the above-mentioned firman, Mr. Chambers became 
Agent at Fort St. George, and he retained that position three years, 
during which he wrote for Mr. Jonathan Trevisae, a friend of his in 
Bengal, a brief narrative of the founding of Madras. The original 
of this narrative has been lost, but there is a copy of it in the India 
Office. In this account Mr. Chambers mentions that Damarla Japa 
Nainda " writ to Mr. Day that he would have a town founded in his 
Father's Chennapa Naindu's name." This Damarla is recognized 
by Mr. Foster as Ayjapaneyck, or Ayappa Naick, residing at Puna- 
malla, viceregent and younger brother of Damarla Venketadra, or 
Venkatappa, the giver of the grant. " Damarla," Mr. Foster says, 
" appears to have been a family name, and it was borne by the father 
of the present Rajah of Kalahasti, who is stated to be a descendant 
of Day's Naik." 

All this goes to explain why it is that, although the first English 
settlers may have departed from their agreement with the Naik to 
call the town they erected Chennapatnam, after his father's name, 
that name is still associated by the native population at large with 
the city of Madras. It will probably continue to be so until the end 
of time. The settlers referred to soon grew tired of the use of so long 
a name as Madraspatam — or, as in one place it appears, Madrazpatam — 
for, writing in September, 1642, to the authorities at Bantam, the 
Madras factors said : — " Wee now are and have byn a twelvemonth 
constant resident at Maddaras, and have made that the Cheife place 
for your other Factories to account to." Mr. Foster states that this 
is the first instance of the use of the abbreviated form. " In the 
original, however, the word comes at the end of a line, and has a mark 
of contraction over it ; so we cannot infer that this form had yet 
become general." But, as to the derivation of the word Madras, 
reliable information is still lacking, since the pretty story of the 
Christian fisherman, Madrasen, being the name-father of the city, 
must be regarded as no more than an evolution from the inner con- 
sciousness of a romantic writer. 

Colonel Sir Henry Yule, R.E., and Mr. Arthur Burnell, M.C.S., 
in their admirable Glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and 
phrases, on which they conferred the strange title of Hobson-Jobson, 
said that the question as to the derivation had been much debated, 


but with little result. They found that in the earliest maps the 
name Madraspatanam — meaning the " city of the Madras " — is given 
to the localities long known as Triplicane and Royapettah. Fryer's 
map published in 1698, which illustrates Fort St. George as he saw it 
in 1673, and which is reproduced on the opposite page, shows on the 
right hand the southern limits of " Madirass, The Indian Town with flat 
houses." It also depicts "the Governor's house" in the Fort, as a 
Mahomedan building, with a dome, that may possibly have once been 
what the Mahomedans call a " Madrasa " or College. Hence the 
conclusion that the name " Madras " was derived from " Madrasa," 
or " Madrisa." In a document under date 1681, written by certain 
Portuguese at San Thome, shortly after the founding of Fort St. 
George, and still extant, the new settlement in their vicinity is called 
" Madaraza." 


(Page 16) FORT ST. GEORGE IN 1673 

In connexion with the foregoing remarks it may be mentioned 
that " John Fryer, M.D., Cantabrig., and Fellow of the Royal Society," 
published, in 1698, A New Account of East India and Persia in Eight 
Letters, being Nine Years' Travels, begun 1672 and finished 1681." 
The book was " printed by R. R. for R. I. Chiswell, at the Rose and 
Crown in St. Paul's Churchyard, London," and was " illustrated 
with Maps, Figures, and Useful Tables," including, as the frontispiece, 
a large and well executed steel engraved portrait of himself. By 
permission of the East India Company he embarked at Gravesend, as 
one of the two passengers on board the ship Unity, Captain Craft, 
350 tons, 34 guns. That vessel formed one of a fleet of ten ships 
bound for the East, including the London, Captain Bass, 500 tons, 
40 guns, with the Admiral ; the President, Captain Hyde, 500 tons, 
42 guns, with the Vice-Admiral ; and the Sampson, Captain Eming, 
460 tons, 40 guns, with the " Rere "-Admiral. To this fleet " his 
Majesty Charles II was pleased to grant Letters of Mark, which em- 
powered them to wear the King, Jack, Ancient end Pennant, and 
to act as Men of War (the English and French at this time being at 
open defiance against the Dutch)." The following is his description 
of how he arrived, and what he observed at Fort St. George : — 

I went ashore in a Mussoola, a Boat wherein ten Men paddle, the two aftermost 
of whom are the Steersmen, using their Paddles instead of a Rudder. The Boat is not 
strengthened with Knee-Timber, as ours are ; the bended Planks are sown together 
with Rope- Yarn of the Cocoe, and calked with Dammar (a sort of Rosin taken out 
of the Sea) so artificially, that it yields to every Ambitious Surf, otherwise you could 
not get ashore, the Bar knocking in pieces all that are inflexible. Moving towards 
the Shore, we left St. Thomas, which lies but Three Miles to the South of Maderas 
and Fort St. George ; in the midway Maderas River in great Rains opens its Mouth 
into the Sea ; having first saluted the Banks of Fort St. George on the West. 


Towards the Sea the Sand is cast up into a Rampire, from whence the fluid Artillery 
discharges itself upon us, and we on the Shoulders of the Blacks must force our way 
through it. 

Though we landed wet, the Sand was scalding hot, which made me recollect my 
steps, and hasten to the Fort. As it looked on the Water, it appeared a Place of 
good force. The Outwork is walled with Stone, a good heighth, thick enough to 
blunt a Cannon-bullet, kept by half a dozen Ordnance at each side the Water- 
gate, besides an Halfmoon of Fire-Guns. At both Points are mounted twelve 
Guns eyeing the Sea, Maderas, and St. Thomas ; under these in a Line stand Palli- 
sadoes, reaching from the Wall to the Sea ; and hedge in at least a Mile 
of ground. On the South side they have cut a Ditch a sufficient depth and 
breadth to prevent scaling the Wall, which is a quarter of a Mile in length afore 
it meets with a third Point or Bastion, facing St. Thomas, and the adjacent Fields ; 
who suffer a Deluge when the Rains descend the Hills. From this Point to the 
Fourth, where are lodged a Dozen Guns more that grin upon Maderas, runs no 
Wall, but what the Inhabitants compile for the Gardens and Houses planted all 
along the River parallel with that that braces the Sea. From the first Point a 
Curtain is drawn with a Parapet ; beneath it are two Gates and Sally Ports to each 
for to enter Maderas ; over the Gates five Guns run out their Muzzles, and two 
more within them on the Ground. 

Over all these the Fort itself lifts up its Four Turrets, every Point of which is 
loaded with Ten Guns alike. On the South-East Point is fixed a Standard ; the 
Forms of the Bastions are Square, sending forth Curtains fringed with Battlements 
from one to the other, in whose Innterstitiums whole Culverin are traversed. The 
Governor's House in the middle overlooks all, slanting diagonally with the Court. 
Entering the Garrison at the Out-gate towards the Sea, a Path of broad, polished 
Stones spreads the way to pass the Second Guard into the Fort at an humble Gate ; 
opposite to this one more stately fronts the High-street. On both sides thereof is 
a Court of Guard, from whence, for every Day's duty, are taken Two hundred Men, 
their being in pay, for the Honourable East India Company, of English andPortu- 
guez 700, reckoning the Montrosses and Gunners. The Streets are sweet and 
clean, ranked with fine Mansions of no extraordinary Height (because a Garrison- 
Town) though Beauty, which they conciliate, by the Battlements and T arras Walks 
on every House, and Rows of Trees before their Doors, whose Italian Porticos 
make no ordinary conveyance into their Houses built with Brick and Stone. 
Edifices of common note are none, except a small Chappel the Portugals are admitted 
to say Mass in. Take the Town in its exact proportion, and it is Oblong. 

The True Possessors of it are the English, instated therein by one of their 
Naiks, or Prince of the Gentues, 90 years ago, 40 years before their total subjection 
to the Moors ; who likewise have since ratified it by a Patent from Gulconda, only 
paying 7,000 Pagods yearly for Royalties and Customs, that raises the Money four- 
fold to the Company, whose Agent here is Sir William Langhorne, a Gentleman of 
Indefatigable Industry and Worth. He is Superintendent over all the Factories 
on the Coast of Coromandel, as far as the Bay of Bengala and up Huygly River 
(which is one of the Falls of Ganges), viz., Fort St. George alias Maderas, Pettipolee, 
Mechlapatan, Gundore, Medapollon, Balisore, Bengala, Huygli, Castle Buzzar, 
Pattanaw. He has his Mint, and Privilege of Coining ; the Country Stamp is only 
a Fanam, which is 3d. of Gold; and their Cash, twenty of which go to a Fanam. 
Moreover he has his Justiciaries to give Sentence, but not on Life and Death to the 
King's Liege People of England, though over the rest they may. His Personal 
Guard consists of 3 or 400 Blacks, besides a Band of 1,500 Men ready on Summons. 
He never goes abroad without Fifes, Drums, Trumpets, and a Flag with two Balls 
in a Red Field, accompanied with his Council and Factors on Horseback, with their 
Ladies in Palenkeens. 

The English here are Protestants, the Portugals Papists, who have their several 
Orders of Fryers, who, to give them their due, compass Sea and Land to make 
Proselytes, many of the Natives being brought in by them. The number of English 
here may amount to Three hundred ; of Portuguez as many Thousand, who made 
Fort St. George their Refuge when they were routed from St. Thomas by the Moors 
about ten years past; and have ever since lived under protection of the English. 



{Page 94) FORT ST. GEORGE IN 1 747 

The European Magazine of August 1747 contained the following 
" Succinct Account " of Fort St. George: — 

Fort St. George stands upon the coast of Coromandel, in the latitude of 13 30', 
and is looked upon as the most considerahle place in the possession of the East 
India Company. It lies in about 8o°, in point of longitude, east from London, which 
makes about six hours' difference between time there and here, so that 6 in the 
morning with us is their noon, and our noon about their fall of night, for the days 
are very near of an equal length in that country all the year round. 

Fort St. George is very happily seated in the midst of the White Town, with 
the road before it, and a river behind it. It is a regular square, of about 100 yards, 
fortified with four bastions, and built with what they call iron-stone. The west 
gate, which looks towards the land, is large and magnificent, and a company of 
soldiers keep guard there ; the opposite gate towards the river is small, and is guarded 
only by a file of musqueteers. The White Town is of oblong form, well built, and, 
except towards the river, has a good wall. To the northward lies the Black Town, 
which is properly called Madrass, and, by the Moors, Chinapatam, inhabited by 
Portuguese, Indians, Armenians, and many other nations. The streets are wide 
and many of them well planted with trees, so that having the sea on one side, and 
a river on the other, it may be said that few cities stand so pleasantly, or are better 
supplied with provisions. 

The situation is very proper for defence. They have several outguards, and, 
taking their artillery all together, they have at least 200 pieces of cannon. The 
garrison consists of three companies, each of 80 or 100 men. About two-thirds of 
these are Europeans, the rest Topasses, or Portuguese Indians. The Company has 
besides about 200 of the natives in their pay, who are called Peons, and in time of 
danger they might levy a considerable number of people. The Fort is a regular 
and good fortification, kept in constant order, well supplied with artillery, ammuni- 
tion and provisions, and a garrison of considerable strength, under the command 
of officers of experience who are regularly and handsomely paid by the Company. 
In the middle of Fort St. George stands the Governor's house, which is a very 
handsome, lofty, square stone building, and affords room not only for his lodgings, 
but for the lodgings also of the Company's servants. As this is looked upon as the 
most considerable place on that coast, the establishment there is very large in all 
respects. The first person is the Governor, who has a salary of 200 pounds a year, 
and another hundred by way of gratuity ; the chief of his Council has 100 pounds 
a year, the next to him 70, the third 50, and the three other counsellors 40 each. 
There are besides six senior merchants, two junior merchants, five factors, ten 
writers, two ministers, a surgeon, two assay-masters (for they coin money here), a 
judge, an attorney-general, and a secretary. 

This is a place of vast trade, and all the officers have such perquisites that they 
soon become rich. There is no place in the world where money is so plenty, or 
where traders have better credit. The Governor lives with the state and magnifi- 
cence of a prince, and is respected as such by the inhabitants who are his, or rather 
the Company's subjects, from whom they receive quit rents from their lands, duties 
on their goods, and an excise upon all eatables, which is applied to defraying the 
expense of the Government. ... It is computed that there are under the Company's 
jurisdiction not fewer than 300,000 souls." 

{Page 94) Fort St. George in 1783. 

The European Magazine of December, 1783, contained " A Short 
Account of Madrass, or Fort St. George, on the Coast of Coromandel, 
belonging to the East India Company, with a picturesque View of 
that Settlement." The View has been reproduced on the opposite 
page. The Account is as follows : — 


When the European nations first began to settle along the western coast of the 
Bay of Bengal, the English East India Company early formed a settlement at Chili- 
patam, or Madrass, which was well situated for the trade there carried on, being 
nearly the central part of the Coast of Coromandel, and commanding great part 
of the trade of the Carnatic. This place is still their principal Settlement on that 
coast, and is situated in about 15 deg. north latitude, and about 80 deg. of 
longitude east from London. Being seated within the tropics it experiences all the 
disadvantages arising from heat which is usual in those latitudes ; and, were it not 
for the sea breezes that daily cool the air, would not be habitable by European con- 
stitutions. The Settlement consists of two towns ; that called the White Town is a 
regular fortification, and is about 400 paces long, and 150 broad, divided into regular 
streets, the houses being built with brick, the rooms lofty, and the roofs flat. The 
town is a Corporation, and has a Mayor, Aldermen, and other proper officers ; with 
two churches, one for the Protestants, the other for the Roman Catholics ; also an 
hospital, a town-hall, and a prison for debtors. The Black Town, which consists 
chiefly of thatched cottages, is inhabited by Gentoos, Mahomedans, and Portu- 
guese and Armenian Christians, and each religion has its temples and churches. 
The whole number of inhabitants in the colony, including the towns and villages 
in the vicinity of Fort St. George, is computed at about 80,000, who are all depend- 
ent upon the Governor and his Council, in whom is lodged all the military power, 
and who are also the last resort in civil cases. In time of war, this Settlement may 
experience the greatest distress, should the enemy possess a superiority at sea, its 
inhabitants depending upon that element for their subsistence, as their rice is brought 
from Ganjam and Orixa, their wheat from Surat and Bengal, and their firing from 
the island of Diu. It not only fronts the sea, but has a salt water river running at 
its back, whereby the fresh water springs are prevented coming near the town, so 
that there is no good water within a mile of it. Notwithstanding these disadvantages 
its situation for trade will always make it a place of importance, as the diamond 
mines are but a week's journey from it, consequently they are in tolerable plenty, 
though they have not produced any of a large size for some time past. The inland 
trade of the colony is chiefly managed by the Armenians and Gentoos, who largely 
supply the Company's servants with those articles which constitute the export 
trade, being besides diamonds, callicoes, chintz, muslin, and other articles of the 
like nature. The number of European inhabitants, including the military, is 
generally computed at 500 men. 


{Page 50) HAYES PLACE 

Hayes Place, near Bromley, Kent, formerly the seat of a family 
named Scott, was purchased, in 1757, by William Pitt (the elder), 
who had the old house pulled down, and the present mansion erected 
upon its site. This was shortly after his marriage. In 1761, he had 
a difficulty with his colleagues in the Ministry, and resigned office 
whereupon the young King, George III, granted him a pension of 
£3,000 a year for three lives, in recognition of his long and eminent 
public services, and raised his wife, Lady Hester Pitt, to the peerage 
in her own right, as Baroness Chatham of Chatham. Five years 
later Pitt was recalled to office, and accepted the Privy Seal, with the 
titles of Earl of Chatham and Baron Pitt. Thereupon his wife 
became Countess of Chatham, as well as Baroness Chatham of Chatham • 
and the eldest of their three sons became by courtesy Lord Pitt. 
In the immediately preceding year Sir William Pynsent died, and, 
though a stranger to the statesman, left him the estate of Burton 


Pynsent, in Somersetshire, with £3,000 a year ; and the latter soon 
removed to his new property, and sold Hayes to the Hon. Thomas 
Walpole. But he and Lady Chatham soon pined for the air of 
Hayes ; and eventually Mr. Walpole rescinded the contract, and in 
1767 they returned to Hayes. 

Thus it was that Hayes was a haven of rest to the great statesman 
during the remaining eleven years of his life. To the outside world 
he seemed to be a proud, self-willed, ambitious, implacable, and 
strenuous man, with no soft side to his character ; but at Hayes he 
was a most fatherly father, while Lady Chatham was a most motherly 
mother, and their relations towards one another were always of a 
felicitous description. He derived pleasure, and found salutary 
distraction at Hayes, in indulging his taste for horticulture, which 
Lady Chatham shared ; but his health was uncertain, and he was 
warned by severe illness on several occasions to take more care of 
himself than was congenial to his temperament. At length, on the 
7th April, 1778, he insisted, despite medical advice, on attending a 
debate in the House of Lords upon American affairs ; and it was 
while he was addressing the House, in deprecation of the proposal to 
recognise the declaration of American independence and to recall 
the British troops, that he had a fit, and was for a time in no small 
danger of his life. He was removed to 10, Downing Street, the official 
residence of the Prime Minister, where in a few days he recovered 
strength sufficiently to allow of his driving back to Hayes. But the 
improvement was deceptive, and he died at Hayes, on the nth May, 
in his seventieth year. He was buried, with almost regal honours 
in the north transept of Westminster Abbey, the funeral being at- 
tended by a large number of his political antagonists, as well as by 
a crowd of his political allies and personal friends. The House of 
Commons marked its sense of the value of his public services by voting 
both £20,000 for the payment of his debts, and an annuity of £4,000 
to his successors in the Earldom of Chatham. 

Lady Chatham survived her husband twenty-five years, and then 
died on the 3rd April, 1803, at Burton Pynsent. Her remains were 
removed on the 1 1 th idem to the house of Lady Warren, at Kensington 
Gore, London, and remained there until the 16th, when the funeral 
took place. The procession was a long one. Not the least noticeable 
feature in it was a " State horse," led by two grooms, that was 
covered with black cloth, bearing the arms of the Pitt and Grenville 
families, with a double coronet, the deceased lady being a Baroness 
in her own right, as well as the widow of a peer. A herald on horse- 
back bore her coronet on a crimson velvet cushion. On the hearse 
were arranged banners, with the Pitt and Grenville arms, escutcheon 
flags, plumes of feathers, and embroidered velvet. The chief under- 
taker, two conductors, six mutes, and two porters were on horseback, 
and ten pages were on foot. There were ten private carriages, in which 
rode the Earl of Chatham and Mr. William Pitt, the surviving sons 
of the deceased, Lord Grenville, Lord Hood, Lord Camelford, Lord 


Braybroke, Lord Carysfort, Lord Eliot, Lord Fortescue, Lady Sydney, 
Mr. Thomas Grenville, etc. The procession wended its way slowly to 
Westminster Abbey, and was met there by the Dean, the prebender, 
the minor canons and the full choir. The funeral service was read 
by the dean, and at length the coffin was lowered into the family 
vault, and placed beside the coffins of Lord Chatham and Lady 
Harriet Eliot (younger daughter of the Earl and Countess). 

As the second Lord Chatham did not possess the means to keep up 
Hayes Place he was induced in 1785, or eighteen years before the 
death of his mother who was much attached to it, to sell it to Sir James 
Bond, by whom, four years later, it was disposed of to Viscount 
Lewisham, afterwards Earl of Dartmouth, from whom it passed to 
the family of Traill, of Greenwich. In 1870 the property was taken 
on lease, at a rental of ^1,000 a year, by Mr. Edward Wilson, who 
was chief proprietor, and had for many years been the editor, of 
the Melbourne Argus. Mr. Wilson's tenancy continued until January, 
1878, when he suddenly died, as the World was being read to 
him by his Secretary, while he was sitting, after entertaining 
a house full of guests, in an armchair in that " best bedroom " 
wherein Lord Chatham made his exit from this mortal life. The 
property was then offered for sale by private contract. According 
to the advertisements of the land-agents it " includes a large mansion, 
in the middle of extensive lawns, pleasure grounds, and gardens, 
with park and pasture lands handsomely timbered, interspersed 
with ornamental woods and plantations, with some arable land, etc., 
near the pretty village of Hayes, abutting on Hayes Common, 
a very picturesque, open, and favourite district commanding some 
of the loveliest views to be obtained in the favourite counties of Surrey 
and Kent." The property was eventually purchased by Mr. C. J. 
Hambro, the eminent London financier, the present occupier of it. 

William Pitt, the younger, was much attached to the "very pictur- 
esque, open, and favourite district," where he had passed his infancy 
and youth, so he was induced to purchase for himself the estate of 
Holwood, two miles distant from Hayes, where, it is said, the 
" beauty of the grounds and scenery compensate for the smallness 
of the mansion." He had had in his parents a conspicuous example of 
a happily married pair ; but his own temperament was unemotional, 
and his mind was so concentrated upon the performance of public 
duties that he may have had little time, or inclination for 
" thoughts of love." Yet he was much drawn towards the Hon. 
Eleanor Eden, a younger daughter of his near neighbour, Lord 
Auckland, then residing at Eden House. This was in 1796, when 
he had reached the mature age of thirty-eight, and she was 
eighteen years younger. (She was a niece of the first Earl of Minto, 
Governor General of India, 1807 to 18 10, and of the Right Hon. Hugh 
Elliot, Governor of Madras, 18 14 to 1820 — who were eventually buried 
in the same vault in Westminster Abbey ; and she was a sister of the 
Earl of Auckland, Governor General of India, 1836 to 1842.) Accord- 


ing to Lord Ashbourne, in his Pitt : Some Chapters in his Life and 
Times, she was " a handsome and winning girl, full of life, intelligence 
and sympathy " ; and " there was everything to attract Pitt to her," 
while also " there was much to attract him to her." 

But Pitt had been too long a bachelor, and he felt he owed it to 
himself to act up to the principle which he enunciated on one 
occasion to Wilberforce, that " the better part of love, as well as of 
valour, is discretion." So it came about that, after many a ramble 
with the most fascinating daughter of Eve whom he had ever met, 
in what may have seemed to him to be literally a Garden of Eden, 
he wrote two long letters from his official residence in Downing Street, 
to her father, announcing his determination not to propose to 
become his son-in-law. In the first he stated : — " It can hardly 
be necessary to say that the time I have passed among your family 
has led to my forming sentiments of very real attachment towards 
them all, and of much more than attachment towards one whom 
I need not name " ; and " every hour of my acquaintance with 
the person to whom you will easily conceive I refer has served 
to augment, and confirm that impression ; in short, has convinced 
me that whoever may have the good fortune ever to be united to 
her is destined to more than his share of human happiness." Then 
he entered into a long explanation of obstacles to his own marriage 
that were " decisive and insurmountable." He concluded the second 
letter by saying that : — " Feeling this impression thus strongly and 
unalterably in my mind, I have felt it a trying but indispensable duty, 
for the sake of all who are concerned, to state it (whatever it may 
cost me to do so), as distinctly and explicitly as I have done. Having 
done so, I have only to hope that reading this letter will nowhere be 
attended with half the pain I have felt in writing it." Thus did he 
decline to accept the happiness which Fortune seemed to have placed 
within his reach. 

Two years later Robert, Lord Hobart, returned home from 
Madras, where he had been Governor from 1794 to 1798, and where, in 
1796, he lost his wife. He wooed, and, in 1799, won Eleanor Eden, and 
she, on his subsequent succession to his father's title, became Countess 
of Buckinghamshire. She died in 1851, having survived her husband 
thirty-five, and Pitt forty-five years. The latter died a bachelor, 
aged forty-seven, at Putney, and was buried in the vault in West- 
minster Abbey which contained the remains of his father, his mother, 
and his younger sister, and which, later on, received the remains 
of his elder brother, the second Earl of Chatham, and his sister-in-law, 
the second Countess of Chatham. 




In his work on " The Great Diamonds of the World " Mr. Edwin 
Streeter expresses the opinion that " there is no reason to doubt the 
substantial accuracy " of the following narrative of the "beginning 
of the adventures" of the Pitt diamond: — 

It was found by a slave in the Parteal mines, on the Kistna, in the year 1701. 
The story goes that, to secure his treasure he cut a hole in the calf of his leg, and 
concealed it, one account says, in the wound itself, another in the bandages. As the 
stone weighed 410 carats before it was cut, the last version of the method of conceal- 
ment is, no doubt, the correct one. The slave escaped to the coast with his property. 
Unfortunately for himself, and also for the peace of mind of his confidant, he met 
with an English skipper, whom he trusted with his secret. It is said he offered to give 
the diamond to the mariner in return for his liberty, which was to be secured by the 
skipper carrying him to a free country. But it seems probable that he supple- 
mented this with a money condition as well, otherwise the skipper's treatment of 
the poor creature is as devoid of reason as it is of humanity. The skipper, pro- 
fessing to accept the slave's proposals, took him on board his ship, and, having 
obtained possession of the jewel, flung the slave into the sea. He afterwards, 
so the first version of the narrative goes, sold the diamond to Mr. Thomas Pitt, 
Governor of Fort St. George, for £1,000, squandered the money in dissipation, 
and finally, in a fit of delirium tremens and remorse, hanged himself. 

Mr. Streeter makes one correction of this story, for he adds that the 
skipper, in all probability, "sold the gem" for ^1,000 "not to Mr. 
Pitt, but to Jamchund, at that time the largest diamond merchant 
in the East, who sold it to Mr. Pitt for ^20,000." 

Dr. Max Bauer, Privy Councillor, Professor in the University of 
Marburg, states in his " Precious Stones " (a translation of which 
from the German, by Mr. L. J. Spencer, M.A., was published by 
Messrs. Charles Griffin and Company, Limited, last year) that in its 
rough condition, the Regent, or Pitt, is perhaps the most perfect of 
all diamonds. " In its rough condition it was the largest of all Indian 
diamonds, the genuineness of which is unquestionable." 

It is believed that during his long life Jean Baptiste Tavernier, 
the French jeweller and traveller, made as many as six journeys to 
India in order to purchase precious stones. And it happened, accord- 
ing to his own account, that on the eve of his departure from the Court 
of the Great Mogul Aurungzeb, he was permitted to see the Emperor's 
jewels, and Akel Khan, the custodian, placed in his hands "the great 
diamond, which is a rose, round, very convex on one side." He ob- 
served that the " water is perfection," and being permitted to weigh 
it, he ascertained that " it weighs 319J ratis, which are equal to 280 
of our carats." He was at the same time informed that " when 
Mirgimola, who betrayed the King of Golconda, his master, made a 
gift of the stone to Shah Jehan, from whom it is descended, it was uncut, 
and weighed 900 ratis, which are equal to 787^ carats, and it had many 
flaws. It was Sieur Hortensis Borgio, a Venetian, who cut it, for 
which he was badly paid ; they reproached him with having spoilt the 


stone, which ought to have remained heavier, and instead of paying 
him, the Emperor made him pay a fine. If Hortensis had known his 
work better he might have taken some good pieces off without' doing 
injury to the king, and without having expended so much trouble in 
polishing it ; but he was not a very accomplished diamond-cutter." 
Elsewhere Tavernier stated that " the stone has the same form as if 
one cut an egg in two." 

It is conjectured that the diamond to which Tavernier referred was 
indebted to him for its name of Great Mogul ; that the natives had 
previously called it the Kollur diamond, because of the supposed 
place where is was found ; and that the name Kollur was gradually 
corrupted into Koh-i-noor. Mr. V. Ball, of the Geological Survey of 
India, inclines strongly, in his Diamonds, Coal, and Gold of India, 
to the opinion that the Kollur stone is " identical with the 
Koh-i-noor." Dr. Max Bauer remarks that "opinions differ as to 
the derivation of the name Koh-i-noor, which is sometimes said 
to signify ' Mountain of Light,' and is supposed to have been given 
to the stone by Nadir Shah. It has also been supposed to be a 
corruption of Kollur, the locality at which it was found, and the 
name by which it is said to have been formerly known in India." 
Kollur, it may be added, is on the right bank of the Kistna, near 
Chantapilly, in the Kistna District of the Presidency of Madras, and 
is about forty miles west of Purtial, where, it is conjectured, the Pitt 
diamond was found. 



The following is a translation from the French of a sketch of the 
career of Tippoo Sultan that was issued about the year 18 16, with the 
lithographic portrait that has been reproduced opposite p. 141. It 
is based on a work by M. Michaud, published in Paris in 1809, 
entitled, Histoire des progress de la chute de I'empire de Mysore, sous 
les regnes d'Hyder-Aly et de Tippoo-Saib : — 

Feth-Aly-K!ian. commonly called Tippoo Sail>, born about 174'). was the son 
of the celebrated Hyder-Aly-Khan, sovereign of a powerful empire which he had 
usurped from the young Rajah of Mysore, of which his genius and his conquests had 
given him possession. On the death of his father, December 7, 17H2, the 
young Tippoo found himself heir to a territory of twenty-seven thousand square 
miles, of which the revenues amounted to nearly fifty million francs, and an army 
of one hundred and fifty thousand men. At the news of the death of Hyder-Aly. the 
English, commanded by General Mathews, entered Mysore. Tippoo Saib, forced 
to leave the Carnatic, which he had just taken, hastened to the succour of his 
States ; surprised the English in the plains of Canara ; routed them ; took prisoners 
the whole of General Mathews' army; and avenged with the greatest ferocity the 
cruelties the English had committed in the town of Aumapore. After some other 
successes, he concluded a peace with England, which lasted eight years. During 


this time Tippoo occupied himself in ameliorating the internal condition of his 
empire ; and continued to cultivate the friendly relations which had long existed 
between the French and the sovereign of Mysore. But impelled by the impetu- 
osity of his character, and by the remembrance of his former successes, he resolved 
to put into execution the project of his father, and to again make fresh efforts to 
oust the English from India. With this object in view he sent three ambassadors 
to the Court of Versailles. They were received with distinction, but failed to secure 
the help they had solicited. On their return to India they unceasingly vaunted 
the riches, the power, and the happiness of France, until Tippoo, tired of their dis- 
course, ordered two of them to be put to death. 

A fresh war soon arose between England and Mysore. In 1790 Tippoo was 
beaten in a battle in Travancore, and lost many pieces of cannon, his turban, his 
jewels, and his palanquin. The following year the English laid siege to Bangalore, 
and took possession of that place, where the general of the Sultan perished in the 
assault. Cornwallis marched against Seringapatam ; but famine, floods and con- 
tagious diseases forced the English to raise the siege. The third campaign in this 
war was yet more disastrous to the Sultan. The Mahrattas and the Soubab of 
the Deccan joined forces with the English. Many forts in the Bangalore country 
had been taken, when the loss of the fortress of Savendroug, until then deemed 
impregnable, completed the discomfiture of the Mysore army. In the month of 
January, 1792, the united forces of the allies marched a second time against Serin- 
gapatam. Tippoo was forced to make peace, with most stringent conditions. He 
gave up to the English the half of his States ; undertook to pay them about seventy- 
five million francs ; and gave them two of his sons as hostages, as a guarantee of 
the faithful execution of the treaty. 

Embittered by these reverses, Tippoo Saib banished the pleasures of his court, 
formerly so brilliant, and occupied himself solely in discovering means to avenge the 
indignity of his defeat. The old allies of his father had become the auxiliaries of 
the English. He sent many ambassadors to Zeman-Shah, sovereign of the empire 
of the Abdallis, to try and make him adopt his plans. Not succeeding on this side, 
he sent Hassan-Ali and Shaik-Ibrahim to the Ile-de-France, in order to open fresh 
negotiations with the French Republic. The feeble help he obtained only hastened 
his fall. The Marquis Wellesley, Governor-General of India, knowing the Sultan's 
preparations for war, assembled an army of seventy-five thousand men, commanded 
by General Harris. Tippoo only wished to temporise ; counting upon the help 
which he expected from France, he tried to postpone war, and had put off under 
various pretexts the envoys of the Marquis Wellesley. But as soon as he learnt of 
the approach of so formidable an army, he only thought of defending his kingdom, 
and left at the head of sixty thousand men. He was defeated at Sedesear, and at 
Malaveli, and imprudently shut himself up in his capital. He wished to open 
negotiations with the English ; but the conditions with which peace could only be 
obtained appeared so harsh to the haughty mind of the Sultan, that he determined 
to die, or to bury himself under the ruins of Seringapatam. This town was de- 
fended with the greatest courage. Tippoo, during the whole of the siege, commanded 
the troops in person, betaking himself wherever danger appeared imminent. On 
the 21st April, 1799, the English began to make a breach, and on the 4th May the 
town was carried by storm. The French in the service of the Sultan disputed every 
inch of the ground, and several times they managed to rally the troops 
of Mysore. A large number of them were killed whilst fighting bravely. 
The unhappy Tippoo displayed on this day all the valour of the bravest soldier. 
Driven to the foot of the ramparts, he leapt on his horse, and tried to reach his 
palace ; but, struck by a shot, he fell, and his body was discovered under a heap of 

' Thus died,' says M. Michaud, ' Tippoo Saib at the age of forty-five. 
The beginning of his military career had covered him with very great glory 
throughout Hindustan ; fortune had favoured him in allowing him without 
opposition to sit on the throne of Hyder-Aly ; and she also did something 
for him on this occasion in not leaving him to survive the downfall of 
his empire. His height was five feet eight inches (English) ; he had a 
thick short neck ; his shoulders, square and massive ; his limbs were small, 


particularly his feet and hands ; his eyes large, and his eye-brows arched ; he had an 
aquiline nose, and a brown complexion. Tippoo Saib was a cultured man ; he was 
master of several European languages ; he possessed a deep knowledge of the sciences 
studied in India ; but he had not that power of perception, that farseeing and 
active intuition, which prepares for contingencies, or that wisdom which puts 
them to profit. Possessed of a boldness which braves all dangers, he had not 
the prudence which avoids them ; endowed with an impetuous and irascible spirit, 
he nearly always preferred violent to slow and prudent measures. In short, it can 
be said of this Prince, that he occupied himself too much with the means for dis- 
playing his power, and not enough with those for preserving and strengthening 


Alexandra, Queen : wears the 
Koh-i-noor at the Coronation ; 
her crown described, 32. 

Amwell : associated with Hailey- 
bury, source of New River, 64. 

Apsley House : memorials of Duke 
of Wellington at, reflections 
suggested by a visit to, 159. 

Arbuthnot, Sir Alexander : late 
of Madras Civil Service, his dis- 
tinguished career, 285W, 286m. 

Arbuthnots, the : Robert, Chief 
Secretary, Ceylon, 273 ; lost in 
the Cadiz ; George, founder of 
Arbuthnot & Co., 274 ; his 
career, 275 ; his descendants, 
276 ; alliances with the Goughs ; 
Sir William, Lord Provost of 
Edinburgh ; Royal genealogy, 
278-281 ; Minister of Arbuth- 
not, 281 ; Dr. John, 282 ; his 
sons, 283 ; the Right Hon. 
Charles, his wife, 284 ; Bishop 
Arbuthnot, Sir Alexander, Sir 
Charles, Sir Robert, Sir Thomas, 

286 ; George, of the Treasury, 

287 ; ballad of the Scottish 
border, 288. 


Balfour, James : acquisition of 
fortune in Madras, returns home, 
enters Parliament, dies a mil- 
lionaire, 195. 

Balls Park, Hertford : inherited 
by Governor Harrison, left to 
Viscountess Townshend, 61 ; 
bequeathed by her to Marquis 
Townshend, purchased by Sir 
E. Faudel-Phillips, 65. 

Banks, Thomas : sculptor, statue 
of Eyre Coote at India Office, 
monument at Westminster 

Abbey, 100 ; statue of Lord 
Cornwallis at Madras, 125. 

Bantam, The Council of : support 
Day and Cogan, 7. 

Bell, Rev. Dr. Andrew : birth, 
205 ; education, emigrates to 
Virginia, returns home with 
pupils, takes orders in English 
Church, 206 ; tutor again, re- 
solves to try his fortune in 
India, embarks for Bengal, 207 ; 
remains at Madras, receives 
numerous salaried sinecures, 
208 ; charmed with Madras, 
associated with establishment 
of Male Orphan Asylum, dis- 
covery of Madras system of 
education, 209 ; obtains leave 
to Europe, takes home con- 
siderable fortune, resigns Indian 
service, explains the Madras 
system to Queen Charlotte, 210 ; 
and to Czar Alexander, intro- 
duction of his methods, health 
fails, 211 ; burns many papers, 
makes and revokes wills, 212 ; 
transfers bulk of fortune to 
trustees, endows Madras College 
at St. Andrew's, 213 ; gift to 
sister, 214 ; death, burial at 
Westminster Abbey, epitaph, 

215 ; his discovery considered, 

216 ; progress of the Madras 
College, 217. 

Buckingham and Chandos, the 
Duke of : akin to Lady Chat- 
ham, his exemplary character, 
50 ; his interest in Hayes, 51. 

Buonaparte, Madame : mother of 
Napoleon, birth, marriage, 
death, I34«. 

Burgoyne, Colonel, Sir John : in 
command of Dragoons, 78 ; 



declines to accept chief com- 
mand on the Coast, sympathy 
with his military chief, is 
superseded, endeavours to leave 
Madras, 79 ; intemperate letter, 
80 ; placed under arrest, 8t ; 
denounces the Governor, 82 ; 
lenient treatment, death, 83. 

Campbell, Major - General, Sir 
Archibald : Governor of Ma- 
dras, Lord Cornwallis's opinion 
of him, death, buried at West- 
minster Abbey, 113. 

Campbell, Captain Donald : sets 
out for India via Margate, 244 ; 
crosses Europe, 245 ; reaches 
Aleppo, 246 ; Bagdad, 247 ; 
the site of Eden, Mosul, 248 ; 
Bushire to Bombay and Goa, 
249 ; shipwrecked on the Mala- 
bar Coast, swims ashore, 250 ; 
taken prisoner, joined by a fel- 
low-passenger, 251 ; marched 
to Hydernagur, death of his 
companion, 252 ; recovers free- 
dom, proceeds to Madras and 
Calcutta, 254 ; to China and 
England, 255. 

Charlton Church : notable per- 
sons buried there, 204. 

Chatham, Countess of : sister of 
the first Marquis of Bucking- 
ham, 49 ; her taste shown at 
Hayes, 50 ; survives husband 
twenty-five years, dies at 
Buxton Pynsent, burial in 
Westminster Abbey, 297 app. 

Chatham, Earl of : receives an- 
nuity under will of grandfather, 
Governor Pitt, 49 ; death at 
Hayes, 50 ; his advancement in 
life, 296 app. ; haven of rest at 
Hayes, buried in Westminster 
Abbey, 297 app. 

Clement, M.P., Gregory : amasses 
wealth in India, buys Cogan's 
estate from Cromwell, is one of 
the Judges of King Charles I, 10 ; 
reverse of fortune at the Re- 
storation, proscribed as a regi- 

, cide, sentenced, executed, 11. 

Clive, Edward Lord : Governor 
of Madras, unveils statue of 
Lord Cornwallis, 127 ; Colonel 
Wellesley's opinion of him, 1 36 ; 
superseded by Governor Gene- 
ral, escapes responsibility, re- 
ceives the thanks of latter, 143. 

Cockburn, Thomas : appreciation 
by Lord Mornington, also pre- 
viously by Lord Cornwallis, 
180 ; appointed Writer, arrives 
in Madras, appointments, 181 ; 
member of Board of Revenue, 
question of salaries, 182 ; re- 
ceives grant from Court of 
Directors, salary raised, 183 ; 
persuaded by Government not 
to retire, proceeds to Bengal, 
reimbursed for temporary loss 
of annuity, returns to England, 
184 ; examined by Committee, 
House of Commons, views about 
evangelisation, 186 to 189. 

Cogan, Andrew : early career, 4 ; 
arrival at Masulipatam, co- 
operates with Day, 5 ; aids in 
the erection of Fort St. George, 
action disapproved by Court of 
Directors, 6 ; his resentment, 
proceeds to Bantam and Eng- 
land, 7 ; exonerated by the 
Directors, 8 ; involved in poli- 
tics, 10 ; impeached and ban- 
ished, 10 ; losses in Royal 
cause, created a baronet, de- 
scendants, 12. 

Commission of Court of Directors 
contituting a Governor of Fort 
St. George, 57, 58. 

Coote, General Sir Eyre : Com- 
mander in Chief, war services, 
95 ; differences with Lord Ma- 
cartney, 96, 97 ; proceeds to 
Calcutta, returns to Madras, 
lands, dies, 98 ; body conveyed 
to England, interred at Rocke- 
bourne, monument in West 
Park, inscription, 99 ; statue ir 
India House, 100 ; monument 
in Westminster Abbey, 10 1. 

Coote, Lady : remains in Madras 
after husband's death, 99 ; cor- 
respondence with Warren Hast- 



ings, 103, 104, 105 ; returns to 
England, 106. 
Cordiner, Rev. James : selected 
by Dr. Andrew Bell for the 
Male Orphan Asylum, Madras, 
birth, education, 218: ordained 
deacon at Carlisle embarks for 
Bombay, entertained there, 
219 ; proceeds to Madras, as- 
sumes charge of the Asylum, 
experiences at Madras, 220 ; 
Madras society in his day, 

221 ; accepts Chaplaincy at 
Colombo, remains five years in 
Ceylon, embarks for England, 

222 ; detention at Madras, 223 ; 
obtains preferment, 224. 

Cornwallis, the Marquis : his 
opinion of Sir A. Campbell, 113; 
censure of Holland's Govern- 
ment, 114 ; supersedes General 
Medows, encampment at Vel- 
lout 115; concludes treaty 
with Tippoo, created a marquis, 
recognition of services of General 
Medows, 116; his statue in 
Fort St. George, 126 ; ap- 
preciation of him in Madras, 
127 ; returns to India as Gover- 
nor-General, reception at Mi 
'Iras, 128 ; his reply to addrms, 
129 ; death, public regret, ceno- 
taph erected in his honour in 
Madras, statue at the India 
Office 130; memorial at St. 
Paul's Cathedral 131 ; letter 
about his acceptance of the 
Garter 1 3 1 n ; his titles ex- 
tinct 132 ; his opinion of T. 
Cockburn 1 80. 


Dalrymple Alexander : birth, 
education, appointed a writer 
in Madras 168 ; cruises in Far 
East 170 ; returns to England, 
compensation made him by 
Court of Directors, appointed 
member of Council Madras, 
implicated in revolt against 
Lord Pigot, recalled 171 ; pen- 
sioned, appointed Hydrogra- 
pher, first at India House, then 

at Admiralty, dismissed, death, 
explanation in Parliament, 172 ; 
his charts and essays, 173. 

Day, Francis : negotiations on the 
Coromandel Coast for site for 
settlement, 2 ; obtains a firman 
for settlement at Madrasspatam 
3 ; returns to Masulipatam, 4 ; 
commences erection of Fort St. 
George, 5 ; sent to Surat, and 
thence to London, makes ex- 
planations to Court of Directors, 
returns to Fort St. George, 6 ; 
subsequent career unknown, 12. 

Duels : General Stuart and Lord 
Macartney, 77-78 ; Mr. Sadleir 
and Lord Macartney, 84-85 ; 
Major Picton and Colonel Aston. 
Major Allen and Colonel Aston, 
258 ; Lieutenant Sands and 
Captain Bull, 261. 

East India Co., Directors of : file 
a bill against A. Cogan, com- 
promise arranged, 41 ; disap- 
prove expenditure at Madrass- 
patam, receive explanations 
from Day, 6 ; also from Cogan, 
exonerate the latter. 8 ; atti- 
tude towards research, 24 ; 
treatment of Sir E. Winter, 25 ; 
disapproval of T. Pitt, appoint 
him Governor Fort St. George, 
18 ; allowances granted. i>> ; 
dismiss him, 34 ; receive him 
on his return, 45 ; instructions to 
E. Harrison, commission ap- 
pointing him Governor, 57 ; 
despatch relating thereto, 59, 
60 ; appreciation of Lord Ma- 
cartney's services, 93 ; thanks to 
Sir C. Oakeley, 121 ; liberality 
to Sir E. Staunton, 166 ; con- 
siderate treatment of T. Cock- 
burn, 182, 183. 184 ; refuse 
pension to T. Snodgrass, co- 
erced by him, 198, 199 ; dis- 
approval of Government's ac- 
tion regarding the Wood Court- 
martial, 234 ; reinstate the 
accused, advise their servants 
to cultivate harmony, 236. 



Eden, Hon. Eleanor : daughter of 
first Lord Auckland, William 
Pitt the younger attracted to 
her, 298 app ; he decides not 
to propose, she marries Robert 
Lord Hobart, her death, 299 

Elers, Captain George : acquaint- 
ance with J. Balfour, 195 n ; 
meets Colonel A. Wellesley at 
the Cape, 256 ; arrives with 
regiment at Madras, reaches 
Penang, recalled to Madras, 
marches up country, witnesses 
a suttee, 257 ; regimental duels, 
258 ; misses siege of Seringa- 
patam, again meets Colonel 
Wellesley, accompanies him to 
Coorg, 259 ; is his guest at 
Seringapatam, goes to Trichino- 
poly, 260; visits Calcutta, 261 ; 
another duel, 261 ; returns home, 

Evangelisation in India : T. 
Cockburn thereon, 186-190. 

Eaudel-Phillips, Sir George : Lord 
Mayor of London, services to 
Indian Famine Relief Fund, re- 
ceives Indian decoration, owner 
of Balls Park, Hertford, 63. 

Foster, Mr. William : his mono- 
graphs on Indian records, 1 ; 
papers regarding Andrew Co- 
gan, 9 ; estimate of the services 
of Francis Day and Cogan, 12. 

Foxcroft, Mr. : appointed Gov- 
ernor of Fort St. George, 15 ; 
placed under confinement on 
arrival, returns home, 16. 

Fraser, William : denounced by 
Governor Pitt, 34, 35 ; suc- 
ceeds to the Governorship of 
Fort St. George, conciliatory 
policy, 15 ; is soon removed, 36. 

Frederick, Thomas : Governor, 
Pitt's aversion to him, 36 ; 
conference with Pitt, 37 ; re- 
turns home, is knighted, 37. 

Graham, Mrs. (Lady Callcott) : 

daughter of Admiral Dundas, 
marries Captain T. Graham, 
accompanies him to Bombay, 

262 ; trip to Ceylon, calls at 
Calicut, returns to Bombay, 

263 ; proceeds to Madras, first 
impressions, 264 ; conducts 
observations, opinion of local 
society, 265 ; goes to Calcutta, 
returns to Madras, visits the 
Seven Pagodas, 267 ; parting 
reflections, literary labours, 
second marriage, death, 269. 


Hamilton, Captain Alexander : 
reminiscences of travel in East 
Indies, 237, 238 ; an imagi- 
native chaplain, 238 ; the 
Maldives, 239 ; reaches Madras, 
observations there, 240 ; trade, 
churches, schools, 240, 241 ; 
Mayor and Aldermen, 242 ; 
is declared to be a pirate, 243. 

Harris, Lieutenant : son of Gene- 
ral, arrives in Madras from 
Seringapatam with Tippoo's 
standard, 139 ; delivers it to 
Governor-General, 141. 

Harris, General : diverted from 
intention to retire, 113 n ; ac- 
companies General Medows to 
Bombay, and thence to Madras, 
113; in command of Madras 
forces in Mysore, 136 ; his de- 
spatches to Lord Mornington, 
138; services acknowledged, 1 39. 

Harrison, Edward : Captain of 
an East Indiaman, appointed 
Governor Fort St. George, 54 ; 
his voluminous instructions, 55 ; 
his commission, 57 ; despatch 
of Directors to President and 
Council, 59 ; he reaches Madras, 
uneventful reign, returns home 
enriched, settles in St. James' 
Square, 61 ; inherits Balls Park, 
becomes joint Postmaster- 
General, death, leaves all pro- 
perty to daughter, 62 ; his 
portrait 65. 

Hastings, Warren : Governor- 
General of India, attitude to- 



wards Lord Macartney, 95, 96, 
108, in, 112 ; letters ad- 
dressed to him by Lady Coote, 
101-106 ; his career, 102 n. 

Hayes Place : Earl and Countess 
of Chatham at, 50 ; William 
Pitt born, Lord Chatham dies 
there, 50 ; leased by Edward 
Wilson, 51 ; interest taken in 
it by Duke of Buckingham, 5 1 ; 
how acquired by Lord Chatham, 
296 app ; sold by the second 
Lord Chatham, purchased by 
-Mr. C. J. Hambro, 298 app. 

Hereditary Honours : Mr. Dun- 
das and Mr. Pitt on the be- 
stowal of, 90. 

Hislop, General Sir Thomas : wife's 
tribute to his memory, 204. 

Hislop, Lady : widow of a Com- 
mander - in - Chief of Madras, 
daughter of a Governor of 
Madras, niece of a Governor- 
General of India, grand aunt 
of late Governor General of 
Canada, 204 n. 

Hobart, Lady : first wife of Robert, 
Lord Hobart, arrives in Madras, 
birth of a daughter, death, 
buried in Fort Church, 135. 

Hobart, Robert, Lord : Governor 
of Madras ; loss of first wife in 
Madras, recalled, pensioned, 
summoned to House of Lords, 

135 ; second marriage, death, 

136 ; also 299 app. 

Hobart, Vere Henry, Lord : 
Governor of Madras, dies there, 
buried in Fort Church, 135. 

Holland, John : Governor of Ma- 
dras, his Government censured 
by Lord Cornwallis, 114. 

Home, James : artist, his por- 
trait of Marquis Wellesley, 
143 n ; family, 144 n ; portrait 
of Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1 57 «. 


Johnson, Dr. Samuel : farewell 
letter to George Staunton, 161. 

Koh-i-noor : the Great Diamond 

of History and Romance, 52 ; 
crowning distinction, where 
found, 53 ; also 300, 301 app. 

Langhorne, Sir William : arrives 
at Madras as a Commissioner, 
becomes Governor, 15 ; his 
attraction to San Thome, 241 ; 
his career, 241 n ; buried at 
Charlton, 204 ; the state he 
kept at Madras, 294 app. 

Love, R.E., Lieut. -Colonel H.D. : 
description of portraits in Ban- 
queting Hall, Madras, 1 57 «. 


Madras College at St. Andrew's : 
a memorial of Rev. Dr. Andrew 
Bell, his generous bequest there- 
to, 213 ; its progress, 217. 

Madras described : by Governor 
Pitt, 41 ; by Dr. Bell, 209 ; by 
Rev. J. Cordiner, 220, 221 ; by 
Captain R. Hamilton, 240-243 
by Mrs. Graham, 264, 265, 266 
by Mr. J. Wathen, 269, 272 
by Dr. Fryer, 293, 294 app. 
by the European Magazine, 295 

Marine Society : its office, founder, 
presidents, 191, 192 ; portrait 
of Thomas Snodgrass, 192 ; 
when he joined the Committee 
201 ; his bequest, 205. 

Medows, Major-General : ap- 
pointed Governor of Bombay, 
113; prevails upon Colonel 
Harris to accompany him to 
India, w^n; transferred to 
Madras, 114; commands ex- 
pedition against Tippoo. super- 
seded by Lord Cornwallis, 115; 
latter's recognition of his merits, 
116; resigns, 117; made Knight 
of the Bath, portrait, 118 n. 

Mornington, Countess of : daugh- 
ter of Viscount Dungannon, 
mother of Marquis Wellesley 
and Duke of Wellington, 134 ; 
her opinion of latter, 1 34 n. 

Mornington, Garrett, first Earl of : 
father of Marquis Wellesley and 



Duke of Wellington, 133 ; his 
talent for music, 133 n, 134 n. 
Macartney, Countess : daughter 
of Earl of Bute, marries Sir 
George Macartney, 68 ; his 
letters to her from Madras, 72, 
73 ; her inscription on his 
tomb, her death, 94. 
Macartney, Earl : inconspicuous 
origin, friendship of C. J. Fox, 
envoy to Russia, 67 ; enters 
Parliament, marriage, ap- 
pointed Chief Secretary Ire- 
land, made Knight of the Bath, 
appointed Governor of Grenada, 
raised to Irish peerage, cap- 
tured by the French, released, 
appointed Governor Fort St. 
George, 68 ; declines present 
offered by Nabob of Carnatic, 
incident mentioned in Parlia- 
, ment, 69 ; his letter to Lord 
Hillsborough, 71 ; letters to 
wife and banker, 72 ; affidavit 
before Mayor, 73 ; declaration 
about his fortune, 74 ; poor 
opinion of General Stuart, re- 
moves him from chief com- 
mand, 75 ; recommends his 
dismissal, 76 ; has him arrested 
and deported, 77 ; duel that 
ensued, 77, 78 ; trouble caused 
by Sir John Burgoyne, 80 ; 
places him under arrest, is slow 
to wrath, 81, 82 ; gives the lie 
to Mr. Sadleir, 84 ; duel that 
followed, 85 ; resigns Governor- 
ship, 87 ; offered the Governor- 
Generalship, arrives in London, 
received by Court of Directors, 
88 ; interview with, stipulation 
declined by Mr. Pitt, 89 ; reso- 
lutions passed in his honour by 
Directors, annuity granted, 92 ; 
subsequent career, created Irish 
Earl and English Baron, settles 
and dies at Chiswick, 93 ; epi- 
taph on his tomb, 94 ; relations 
with Warren Hastings, 95, 96, 
112 ; Sir Eyre Coote, 96, 97 ; 
Sir George Staunton, 162 to 167. 
Napoleon, the Emperor : uses the 
Pitt diamond at Coronation, 52. 

Oakeley, Lady : declines to re- 
ceive presents from Tippoo, 
119; accomplishments and 
character, takes part in sacred 
concert in the Fort Church, 
120 ; presented with address, 
Oakeley, Sir Charles : birth, ap- 
pointed to Civil Service, Ma- 
dras, continuous service of 
twenty-two years, retires, re- 
turns home, 117; accepts 
Governorship of Madras, cre- 
ated Baronet, assumes charge 
of Civil affairs, succeeds General 
Medows, fits out expedition 
against Pondicherry, 118; re- 
signs, thanked by Court of 
Directors, settles at Shrewsbury, 
121 ; removes to Lichfield, 
occupation in retirement, 122 ; 
death, buried in Lichfield Cathe- 
dral, 123 ; epitaph, descendants, 
Oriental Club, its founders, 200 

their first proceedings, 201. 
Owen, Colonel : Military Secre- 
tary to Sir Eyre Coote, 406 ; 
retention of public treasure, 
107 ; protest of the Madras to 
the Bengal authorities, 108 ; 
his continued obstinacy, 109 
indignation and demand of 
Madras Government, no; de- 
cision of the Supreme Govern- 
ment, reply thereto, 111, 112. 

Peel, Sir Robert : the statesman, 
grandson of Mr. Charles Darke, 
of Madras, 260. 

Pigot, Lord : Governor of Madras, 
kindness to A. Dalrymple, 169, 
170; revolt against him. 171. 

Pitt Diamond : acquired by 
Thomas Pitt, sent home in 
charge of Robert Pitt, 21 ; its 
cutting, 25, 26 ; expense in- 
curred, 31 ; sold to the Regent 
of France, 46, 47 ; becomes a 
Crown Jewel, stolen and re- 
covered, 51; its vicissitudes 



52 ; now in Louvre, 52 ; place 
of origin, 52, also 300 app. 

Pitt, Robert : accompanies his 
father, the Governor, to Ma- 
dras, 20 ; letters to mother, 21 ; 
returns home in charge of dia- 
mond, 21 ; father's instructions, 
21 ; marriage, 23 ; father's dis- 
approval, 25 ; letters to father, 
23, 24, 25 ; cutting of the dia- 
mond, 25, 26 ; replies to impu- 
tations, 28 ; enters Parliament, 
30 ; sympathises with father's 
chagrin, 31, 32 ; survives him 
thirteen months, 49. 

Pitt, Thomas : ancestry, birth, 
and early career, 17 ; a " des- 
perate fellow," appointed Gov- 
ernor of Fort St. George, 18 ; 
reception by Court of Directors, 
18, 19 ; arrives at Madras, 21 ; 
acquires the " Pitt " diamond, 
memoranda for his son's gui- 
dance, 21 ; further instructions, 
22, 23 ; disappointment about 
the " grand concern," 26, 27 ; 
solitary life as Governor, 28, 
29 ; ships more diamonds, 29, 
32, ^2 > denounces his family. 
30, 31, 42 ; threatens to dis- 
inherit them, 30 ; his valua- 
tion of the great diamond, ^^ ; 
cautions his son, is recalled, 34 ; 
hostility to colleagues, 35 ; his 
opinion of a bride, 36 ; con- 
troversies with Lieutenant Sea- 
ton, 38, 39, 40 ; departure for 
Europe, 40 ; his description of 
Madras, reaches Bergen, 42 ; 
declaration about diamond, 43 ; 
arrives in England, received by 
Directors, and King, still miser- 
able, 45 ; sells diamond to Regent 
of France, objects to charges for 
commission, carries it to Calais, 
46 ; incident at Canterbury, 
purchases estates, 47 ; death 
and burial, 48 ; bequests and 
descendants, 49. 

Pitt, William (the younger) : born 
at Hayes, 50 ; purchases Hol- 
wood, attracted by Hon. Elea- 
nor Eden, 298 app. ; dies a 

bachelor, buried at Westminster 
Abbey, 299 app. 
Pope, Alexander : description of 
the " Honest Factor," applica- 
tion to Governor Pitt, 20. 


Religious Toleration in India : 
advocated by T. Cockburn, 
186-189 ; proclaimed by Queen 
Victoria, 190. 

Roberts, Earl : his appreciation 
of Duke of Wellington, 150. 

Ripon, Marquis of : visits tomb 
of grandmother, Lady Hobart, 
in Fort Church, Madras, 135. 

Seaton, Lieutenant : his hostility 
to Governor Pitt, n ; latter's 
animosity against him, 37, 39 ; 
examined by the Council. 39 ; 
ordered home, sent as prisoner 
to ship, Captain refuses to re- 
ceive him, makes own arrange- 
ments, 40. 

Seringapatam, Fall of : salutes 
fired in Madras, 138 ; details 
published, 139 ; captured stan- 
dard received by Governor- 
General, thanksgiving service 
in Fort Church, 141 ; distribu- 
tion of prize money, 142 ; 
Governor - General congratu- 
lated 143. 

Seringapatam Letter Book : 
Colonel Arthur Wellesley's let- 
ters, 145-154. 

Snodgrass, Gabriel : Marine Sur- 
veyor to East India Company, 
recommends his son for employ- 
ment, 193 ; his career, 193 n ; 
death, buried at Charlton, 204. 

Snodgrass, Thomas : portrait at 
office of Marine Society, con- 
nection with Madras, 192 ; pa- 
rentage, appointed Writer, pro- 
moted to Factor, sent to Gan- 
jam, becomes Resident, 193 ; 
builds house at Rambha, fa- 
mine expenditure disapproved, 
summoned to Madras to ex- 
plain, 194 ; returns to Ganjam 



as Collector, deficiency of re- 
venue, 195 ; recalled to Madras, 
196 ; services dispensed with, 
pension refused by Court of 
Directors. 197 ; starts a cross- 
ing opposite India House, Direc- 
tors indignant but impotent, 

198 ; public sympathy aroused, 

199 ; pension granted, revela- 
tion of his fortune, associated 
with establishment of Oriental 
Club, 200 ; member of Com- 
mittee Marine Society, portrait, 
201 ; death, bequests, 202, 203, 
204 ; buried at Charlton, 204. 

Sadleir, James : member of the 
Madras Council, insulted by 
Lord Macartney, 84 ; duel that 
ensued, 85, 86, 87. 

Smith, General : member of Mili- 
tary Committee, Madras, ob- 
jects to Colonel Wood's applica- 
tion for sick leave, 226 ; also to 
having been himself summoned 
to Madras, 229 ; gives qualified 
evidence against Colonel Wood, 
231 ; Government censured by 
Directors for not consulting him, 


Stanhope, Earls : descendants of 
Governor Pitt, 49 ; decease of 
sixth Earl, his interest in that 
ancestor's portrait, 49 n. 

Staunton, Sir George Leonard : 
deputed to arrest General 
Stuart, yy ; birth, graduates as 
M.D., goes to Grenada, farewell 
letter from Dr. Johnson, 161 ; 
becomes Attorney - General, 
taken prisoner to France, re- 
lease effected, 162 ; accompa- 
nies Lord Macartney to Madras, 
proceeds to Calcutta, returns to 
Madras, 163 ; proceeds to Se- 
ringapatam, 164 ; negotiates 
peace with Tippoo, returns to 
Madras and England, 165 ; 
pensioned, created a Baronet, 
accompanies Lord Macartney 
to China, returns home, death, 
buried in Westminster Abbey, 
167 ; epitaph, portrait, son, 167 ; 
baronetcy extinct, 168. 

Staunton, Sir George (the 
younger) : succeeds to baro- 
netcy, accompanies Lord Mac- 
artney to China, enters Parlia- 
ment, 167 ; distinguished Ori- 
entalist, writes memoir of his 
father, 168. 

Stuart, Major - General James : 
succeeds to command of Coast 
Army, 74 ; held in poor esteem 
by Lord Macartney, removed 
from command, 75 j arrested 
and deported, 76 ; duel with 
Lord Macartney, yy ; obtains 
command of regiment, death, 78. 

Tippoo, Sultan : invades Travan- 
core, successes over General 
Medows, 115; concludes peace 
of Seringapatam, 116; appre- 
ciation of Lady Oakeley's kind- 
ness to his sons, 119 ; fall of 
Seringapatam, 138 ; his stan- 
dard conveyed to Madras, 139 ; 
Lord Mornington's description 
of him, 141 ; a French view of 
his career, 301, 302 app. 

Townshend, Audrey, Viscountess : 
daughter of Governor Harrison, 
her marriage, inherits father's 
property, supposed original of 
characters in fiction, obituary 
notice, 62 ; bequests, 63. 

Townshend, Sixth Marquis : de- 
scended from Governor Harri- 
son, estates, 64 ; compulsory 
sale of heirlooms, including 
Governor's portrait, 65. 


Wathen, Mr. James : dissent from 
Mrs. Graham's opinion of Ma- 
dras society, 269 ; his own 
treatment there, 270 ; attends 
service at Fort Church, obser- 
vations of local characteristics, 
271 ; leaves with regret, 272. 

Webbe, Josiah : first Chief Secre- 
tary to Government, Madras, 
arrival in Madras, rapid promo- 
tion, 174 ; confidence reposed 
in him by General Harris, first 



meeting with Lord Mornington, 
apprehension regarding latter's 
policy, 175 ; draws up memo- 
randum. 1 76 officially associated 
with latter, 177 ; sent to My- 
sore and Gwalior, death at Mus- 
singabad, public regret in Ma- 
dras, monument erected in Fort 
Church, 178 ; epitaph, 179 ; 
Wellington's opinion of him, 179. 
Wellesley, Major - General Sir 
Arthur, : birth, education, 
mother's opinion of him, enters 
the Army, rapid promotion, 
134; taste for music, 134 n; 
rejoins the 33rd Foot at the 
Cape, proceeds to Calcutta, 
T 33 > pays visit to Madras, 
meets Robert, Lord Hobart, 
Governor, 135 ; present at in- 
stallation of Edward, Lord 
Clive, advises Governor-General 
to go to Madras, 136 ; is ap- 
pointed chief administrator 
Mysore, 145 ; letters to Gene- 
ral Braithwaite, Captain Munro, 
146 ; to Colonel Close, Sir 
William Clarke, 147 ; to Colonel 
Montresor, Sir Alured Clarke. 
1 (.8 ; to Captain Moncrieff, 149 ; 
to Mr. Gordon, Captain Bar- 
clay, the Military Board. Gene- 
ral Braithwaite, 152 ; to the 
Military Board, 153 ; to the 
Mulras Government, Colonel 
Beresford, Colonel Saxon, 154; 
operations against the Mahrat- 
tas, 155 ; obtains leave to 
Europe, 155 ; farewell address. 
his replies, 155. 156 157 ; por- 
trait by Hoppner, 157 n; em- 
barks for England, a bad sailor, 
158 ; habit of early rising, 158 ; 
memorials of him at Apsley 
House, 1 59 ; unprecedented ad- 

vancement, 159 ; admission to 
the House of Lords, 160 ; grief 
for the death of Mrs. Charles 
Arbuthnot, his homelessness, 
284 ; a treasured miniature, 285. 

Wellesley, the Marquis : succeeds 
Marquis Cornwallis as Governor- 
General, 135 ; proceeds to Ma- 
dras. 136 ; supersedes Lord 
Clive, Governor, 137 ; adver- 
tises for workmen, 1 7,y ; reviews 
garrison at Madras, praises the 
Bodyguard, order about the 
victory at Seringa pa tarn, 140 ; 
attends thanksgiving service at 
Fort Church, 141 ; receives 
congratulatory public address, 
farewell levee, 143 ; farewell 
Proclamation, 144 ; recognises 
services of Colonel Close and 
Colonel Agnew, 145 ; his por- 
trait by Home, 143 n ; by 
Hickey, 144 n. 

Wilson, Edward (of Melbourne) : 
former tenant of Hayes, 5 1 ; 
his death there, 298 app. 

Winter, Sir Edward : Governor 
of Fort St. George, 14 ; arbi- 
trary conduct, treatment of 
Foxcroft, is recalled, 15 ; 
settles and dies at Battersea, 
inscription on monument. 16. 

Winter, Thomas : Member of 
Council at Masulipatam, 5 ; in- 
scription on monument at Ful- 
ham. 12 ; his ancestry, 13. 

Wood, Colonel John : services in 
campaign against Hyder, 225, 
226, 227; allegations against 
him, recalled to Madras, tried by 
Court-martial, 229 ; acquitted. 
Government disapprove the 
finding, action disapproved by 
Directors, Wood exonerated and 
reinstated, 234. 

Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frome, and London. 

By the same Author. Price 10s. Qd. 



With 3 Photogravure Portraits and 78 Illustrations and Facsimiles. 

Opinions of tbc press. 

The Times. — A very engaging picture of Warren Hastings' personal 
character and surroundings at different times of his life, gathered from 
authentic sources, compiled with much skill and patience, and copiously 
illustrated from contemporary portraits and caricatures, as well as by repre- 
sentations of localities associated with his life and family. . . . We heartily 
congratulate Sir Charles Lawson upon his admirable book. . . . We must 
add one word of praise for the illustrations liberally interspersed throughout 
the volume. Some of the best are from the author's own pencil. 

The Saturday Review. — The secret of the charm of this contribution to 
national biography lies in the frankly personal nature of its contents. . . . 
We believe that the personal details and the illustrations of this delightful 
book will give most people a more vivid idea of the great drama and its actors 
than even the periods of Macaulay. 

The Athen&um. — The author has done well to set before us in the present 
form the accumulated fruits of his painstaking and intelligent research in 
fields hitherto neglected, or but partially explored. . . . One great distinctive 
merit of this book consists in the abundance and apt variety of its illustrations 
— the portraits, sketches of scenes and places, facsimiles and caricatures. 

The Daily Telegraph. — This friendly and painstaking representation of a 
distinguished Englishman is very charming, and adds another tribute to one 
who served his country faithfully, and whose merits were not less accentuated 
by the hatred of his enemies than by the admiration of his friends. 

The Standard. — The surroundings of Warren Hastings at Park Lane and 
Daylesford, his bookstand his pictures, his love of nature, and his passion 
for poetry, his interest in^science, and his delight in gardening, the stately 

accessories of his life, and his lavish hospitality are passed in picturesque 
review. The charm of the book is heightened by reproductions of many 
amusing, and a few bitter caricatures by Gillray and others, as well as many 
portraits of friends and foes, and facsimiles of letters and papers. 

The Observer. — The result of the author's investigations is greatly to 
Hastings' advantage, and forms a valuable contribution to literature. The 
book is well written, is marked by a penetrating judgment of things and men, 
and should be read by every one wishful of understanding the character of 
one of the greatest of the founders of our Empire. 

Black and White. — Of uncommon interest and charm is this book. To 
read these carefully weighed and admirably written pages is to be more than 
ever convinced of the truth of the Prince Regent's description of Warren 
Hastings, as " one of the most deserving, and, at the same time, one of the 
worst used men in the Empire." 

Birmingham Post. — It is a record so bright and readable that it may be 
safely described as being singularly attractive to all sorts and conditions of 
men. It is a biography and an autobiography, a stirring story, a memorable 
record, a charming page of history, a story of travel and adventure, a historic 
register of an eventful period, and a brilliant picture of some of the most 
famous men of the later years of the last century. 

The Englishman (Calcutta). — Few books published this year possess so 
much interest for the Anglo-Indian world as Sir Charles Lawson's life of the 
first Governor-General. Upon taking the volume into his hand the reader 
is at once struck by the extreme beauty and finish of its get-up. As he 
glances through the pages the illustrations next claim his attention. . . . 
We have to thank the author for vindicating so thoroughly the reputation 
of Warren Hastings as a splendid Englishman. 

The Times of India (Bombay). — The production of the work seems to have 
been a labour of love on the author's part, and such a tribute to the memory 
of one of the greatest of his race is to be welcomed and applauded. 

The Pioneer (Allahabad). — For this book we have only words of un- 
qualified approbation. The research, the industry, and the disposition of 
materials are beyond all praise. . . . Altogether a most delightful book to 
read, to study, and to linger over, and of which the author may well be 

Literary World (Boston, U.S.). — In the collection and selection of material, 
in the assimilation and assortment of it, in its arrangement and presentation, 
in the liberality and skill of illustration, in all those editorial accessories and 
conveniences which have so much to do with the reader's easy grasp of con- 
tents, and last but not least, in excellence of typography, and docility of . 
binding, this book is a model of its kind. 


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